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The way in which the authority, responsibility and various works are arranged in an organization are delegated , kept a check on and is shared by various employees and the way in which the various knowledge flows with in various positions and levels on an organization. Organizational goal and the ways to laid to achieve the effect the structure selected.
Line structure: This structure has a specific line of control. The decision comes from top to bottom this is basically suited to the small organizational like law firms, accountancy firms etc. there is a quick decision making. They have les departments hence they are normally decentralized.
Line and staff structure: This is a suitable organizational structure for most of the small organization. It is the structure that is a combination of both staff and line mangers thus the decision and the approval come from top to bottom
Functional structure: In this structure people are classified according to the their functions performed
Divisional structure: This structure is based on the different divisions in an organization
Types of divisional structure
Product division: Under this organizational structure the work and employees are organized on the basis of products produces. If the company produces 4 products then it will have 4 divisions in an organization.
Market division: In this structure the employees and the work is organized according to the specific markets in which the company sells its products and thus if a company have more than one market thus it will have different divisions for each market.
Geographical division: In this structure the employees and the work is organized according to the specific markets in which the company sells its products and thus if a company have more than one market thus it will have different divisions for each market.
Matrix structure: this is a mixture of both functional and divisional organizational structure .
A culture consist of various important problem that included group value, attributes, assumptions, behavior etc. it is a broader concept which consist of internal and external boding organizational culture goes in the depth as it effects the employees work to such an extent that some time the employees don't realize how organizational culture effect them.
Types of organizational culture's
Academy culture: Employees are skill equipped with an intend to stay in the organization and tries to gain a higher position in an organization to satisfy their social needs.
Club culture: Employees are free agents who have high priced skills. They can easily get jobs as they got a lot of demand.
Baseball culture: The most important feature of this culture is the settling of an employee in a group. As the employee stays in the organization and works his way to the top.
Fortress culture: These culture employees are not sure that if they will settle in the job highly specialized employees are preferred.
Analyses the relationship between ann organizational structure and culture and the effect on the business environment
The relation between an organizational structure and culture is an important theme and is always overlooked. As an organizational culture is a wider concept and organizational structure operates within it. They are difficult to separate as they are interrelated.
Organizational culture is a wider picture under which organizational culture works. Organizational structure refers to the way the work is divided in an organization and helps the organizational culture to run efficiently and effectively and achieve organizational objectives
There effect on the business performance
Organizational structure and culture are developed and operated by individuals. Thus a relation between organizational cultures shows the various norms, believes and values of an organization. When a manager or a leader fails to find similarities between business strategies and culture it leads to the evolution of defaults in culture. The culture will not work according to the business strategy and thus will not be able to fulfill its basic interest like taking care of the interest of the stake holders and hence will lead to bad performance. This shows organizational culture and structure has a vital effect on an organization and can to the failure or success of the same.
Analyze the factors which influence individual behavior at work
It is the level to which a person takes initiative and interacts with other people.
It is the level to which individual is suitable to work in a team or cooperative
It is the level to which someone is responsible, dependable and careful
It is level to which a person is relaxed, secured and unworried
It is the level to which an individual is flexible to take changes and take initiative grasp changes
Locus of control
A theoretical construct design to access a person's persuades control over his or her behavior.
The degree to which a person defers to authority and accepts status difference
The amount which a person is emotional detached and is effective in using power
Problem solving style
It is the way in which employees gather information and utilize the same by making wise decision and solving problems
The level to which someone alters his/her behavior according to the environment
Conclusion: Employees are the asset of any organization and hence if they are not satisfied in such situation they will not work properly which will affect the business. Thus a manager has to take an insight in the nature of an individual to know his needs and the stuff that affects his/ her behavior of work.
Analyze how organizational theory underpins principles and practices of organizing and of management
Various organizational theories are as follows
Classical organizational theory includes various approaches that are as follows
This approach was proposed by Taylor in 1947 depends upon how the work is to be done effectively, efficiently with specialization, standardization and simplicity in future. The basis of this approach is based on the relation between the employees and the managers so that the productivity is enhanced. This had four rules:
Science, not rule-of-thumb
Â Scientific selection of the worker;
Management and labor cooperation rather than conflict
Â Scientific training of workers.
This theory was proposed by Weber under which an organization is given a bigger picture and is a vital part of a society. It has following principles:
Steadiness and inevitability
This approach is considered inflexible, unfriendly, self-perpetuating and territory structure.
This theory was proposed by Henry Fayol based on various principles that are as follows
Division of work (specialization)
Authority and responsibility
Â Unity of command
Â Unity of direction
Â Subordination of individual interest
Â Remuneration of personnel
Â Scalar chain
Â Stability of tenure of personnel
Â Esprit de corps
In addition to this management was related with various points that are planning, organizing, staffing, training and controlling.
Neo classical theory
Neoclassical theory emphasizes entity or faction performance and human being relationships in influential efficiency. The main features of the neoclassical approach are
Â Modern theories are based on the notion that the organization is an adaptive scheme which has to fiddle with to change in its society. The theories included in modern approach are as follows:
In this theory an organization is consider as interrelated dependent sub systems. This organization can be described as bonding process, mechanism and objectives.
The official and relaxed association
Pattern of performance
The Corporeal surrounding
In this approach organization is considered to be the coalition social, technical system and its surrounding. There should be a proper contact between then so that an organization works properly. The various characteristic of social-technical approach are as follows:
Degree of inter-dependence between sub-systems
directness of the societal association
equilibrium in the social association
diversity of purpose, function and goals
this approach states that an organization is directly related with its surrounding and thus for various surrounding needs various different types of organizations.
Dell a worldwide organization had a classical approach in the starting which has changed to the transformed structure to the changing environment and various changes in an organization itself.
Compare the different approaches to management and theories of organization used by two organizations:
Management approach by Dell:
Mounting information volume are creation information organization ever more expensive and work concentrated for IT department. One prime criminal is e-mail. As workers turn out to be more and more movable and e-mail become the favored technique of venture communiqué, correspondence quantity is growing exponentially-and organization are observance their e-mail in the region of for a elongated instance.
Archiving-poignant treasured information from high-cost transactional storage space medium to lower-cost, fixed, or read-only storage space-help enterprise tackle these challenge. However, puzzlement about the difference flanked by archiving and encouragement process can also produce inefficiencies and gratuitously amplify expenditure. Archiving moves aging or uncommonly accessed data off of primary storage media to less-expensive storage breathing space medium, thereby remove it from the endorsement waterway; endorsement merely create a duplicate of the statistics on the inferior storage space, devoid of poignant the inventive in sequence.
Management approach by J&J