The Forms Of Discrimination Commerce Essay


An ideal manager or employer will always support equality of opportunity, rather than equality of outcomes. This means that the main goal of the managers or employers should be providing all workers an equal opportunity to compete for jobs for which they are qualified, regardless of their race, age, gender, religion, national origin and even disability. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was form in order to avoid discrimination in the workplace EEOC is granted enforcement power by the Equal Employment Opportunity Authority (EEOA).

If we do a little research on the internet regarding the companies that are sued for discrimination will greatly surprise us because it involves companies such as Wal-Mart, Costco, Target, Walgreens, UPS, FedEx, Marriott, Disney, Abercrombie & Fitch, Microsoft, Apple, Google, Best Buy, Home Depot, and even the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

Although no law has ever tried to define or identify the adequately the term discrimination, but according to Wayne F. Cascio discrimination in the context of employment is defined as, "giving unfair advantage or disadvantage to the members of the particular group in relationship with the members of other groups and the disadvantage generally results in a rejection or limitation of employment opportunities or inequality in the benefits or terms of employment". (Cascio, 2006)

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There are two broad forms of discrimination which are briefly explained below

Unequal treatment: This may also be called as disparate and this type of discrimination is usually based on an intention to discriminate, as well as the intention to retaliate or to take revenge against an individual who resists discrimination, has taken part in the investigation. There are three main subtypes of unequal treatment which are:

Cases that depend on direct evidence of the intention to discriminate. Such cases are usually proved with direct evidence of other pure unfairness or prejudice based on an open term of hatred, disrespect, or unfairness, intentionally directed against members of a specific group.

This type of discrimination of unequal treatment basically involves cases that are proved through circumstantial evidence of the intention to discriminate, also including those cases that depends on statistical evidence as a method of circumstantially proving the intention to discriminate systematically against groups of individuals.

The third subtype of unequal treatment involves mixed-motive cases. These cases usually depends upon both direct evidence of the intention to discriminate on some impermissible basis such as race, gender or disability etc and proof that the employer's stated lawful basis for its employment decision is in fact just a excuse for illegal discrimination.

Adverse impact discrimination: This form of discrimination may also be called as unintentional discrimination. This usually takes place when same procedures or standards are applied to everyone in the organization, regardless of the fact that they result to considerable difference in employment outcomes for example, selection, promotion and layoffs etc for the members of a specific group, and they are not related to success on a job.

Different forms of discrimination

Kinds of discrimination:

There are different kinds of discrimination that usually takes place within the organization. Following are some kinds of discrimination:

Sexual Harassment:

Sexual harassment is one the main global issues that exists not only private sector organization but in public sector as well. Over 13,000 complaints regarding sexual harassment are filed with EEOC every year of which 15 percent are filed by males. Fortunately, sexual harassment complaints have dropped by 20 percent in last year. Sexual harassment does not only results in low productivity, absenteeism and turnover but it faces organizations with losses of millions of dollars; for example at Mitsubishi, they paid over $34 million to 300 women for sexual harassment discrimination.

According EEOC sexual harassment can be considered as "any unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature when submission to or refusal of this behavior explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unfairly interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment". (EEOC, 2006)

Problems with sexual harassment:

If an employee wants to file a grievance or case for sexual harassment, it is important to prove that he/she told the harasser to back off or any other statements like this in order to show it to the harasser he/she was not interested. The major problem with sexual harassment cases is that it is difficult to prove. Following are some problems with sexual harassment.

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As mentioned earlier, the first problem that usually occurs when filing sexual harassment is that it can be difficult to make a clear-cut case. The charge of harassment can be hard to prove unless there are sufficient or adequate witnesses.

The second major problem is that victims of sexual harassment are often unwilling to take action and in practice seldom do so. This is because of the difficulty of proving their case. But they may also feel that they will not get a fair hearing and are worried regarding the effect making such allegations will have on how they are treated by their boss or their colleagues in future.

The third and probably the most deep-rooted and difficult problem of all is that sexual harassment can be part of the culture of the organization, or practiced at all levels.

Types of sexual harassment:

According to David A. Decenzo and Stephen P. Robbins, there are basically two types of sexual harassments that take place in the organization. The two types of sexual discrimination are:

Quid pro quo harassment:

Hostile environment harassment

Quid pro quo harassment is basically that harassment when some kind of sexual behavior is expected as a condition of employment. Whereas, when a working environment is offensive and unfairly interferes with an employee's ability to work is called as hostile environment harassment. (D. Decenzo & S, Robbins, 2006)

Age discrimination:

The EEOC's rules on age discrimination stress that in order to protect an unfavorable employment action against employees age 40 and over, an employer should be able to express that there was a "business need" of doing so. This means that the employer must prove or show age is the factor directly related to the safe, proficient operation of a business.

An employee who feels he/she are discriminated on the basis of his/her age must prove or show the following factors in order to file the case against age discrimination.

He or she is within the protected age group that is 40 or over.

He or she is doing adequate or reasonable work.

He or she was discharged regardless sufficient work performance.

The position was filled by an employee younger than the employee discharged.

Gender, race or religion discrimination:

Discrimination has number of different forms. It may involve discrimination on the basis of gender, race or religion. When an employer value male over female even if the male is not well qualified for the job or if the situation is contrary, the employer can sued for gender discrimination. Gender discrimination usually differs country to country. Take an example of Gynecology Department at hospital in Pakistan or in Afghanistan where males are not allowed to work due to the prevailing culture where in the western countries or United States the situation quite different.

Similarly, suppose an employer prefers or values white over black for a post even when white is not probable for particular job post or if the case is contrary the employer may sued for race discrimination. Those discriminates on the basis of race are usually called as racists.

Similar to the gender and race discrimination, the EEOC stress employers to avoid discrimination on the basis of religion as well. EEOC stress employers no matter what religion does the employee belong they must be treated same. And if the employer was found guilty of prejudices on the basis of religion can be charge for discrimination on the basis of religion.

Discriminations at Mobilink GSM:

Discrimination especially gender discrimination has been a problem for employers or managers since organizations came into existence. The world that we live in today is developing on a day-to-day basis with ground breaking discoveries and innovations being made at regular intervals. Living standards have touched new heights; entrepreneurs have pushed the borders of the business world even further. Regardless of all these developments, the prehistoric knowledge that men are better or greater than women remains fixed in our societal structure. Though, the western societies seem to have prevailed over the discriminatory practices, there is still a part of the culture that practices it. Pakistan has been host to discrimination practices since its beginning about 60 years ago. Till the late 1990s, it was almost impossible for women to achieve high ranking posts in any business of the country. But, with the beginning of telecom giants, Mobilink took on such policies and practices that encouraged women to work along with men side by side. Majority of the men are agree on the fact that women are lower in terms of mental ability and therefore cannot handle tough actions. Women on the other hand support this notion by their lack of confidence to protect them. Moreover, our society is yet to come to terms with the fact that a woman can take part in an essential and productive role outside the home as well.

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When we tried to identify the areas or the cases in which employees of Mobilink GSM were discriminated, we simply failed. No employees were willing to talk about this matter. They either were afraid of losing their job or they probably did not consider it ethical to disclose internal issues of Mobilink GSM. Mr. Masood Durrani (Team leader of the HR Department) said in an interview that employees from different race, gender, age and religion work at Mobilink GSM Peshawar. He also said that there are male & female, Muslim & non-Muslim (Christians & Hindus), young and aged employees performing different duties are Mobilink GSM Peshawar. He also mentioned that there used to be a disable employee who was unable to walk without his wheel chair was working at Mobilink GSM, but later he left working at Mobilink GSM due to his own personal reasons. (Durrani, 2012)

Tasks for P10:

Laws that regulates discrimination & equal opportunity:

In order to avoid discrimination and to provide equal opportunities for the individuals regardless of their race, gender, age, religion etc the government has developed number of different significant rules and regulations. Some of these laws that regulate discrimination and equal opportunity in organization are explained below:

The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments:

The Thirteenth Amendment basically forbids slavery and involuntary servitude. Any kind of discrimination will be regarded as an incident or event of slavery or involuntary servitude and therefore be responsible to lawful action under this amendment. Whereas, the Fourteenth Amendment basically ensures equal protection of the law for the all workers.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA):

ADEA forbids discrimination in pay, benefits and continued employment for employee over 40, unless employer proves that the age factor is necessary for the job required. The main objective this law is to avoid financially disturbed organizations from discharging out employees who are age 40 or plus. The court will charge employer with age discrimination only if the employee age 40 is replaced with younger employee, in case the employee age 40 is replaced with another employee age 40 will not be considered as age discrimination.

Disabilities Discrimination Act of 1990:

This law basically provides equal rights and opportunities for workers who they are disabled and protects workers with disabilities from discrimination in employment. Employer will be charge for disability discrimination only if the disable candidate is qualified for particular job and is not selected. Employer may not be charge for disabilities discrimination if the nature of the job is such that it requires people who are not disable such as military, police and firefighters etc.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978:

As we know that pregnancy is a genuine problem of almost all the married women. Therefore, the law of Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978 is specifically developed to protect the rights of the female workers when they are pregnant. Employers have no right to discharge pregnant women as it effects their jobs performance and by doing so employer will charge for pregnancy discrimination act.

Usually in Pakistan, the laws mentioned above are not practiced. There could be several reasons for that. The first and major reason for this could be that employees do not know their legal rights. The second thing could the court system of Pakistan usually takes immense amount of time due to which employees does not even try to enforce their rights on employers. Another reason for this could be specially in sexual harassment cases, usually employees are afraid or worried that how they will be treated in the future by their bosses or colleagues after filing sexual harassment cases.

Legislation and framework for discrimination & equal opportunity at Mobilink GSM:

Legislations and framework for discrimination & equal opportunity at Mobilink GSM can be applied by developing proper and effective policies and procedures for discrimination and equal opportunity. We believe that applying rules and regulations regarding equal opportunity at Mobilink GSM usually depends upon the bodies who are responsible for hiring and selecting employees which usually the HR Department. Senior management must stress on the HR Department that they should hire those candidates who are the most probable for the organization regardless of their race, gender, religion and disabilities etc.

In order to avoid discrimination at Mobilink GSM, the management must develop proper and effective policies against discrimination. This will greatly help Mobilink GSM in avoiding losses and troubles in case any discrimination case is filed in the court. Because the law states whether the management knows or not about the discrimination that has occurred by their supervisors with their employees, the court will charge guilty the Mobilink GSM as well. Therefore, by developing proper policies against discrimination will not only help Mobilink GSM in avoiding future loses but it will in creating better image of Mobilink GSM. Thus, it results in attracting the most probable candidates for the organization and high productivity and commitment.

For example, a female worker at Mobilink GSM becomes pregnant should be given proper off days in order to take care of her health, instead of discharging her. Similarly, during selecting employees for the organization preference should be given to the one who is skilled, knowledgeable and effective not to male or female or any other discrimination such as religion, race and disability etc.

Tasks for P11:

Initiatives and practices that focuses on equal opportunities in employment:

There are number different significant initiatives and practices that stresses on providing equal employment opportunities. The most significant one is Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), as the name indicates this commission helps worker in giving them their legal rights. The EEOC also stresses employers that they follow the standard rules and promote equal employment opportunities rather than promoting unequal opportunities in the organization. The EEOC is granted power of enforcing the rules and regulations by Equal Employment Opportunity Authority (EEOA). Some of the initiatives and practices that focuses on equal opportunities in employment are explained below.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963:

Equal Pay Act states that men and women working for the same organization must be given same pay rate for work. This is usually for those men and women working in the same organization that has considerably same skills, effort, responsibility and working condition. Pay rates may differ between men and women working in the same organization on the basis of seniority, merit and responsibilities. The interesting thing in this law is that in case employer is found guilty of paying unequal pay rates to men and women working in the same organization must increase the pay rate of the employee who is given low pay rate, rather than decreasing the pay rate of the employee who is given high pay rate.

The Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1871:

These laws were basically passed on the basis of the provisions of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 awards all workers the right to make and impose contracts for employment, and the Civil Rights Act of 1871 awards all workers the right to sue in court if workers feel they have not given any rights or freedoms that are their legal rights.

Equal Employment opportunities at Mobilink GSM:

According to our findings and observations, Mobilink GSM provides equal employment opportunities for their workers regardless of their race, gender, religion and even disabilities etc. As mentioned earlier, Mr. Masood Durrani (Team Leader of HR Department) said in interview that "beside Muslim workers there are other workers who are Christians & Hindus. Mobilink GSM does not give preference to either male or female but the preference is given on the basis of merit, skills, knowledge and effectiveness. Rather than valuing or preferring normal person over disable person the value is given to talented person and the proof for this that one of the employee who was working in Mobilink GSM Peshawar was disable but later on he left Mobilink GSM due to his own personal reasons". (Durrani, 2012)

Tasks for P12:

Difference between equal opportunity and managing diversity:

Wayne F. Cascio describes equal opportunity in term of employment as "nondiscriminatory employment actions that guarantee assessment of applicants for jobs in terms of job-related criteria only, and fail and equal treatment of employees on the job". (Cascio, 2006) Equal opportunity in the context of employment basically means providing all the workers or citizens their legal rights, regardless of their race, gender, religion or even disability. Equal opportunity also prohibits discrimination on the basis of personal revenge or retaliation or hatred in the organization. For example, a male and a female apply for the same job in an organization in which the female have more skills, knowledge and experience than the male. Though female is more and well qualified for the job available but the employer on his/her personal capacity hires male candidate believing that males are superior in performing jobs than females. This is called as unequal opportunity. This can be done on the basis of gender, race, religion or even disability.

Whereas according David A. Decenzo and Stephen P. Robbins diversity is basically "heterogeneous mix of males and females, whites and people of color, homosexuals and straights, many ethnic and religious groups, the disabled, and the elderly individuals working for an organization". (D. Decenzo & S. Robbins, 2006)

The main difference between equal opportunity and managing diversity is that equal opportunity is the legal right of every worker or citizen, whereas managing diversity is required by organization in order to be competitive in the market and to gain competitive advantages over rivals. Managing diversity is essential for the organizations because diversity leads to different discriminations especially sexual harassment or work place romance etc due to which ultimately organization suffers the loss.

Both equal opportunity and managing diversity positively affect organizations because if all the workers or citizens are provided equal employment opportunities and properly manage diversity as a result more and talented pool of candidates will attracted to the organization. It will not only result in attracting the most probable candidate for the organization but it will also help organization in increasing the productivity and efficiency of their employees because both these elements increases motivation and job commitment in the employees. Similarly, if Mobilink GSM provides equal opportunities and properly manage their diversity will result in high productivity and efficiency in their employees and as a result they will probably earn competitive advantages over their rivals.

Outcome: 4th

An Article regarding Human Resource practices and issues:

Topics covered:

Performance management in practice;

Effective and efficient human resource practices;

Impact of globalization on Human Resource planning;

How HR managers manage a culturally diverse workforce & Impact of different national cultures on organizations;

Performance Management:

Human Resource Management is basically the practice by which business management encourage the motivation of workers to perform effectively or productively. Therefore, organization must create such an environment where skills, knowledge and expertise or in simple work performance of the employees are properly managed to achieve the desired outcomes. To better understand the term performance management, consider the following conditions.

The athlete looking for a coach who truly understands him/her.

The student waiting to see his/her guidance counselor at school or college.

The new employee who has just begun working for the boss.

The supervisor who is about to meet senior management to discuss goals and objectives for the next fiscal year.

What do all the above conditions have in common? They all require managing their performance effectively, either at the level of the individual or of the work team. Consider the performance management as a compass, a compass that shows the actual direction for performing the job right.

Performance Appraisal is a component of Performance Management. Tapomoy Deb defines performance management as, "multi-step practice of integrating employees' work behaviors with the strategy and goals of the business". (Deb, 2008) According to Tapomoy Deb, it is a practice of creating an environment in which employees are facilitated to perform to best of their capacities. It is actually based on the philosophy of management by agreement rather than management by command. A performance management system can be used as a tool for executing strategic planning and attaining constant development at all levels of an organization.

Objectives of performance management:

The general objective performance management is to create a high performance culture in which employees and teams take accountability for the constant improvement of business processes and for their own skills and involvements within a structure provided by effective leadership.

Performance management is specially about integrating employees' objectives to organizational objectives and guaranteeing that employees support organization's core values. The objective of performance management is to increase the capacity of employees to meet and surpass expectations and to attain their full potential to the benefit of themselves and the business. Significantly, performance management is concerned with ensuring that the support and direction employees need to develop and improve are willing available. The following are some of the objectives of performance management according to Michael Armstrong.

Empowering, motivating and rewarding workers to do their best.

Integrating employees' goals to the goals of the organization.

Proactively organizing and resourcing performance against agreed responsibilities and objectives.

The practice and behaviors by which managers manage the performance of their employees to deliver a high-achieving organization.

Increasing the capabilities of employees and teams to benefit themselves and the organization and stressing on attainment of their objectives. (Armstrong, 2006)

Performance Appraisal & Performance Management:

As mentioned earlier performance appraisal is a component of performance management and is the only component through which performance management process can be successfully managed. To understand the term performance appraisal following are some of definitions by some prominent authors.

"Performance appraisal is the practice by which worker's contribution to the organization during a specified period is assessed". (Deb, 2008)

"Performance appraisal is a practice of scientifically evaluating performance and providing feedbacks upon which performance amendments can be made". (Schermerborn, Hunt, & Osborn, 2008)

"Performance appraisal is an assessment of actual performance with the desired to evaluate a worker's involvement to the organization". (Nelson, 2008)

Elements of the performance appraisal:

The definitions above clearly state that performance appraisal is a significant strategic tool for both increasing competencies in employees and achieving organizational goals and objectives. In order to effectively conduct the practice of performance appraisal elements of the performance appraisal must be considered. According to Tapomoy Deb, following are the elements of performance appraisal:

Goal setting:

For a performance appraisal to be effective, managers must allocate performance objectives or principles for employees keeping in sight organizational objectives as well.


Tasks and stages of performance must be used to measure whether a worker has accomplished his/her goals and objectives or not.


Assessment of performance to goals and objectives are generally provided at the end of performance period. At the stage employees are given suggestions or recommendations that how to improve his/her performance on the job.

Performance rating:

At this stage of performance appraisal, supervisors or managers evaluates overall performance of the employees and rate them accordingly.

Performance pay:

Employees with good job performance is given pay increase, benefits and different other rewards in order to motivate them so that he/she continuously perform effectively.

Elements of performance appraisal

Performance management practices can be easily used in any organization by developing proper and valid processes and procedures for the managing employees. Take for example, Mobilink GSM. They can use performance management by improving the effectiveness and efficiency in their employees by continuously providing them proper and regular training regarding their jobs. Furthermore, Mobilink GSM must also provide their employees with best performance with proper and regular monetary and non-monetary rewards; this will greatly help them in motivating their employees which ultimately results in high productivity, job commitment and in achieving organization goals and objectives as well.

Mobilink GSM must use performance appraisal as a tool for managing performance because performance appraisal is the only tools through which performance can be managed effectively and successfully. For Mobilink GSM to effectively use performance appraisal, they must consider the five significant elements of performance appraisal that are explained above in order to effectively manage the performance of their employees.

Effective and efficient human resource practices:

According to Rashida Khilawala "communication is the oldest existential fact on earth. Well, if that's the case then human resource management (HRM) would catch the second place in the sibling hierarchy. In spite of being added as a subject in management courses quite late, HRM has been an idea that was employed ever since human beings started following a planned way of life.

Some of the essential principles of HRM were used in ancient times. Like, mechanisms being employed for choosing tribal leaders. Knowledge was recorded and approved on to the next generation regarding safety, health, hunting, and gathering. 1000 B.C. to 2000 B.C. saw the progress of more advanced HR functions. The Chinese are recognized to be the first to use employee screening practices, way back in 1115 B.C. And turns out it was not Donald Trump who started "the apprentice" method. They were the Greek and Babylonian civilizations, ages before the medieval times.

HRM has seen a lot of scratch naming in its age. Since it was known as a separate and vital function, it has been called "personnel relations" then it changed to "industrial relations", then "employee relations" and then, at last, to "human resources". Rashida Khilawala strongly thinks that human resources are the most suitable name for it. It, typically, proves the significance of the human beings working in the organization.

With the Industrial Revolution, came the change of the US economy from agriculture-based to industry-based. This directed them to need an enormously well-organized structure. Further, this directed them to recruit a lot of people. More so, the industrial revolution fetched in annoying amount of resettlements. Again, to produce employment for all the immigrants, recruitment and management of the recruited persons gained vitality. As such, there was a loud need for Human Resource Management.

Furthermore according to Rashida Khilawala, between the 1960s and 1970s, the HRM progress gained more drive due to the passing of number of acts like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Now, the HR department was the apple of the company's eyes because, the company's placed number of significance on HR management to avoid reasonable law suit.

So by the end of the 1970s, HRM had almost taken over the world! Almost all big and medium size businesses had a department to deal with their recruitment, employee relations, record-keeping, salaries and wages, etc. Towards the 1980s, the significance of HR continued to expand for several causes like increase in skilled labor, training, regulation compliance, dismissal, etc. The hiring and firing process was done by the HR managers in the organizations.

Now days, HR has the same significance as the other departments, in some business, it has more. With the stable boost in education, technology and everyday fluctuations in economic status and structures, Rashida Khilawala thinks, HR is one of the oldest, most mature and yet, the most proficient and well organized of all management styles. (Khilawala, 2012)

While according to Michael Armstrong "Personnel management has been replaced by human resource management (HRM) because of the various major factors such as individuals in the personnel management were treated only as workers instead of treating as human beings. They were not given proper training regarding their job, neither were they given rewards on performing well nor were they promoted or compensated because personnel management is limited in scope and organizations just wanted to take out work from their employees and organizations had no concern regarding the motivation or dedication of employees toward their jobs.

While human resource management is not concern only in taking out work from employees but they are also concern with the motivation and dedication of the employees toward their jobs and organization. It is believed in human resource management that the productivity in employees will be increased if they are motivated and dedicated in their jobs which will only be possible if they are given proper training regarding the jobs, by compensating, rewarding them and by providing them good working conditions.

We can say that HRM is "Art & Science" because it is HRM is the art of managing or organizing individuals by different approaches to resourceful and innovative approaches and we can call HRM as science because of the accuracy and thorough use of theories that is required for managing and organizing individuals.

On the basis of the term "Art & Science" that we used for HRM, we will define HRM by two different definitions. The first definition of HRM is that "it is the process of the managing, controlling and organizing the individuals of the organization in a planned and systematic manner". This basically involves employing individuals, paying individuals, retention of employees and controlling or minimizing employees' turnover.

While the second definition of HRM according to the term "Art & Science" is that "it is the management of individuals of the organization from a macro point of view". This means that managing or controlling individuals in the form of cooperative association among workforce and management of the organization. This also involves motivating and satisfying employees of the organization in order to increase efficiency in the employees.

According to Michael Armstrong "human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives". (Armstrong, 2006)

Characteristics of an ideal HR manager:

Managing people is not an easy task because human behavior is not constant and it changes according to environment and trends therefore, HR manager of an organization must effective and efficient in managing the people of an organization because it is the responsibility of HR manager to manage, control and organize the individuals of the organization. This ultimately leads to effective and efficient practices.

Harsh Thakkar in his article collectively named the characteristics of an ideal HR manager as "FALTU MANAGER". Actually the term FALTU MANAGER is the combination of different words which are briefly explained below.


F -  Fairness & Firmness

A - Attention to Details

L - Long Term Perspective

T - Tact

U - Understand the right timing

M - Manage with Commitment

A - Academic Qualifications

N - Negotiation Skills

A - Appropriate Decision Making

G - Good as a Human Being

E - Excellence = Big Picture + Small Actions

R - Resourcefulness

Fairness and firmness:

As we know that HR manager signifies his/her organization therefore it is necessary for an ideal HR manager to be fair in terms of dealing individuals of an organization. Fairness basically means that an HR manager should be transparent while managing people of the organization that is he/she should treat all people of the organizations as one of their important assets.

While the firmness does not and never means that an ideal HR manager should be arrogant with the people of employees, but slight strictness is usually observed in an ideal HR manager so that employees does not consider softness for granted.

Attention to details:

An ideal HR manager should be deep observer that he/she should be able to observe details concerning to employees and even behavioral factors of employees of the organization. In simple words, an ideal HR manager should be able to point out the minor mistakes in term of work that are done by the employees of the organization.

Long term perspective:

An ideal HR manager should also be able to think from the long term perspective for the organization for example how many employees will be required for particular job etc and how much training or which training should be provided to employees in order to increase efficiency in them.


Organization sometimes faces sudden or unexpected problems, from HR perspective it may be sudden high turnover of employees etc therefore, an ideal HR manager is expected to solve such unexpected or sudden problems effectively and precisely.

Understand the right timing:

An ideal HR manager is also expected to understand or know the right timings for the tasks for example, when to provide training to the employees and when to promote them etc.

Manage with commitment:

As we know that HR manager is considered as role model of the organization therefore, he/she should be dedicated and committed to his/her duties because if the HR manager of an organization is not performing his/her tasks well will encourage employees to do so as well.

Academic qualification:

An ideal HR manager should also be well qualified and should at least have Masters degree in HRM because an individual having MBA in HR is understood as to posses some knowledge about the business environment before joining an organization. it is obvious that a person with no qualification in comparison to a person having MBA in HR will not be able to manage people of the organization as effectively as compared to the individual having MBA in HR.

Negotiating skills:

The art of negotiation is usually developed with time and experience. Negotiating in term HR is usually done when discussing the pay with the selected candidates, retaining good old employees who they have plan for resigning.

Appropriate decision making:

Decision making is one of the tough job in a corporate environment because the over profit and loss of the organization depends upon the decision made by senior management. An ideal HR manager is expected to take right decision at right time.

Good as a human being:

A famous saying "action speaks louder than words" more clearly explains this point. An ideal HR manager should act upon what he/she says and should fulfill his/her promises that were done with employees. Rules and regulations implemented by HR manager should be followed by HR manager as well for example, if an HR manager says no employees should be late he/she should not be late as well because as mentioned before too that HR manager acts like a role model for an organization.

Excellence=Big picture + Small actions:

As HR manager is responsible for his/her department therefore, an ideal HR manager will not skip small actions such holding employees C.V and contacts in order to avoid future problems.


In Layman language, resourcefulness is the skill to find a way. This arrives from constant implementation of self discipline, confidence, competitiveness and initiatives taken. An ideal HR manager is also expected to be excellent at social networking. (Thakkar, 2012)

Roles and responsibilities of an Ideal HR manager:

According Sheetal Mandora there are several roles and responsibilities of HR manager in the organization which must be carried out by the HR manager of the organization in order to have effective and efficient practices of HR in the organization.


Planning is one of the major responsibilities of a HR manager in an organization. HR manager is responsible for developing future plans such as employees' requirement for organization. Example, how many employees are required for Operation Department etc. HR managers are not only responsible for the internal planning of the organization but they are also responsible for the external planning of the organization such as attracting employees, recruiting employees and selecting employees etc.

Job designing:

Job designing is also the responsibility of HR manager. Job designing basically involves two things which are given below.

Job description: are basically tasks that need to be done by the employees. For example, an experience administrator is required for XYX Company.

Job specification: are basically requirements required for the particular job. For example, in the above example the candidate required for an experienced administrator following job specification are required such as age, education and nationality etc.

Recruitment & Selection:

HR manager is also responsible for recruiting appropriate individuals for the organization. In the recruitment stage HR manger manager only gathers appropriate candidates for the job while in the selection stage the HR manager selects right people from the pole of candidates for the right job. Selection is also the responsibility of an ideal HR manager.

Training employees:

Roles and responsibilities of an ideal HR manager are not limited only till the recruitment and selection of the candidates, training the selected candidate(s) is also one of the major responsibilities of an ideal HR manager. Training the selected candidate is necessary because it increases effectiveness and efficiency in employees and due to proper training employees will know their responsibilities well.

Compensating employees:

According to the Maslow's "hierarchy of needs theory" in organizations compensating employees is classed into "physiological need". Compensating employees is one the most important factor in the organization and this is the only reason due to which employees' stays in the organization and it is obvious that lack of compensation will deter employees from the organization. Compensating employees is also among one of the major responsibilities of an ideal HR manager. HR manager must allocate and provide proper salary to the employees in order to keep them in his/her organization.

Motivating employees:

Motivating employees is also the responsibility of an ideal HR manager. An ideal HR manager will always motivate his/her employees either by monetary or non-monetary awards on performing well because this encourage the awarded employees to do better in the future as well as it will encourage other employees to better too. According to experts' non-monetary awards such as appreciation, shoulder tap, well-done and gratitude motivates employees' more than monetary awards such as incentives.

Searching for emerging efficient employees:

An ideal HR manager will also continuously search for emerging employees in order to increases competitive advantages over rivals. For this reason an ideal HR manager will always give a chance to fresh and highly qualified educators in order to have to young generation in the organization so that to attract upcoming customers as well. (Mandora, 2012)

Impact of globalization on Human Resource planning:

As an element of the fast changing environment, organizational members encounter the globalization of business. Organizations are no longer restricted by national borders in producing goods and services. BMW, a German-owned firm, create cars in South Carolina. Similarly, McDonald's trade hamburgers in China, Toyota builds cars in Kentucky and Mercedes sport utility vehicles are made in Alabama. Whereas, American business John Deere manufacture farm equipment in Illinois to ship to Russia, builds equipment in China to ship to the Middle East, and its tractors prepared in Germany and India go to the United States. These examples express the degree of globalization on manufacturing and labor. To be victorious in this unlimited world, organizational members and HRM professionals must to adapt to cultures, systems, and techniques different from their own.

To understand the term globalization in term of business, consider the following two significant definitions:

According to David A. Decenzo and Stephen P. Robbins, globalization may be defined as "The practice of interaction and integration between people, companies, and government of different nations, driven by international trade and investment, accelerated by information technology". (Decenzo & Robbins, 2006)

Whereas, according to Wayne F. Cascio, "globalization of a business basically refers to the free movement of finance, goods, services, ideas, information, and people across national boundaries". (Cascio, 2006)

International businesses have been with us for a long time. For example, Siemens and Singer were trading their products in various countries in the nineteenth century. By the 1920s, some corporations, including Ford, Unilever and Shell had gone multinational. The increase of multinational and international businesses places new requirements on human resource managers. For example, human resource departments should guarantee that workers with the proper mix of knowledge, skills and cultural adaptability are available and ready to handle global assignments.

Globalization also affects the human resource planning of an organization because as organization expands, it is the responsibility of the HR manager to allocate or attract the most probable candidates for the new jobs. An ideal HR manager will always develop proper and valid plan for human resource planning in order to avoid scarcity or surplus or employees in the future. Organization will suffer negatively both when there is scarcity or surplus of the employees in the organization. For example, Mobilink GSM wants to start their operations in foreign countries. For this reason, they must allocate or at least plan for the employees that from where and how they will attract the most probable candidates for the new jobs in the new business setup.

How HR managers manage a culturally diverse workforce & Impact of different national cultures on organizations:

According to Wayne F. Cascio managing diversity basically means, "Setting up a heterogeneous employees to carry out to its potential in an unbiased work environment where no member or group of members has an advantage or a disadvantage". (Cascio, 2006)

Managing diversity is basically about ensuring that all workers exploit their latent and their involvement to the organization. It means valuing or giving importance to diversity that is, valuing the differences between workers and the different traits they bring to their jobs which can result to the improvement of a further pleasing and productive working environment.

No doubt businesses that support diversity are usually observing that their profits are increasing because when people from different nationalities, beliefs and perceptions will obviously positively affect the business performance only if managed properly. HR managers can manage culturally diverse workforce by developing proper policies within the organization. To completely exploit the contributions of culturally diverse workforce, organization should focus on opportunities to promote mutual respect and understanding. This can be done by importance to our differences, which improve our workplace, not only because it's the law, or because it's morally and ethically the appropriate thing to do, or because it create good business image, but also because when we open our minds and hearts we feel better about ourselves. And no doubt decency is hard to put a price tag on.

Kandola and Fullerton quote the following 10 most flourishing programs that will help in managing the culturally diverse workforce:

Initiating equal rights and remuneration for part-time workers.

Permitting flexibility in uniform or dress requirements.

Permitting time off for caring for dependants further than that essential by law, example, adequate pregnancy or other sick leaves.

Remuneration provided for workers' partners are just as available to same-sex and different-sex partners.

Purchasing specific equipment such as Braille keyboards etc for disable workers like blind etc.

Employing helpers or signers for those who require them.

Training trainers in equal opportunities.

Remove age criteria from selection decisions.

Providing support with child care.

Permitting employees to take career breaks.

It is obvious that people from different cultures, societies, perceptions, races, genders and countries will results in number of different innovation which ultimately results in earning competitive advantages over rivals. The key to the success of all the successful organizations such as Apple, Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Twitter, Siemens, Singer, FedEx, Tesco, Sainsbury etc is their diverse workforce that they have. More important that diverse workforce they to success of all the successful organization lies in effectively managing the culturally diverse workforce. Different national cultures as mentioned earlier results in innovations, new ideas, and exploring and understanding new markets as a result organizations benefits by increasing their market share and different other competitive advantages.

Tasks for M4:

Affects of equal opportunity laws & regulations on Mobilink GSM:

Rules & regulations are usually developed to provide equal opportunity to all the citizens. Equal opportunity rules & regulations in the context of employments are developed so that employers does not underestimate the rights of the employees and to provide equal rights to each and every worker regardless of their race, gender, religion, or disability etc.

Rules and regulations regarding equal opportunity if on one hand provides benefits for the employees, on the other hand it also affect organization both positively and negatively. Such as in Mobilink GSM, if employer or manager provides equal opportunities in term of employment for their employees, it will probably result in high productivity, motivation, job commitment and efficiency. But on the other hand sometimes for example if Mobilink GSM is suffering hard financial times such as sales decreases due to inflation but still they have to pay employees with minimum wage or they must hire extra quota of employees if they are advised by the government.

Similarly, equal opportunity laws such as Mobilink GSM cannot discharge female employees when she is pregnant and they also cannot discharge employees without any valid reason who is above age 40 or plus. Such rules and regulations negatively affect Mobilink GSM because it is obvious when a female is pregnant, she will at least on the leave for a month due to which operation at Mobilink GSM may be affect. Same is the case with aged employees, it is usually observed in aged people that they resist to adopt changes specially in technologies because they will have to transform their knowledge which can affect Mobilink GSM's performance as well. But we see this rules and regulations despite considering profits only then we will probably recognize that every human being has his/her own personal life which they must give attention. Therefore, we can say that there might be some rules and regulations regarding equal employment opportunity that will negatively affect Mobilink GSM's performance but if they are managed properly, we believe they will then not negatively affect their performance.

Tasks for M5:

Techniques for effective use of equal opportunity & HR issues:

Equal opportunity in the context of employment basically means providing all the workers or citizens their legal rights, regardless of their race, gender, religion or even disability. Equal opportunity also prohibits discrimination on the basis of personal revenge or retaliation or hatred in the organization. For example, a male and a female apply for the same job in an organization in which the female have more skills, knowledge and experience than the male. Though female is more and well qualified for the job available but the employer on his/her personal capacity hires male candidate believing that males are superior in performing jobs than females. This is called as unequal opportunity. This can be done on the basis of gender, race, religion or even disability.

We believe the main issue in managing human resources is discrimination. And usually organizations suffer losses or faces failure due to not adopting proper and effective practices to avoid discrimination. The simplest technique for avoiding HRM issues can be providing all employees equal employment opportunities regardless of their race, gender, religion or disabilities etc. We believe managers or employers should follow the following suggestions or advices because it will probable help an organization in effectively using equal opportunities and managing HR issues in the organization.

Enlist leadership from all levels to develop proper and valid processes and procedures for managing different HR issues such discrimination, unequal employment opportunities, absenteeism and low productivity of employees etc.

Identify goals, barriers and solutions and develop proper and valid plans for meets different issues that are mentioned above.

Managers or employers must develop awareness through training, books, videos and seminars regarding their rights so that they know their own legal rights and demand it from their supervisor because it may happen sometimes that the senior management will focus on equal employment opportunity but the supervisors or managers may not do it on his/her personal basis.

Management must also modify current policies of the organization regarding equal employment opportunities and different HR issues. This should be done by involving employees in developing policies because they better know the flaws of the organization.

HR managers should hold different departmental managers responsible for providing equal opportunities and for solving HR issues.

All the policies must be evaluated on the regular basis in order to properly and effectively develop such rules, regulations and policies that promote equal employment opportunities for all the workers and solve their issues in the organization.

Task for D2:

An overall conclusion:

Organization now days are becoming more diversified as compared to organization a decade or two ago. Organizations that support diversity are earning profit not only in term of finance, but in term of employees' commitment, high productivity, and low employees' turnover and different over competitive advantages. Diversity, if on one hand is providing organizations with number of significant competitive advantages; it on the other is creating number of crucial problems as well. Organization that is culturally diverse usually faces the problems of discrimination and workplace romance etc. In order to avoid discriminations in the organization, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is established.

EEOC is basically established to provide equal employment opportunities for all the citizens regardless of their gender, race, religion, or disability etc. EEOC is given enforcement authority of rules & regulations by Equal Employment Opportunity Authority (EEOA). To protect the rights of employees in the organization, the government has established number of different significant laws such as:

The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments:

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA):

Disabilities Discrimination Act of 1990:

Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978:

All these laws are developed and imposed on the organizations for sole reason that is to provide equal employment opportunities for the citizens. Mobilink GSM focuses on provision of equal employment opportunities for all the citizens and they justify this by having male, female, Muslim, Christian, Hindu and even disabled employees working in Mobilink GSM Peshawar.

Often, managers mix up equal opportunity with the term diversity. The main difference between equal opportunity and managing diversity is that equal opportunity is the legal right of every worker or citizen, whereas managing diversity is required by organization in order to be competitive in the market and to gain competitive advantages over rivals. Managing diversity is essential for the organizations because diversity leads to different discriminations especially sexual harassment or work place romance etc due to which ultimately organization suffers the loss.

Both equal opportunity and managing diversity positively affect organizations because if all the workers or citizens are provided equal employment opportunities and properly manage diversity as a result more and talented pool of candidates will attracted to the organization. It will not only result in attracting the most probable candidate for the organization but it will also help organization in increasing the productivity and efficiency of their employees because both these elements increases motivation and job commitment in the employees.

Managing performance in the organization is another important task. It is significant because as it is obvious when the talent of the employees is managed properly it may result in high productivity for the organization. Therefore, every organization must manage the skills, abilities, knowledge and expertise of their employees properly in order to improve their performance to achieved desired goals and objectives. Suppose, if Mobilink GSM start focusing on the managing the performance of their employees, it will greatly help them in achieving different competitive advantages over their rivals as a result they will probably have higher market shares.

Managers can overcome HR issues by developing proper processes & procedures. They can also do this by motivating their employees by involving them in decision making, or by awarding them with different monetary and non-monetary rewards on performing well. And they require holidays for genuine problems they must be given because this increases their level of commitment and dedication for the organization. In last, we would simply say that managing equal opportunity, diversity, performance, and globalization in the organization all depends upon the effectiveness of the management that how effective and efficient they develop policies for their organization. The better the policies the more effective will be the organization.