The Formation Of Present Business Contexts Commerce Essay


Marriott International, a worldwide franchisor and operator of a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. J. Willard Marriot founded the company and his son, J.W. (Bill) Marriott is leading the company. Marriott International has around 3,150 lodging properties situated in the United States of America and 67 other territories and countries.

Below are the five business segments in which the Marriott's operations are grouped into:

Full-service lodging: 65%

Select-service lodging: 11%

Extended-stay lodging: 5%

Timeshare: 15%

Synthetic fuel: 4% (primarily a tax shelter)

In 1992, the Marriott Corporation split into two companies, the Host Marriott Corporation and the Marriott International.

In 2002, a major restructuring project began by Marriott International by spinning off Marriott Distribution Services and many Senior Living Services Communities (now part of Sunrise Senior Living), so that Marriott could concentrate on hotel management and ownership. In 2003, these changes were completed.

In April 1995, in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company LLC, a 49% interest was acquired by Marriott International. Ramada International Resorts & Hotels were owned Marriott International until it was sold to Cendant on September 15, 2004. At all of its North American properties, it's the 1st hotel chain that serves completely Tran's fats free food.

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Marriott International and Vacation Club, in 2005, consisted of 2 of the 53 entities; these entities contributed the maximal of $250,000 to President George W. Bush's second inauguration.

In 2006 (July), Marriott made an announcement that beginning September 2006 all lodging buildings they operate in Canada and United States of America would become non-smoking. In this policy, all restaurants, public spaces, meeting rooms, guest rooms, lounges and employee work areas were included.

Today, 4 additional hotels have been announced by the Marriott International for its collection in India; thus bringing the total in India to 29 properties now under construction. When all the hotels are opened, before the end of 2013, 40 hotels will be under management by Marriott International in the country. Currently, Marriott manages 11 hotels in India represented by 5 brands.

In Vietnam, Marriott International will introduce its reasonably-priced Courtyard by Marriott brand under a management agreement which was announced recently with CY - Ham Tan Resort Limited Company. When the properly is opened, in 2012, it will be the first high-quality International mid-tier hotel in the area.


It is suggested by Handy (Charles Handy) that we can classify organizations into a broad range of four cultures. A whole host of factors are depended upon the formation of 'culture'; which include company history, organization structure, ownership, critical business incidents, technology and environment, etc.

The four cultures discussed by Handy are People, Power, Task and Role. The intention of the analysis is to evaluate the point to which the imperious culture reflects the constraints and real needs of the organization.

Strong Culture

"Culture is the life-thread and glue that links our past, present, and future" - J.W. Marriott, Jr.

Fair treatment of associates and to providing advancement opportunities

"Do Whatever it Takes to Take Care of the Customer"

Actively supports community and volunteerism

Pay extraordinary attention to detail


Pride in their physical surroundings

Our people are the most important asset

Environment that supports associate growth & personal development

Reputation of employing ethical, trustworthy, dependable and caring associates

Home-like atmosphere

Performance-reward system

Pride in name, accomplishments, & success

"Courtyard is a very popular brand in India and is expanding rapidly," expressed Rajeev Menon, the area vice president for Pakistan, India, Malaysia and Maldives. "It offers excellent value in the mid-tier market that is currently underserved. The hotels adapt well to the lifestyle needs of both its domestic and international guests."


The customers reign supreme in the world of hospitality. If the hoteliers wish to remain competitive it is essential for them to not only fulfill consumer expectations, but they must also try to exceed them. The hotel part of the Hilton Group plc is the Hilton International; is also includes gaming and betting, and Living Well Fitness Centers. Hilton International realized that to deliver the quality service associated with the brand; investments had to be made in the development and training of staff, they play a very important part in ensuring that good experience is provided to guests during their stay.


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Marriott's has an overall tall structure, however there are both flat and tall structures within each department. Marriott finds that its own properties are often a source of innovative new practices. As a result, the company has adopted formal and informal communication channels to encourage employees to share best practices. For example, through a quarterly program called the Worldwide Business Forum, managers in Poland can learn from practices in Peru.


Human Resources

The Human resources department in a business guarantees that the associates have and maintain satisfactory relationship with their managers, in the purpose that they are more inspired in their jobs. This requires that the staff that possess professional abilities are provided with more jobs. The staffs are pushed to study for subjects which are non work related. This means that each member of staff is support by the management to have a variety of responsibilities; so they can make progress in different areas. A lot of money is invested in the development and training project because staff training is viewed as very important. It attempts to inspire subordinates to work better & harder; this then makes job security sufficient for that individual. As a result, the customer service provided by the staff is excellent. In order to make the staff more efficient, the Human resources department is contemplated to spend more money in providing the best facilities for staff personnel development and training. The recruitment costs are much lower compared to the other departments like the beverage and food department; this is because the department has a low staff turnover rate (9%).

Human resources advices the staff on the established things they are able to and be involved in improving themselves further; it also makes sure that fair treatment is give to each member of staff. This department promises that the working environment is safe and not dangerous; therefore it ensures the health and safety of the individuals. This department looks for the well being of the associates in the hotel. Human resources provide training in an attempt to increase the motivation and the loyalties of staff within the organization in the effort that they'll be more efficient in their work.


Marriott's has an overall tall structure, however there are both flat and tall structures within each department. There are far fewer subordinates in the human resources department (only 6 people) and due to this it does not have many supervisors, assistant managers and managers when compared to departments such as beverage and

food department. For that reason, the human resources department is said to have a flat structure. Each staff member has a specified job description and they know their manager within the Marriott organization structure. This structure is formal, and has clear lines of communication.


Within an organization, there is a line of command; all the way from the top to the bottom of the hierarchy. From each managing head of director the information is communicated and it is through this chain that any orders are passed. Within the hierarchy, the orders are passed through many different people, for example, an "assistant manager" receives information from the "manager"; this information is then sent on to a "supervisor"; various messages are then sent from the "supervisor" to the "worker" in the department. That is

an example of how in a department in the Marriot the messages are transmitted down the chain of command. This type of structure helps to give clear understanding to the staff to whom they are responsible, therefore these types of structures can be very effective.


This is the number of subordinates that are supervised directly by one single person

(manager). A narrow span means there is less discretion, tight supervision and therefore fewer possibility of making mistakes. A narrow span may also mean additional levels in the hierarchy and so greater promotion chances. A wide span of control causes decrease in supervision and so results in greater delegation. There can be change in the span of control depending upon certain conditions; those can be seen beneath:

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The more difficult the supervision tasks the smaller the span of control will be; because checking work can be very time consuming and hard. Sometimes, the subordinates are not specialized at their jobs; this could be a reason for the supervision tasks being challenging.

If communication with the subordinates is very time consuming then a small span of control maybe necessary.

A wide span of control will be there if the supervisor is good, because then the supervisor can supervise more people effectively.

Some sort of span of control is available to each department manager; this can be seen from Marriott's organizational structure. We can say that Marriott's overall structure consists of both wide and narrow spans of control. An example is the beverage and food department, where there is a wide span of control because there are several restaurants and so the number of people controlled by the workers is much more. An example of a much narrower control is the human resources department because there are only 6 people in the department.


As the chain of command within an organization gets longer and longer, if gets more difficult for the messages to get sent across. As the messages travel across the chain of command they can often get distorted or even lost. The Marriott has successfully prevented this problem; they had daily meetings with departments so that each staff member knew what she/he is doing.



Theory M: Motivating with money

What motivates hourly workers is being paid what they are worth and not programs that are designed to increase their excitement and faithfulness. Here is a motivational program that establishes a direct link between productivity and pay

Marriott recognizes and rewards loyalty and performance over time. Virtually all promotions are from within and transfers and special assignments go to those who have clearly earned them with their consistent performance in serving the guest's interests. Various perks, benefits and compensation are awarded to those who consistently demonstrate a 'guest obsession'. Tuition reimbursements are used to attract the best workers; good health benefits are aimed at attracting and keeping those with families; and dozens of timely smaal perks are used to add to personal thank yous, which leaders at all levels make a point of giving.


Goal-setting theory refers to different types of goals motivate us differently.

Using a massive, five-year database of its own employment history, Marriott found that the cost of certain rewards was offset by lower turnover. And so it took a comprehensive look at its entire rewards program to align compensation and benefits with its associates' needs; improve attraction and retention; enhance productivity; and increase its return on the billions of dollars it invests annually in people and achieve its required goals. It did this while demonstrating the bottom-line impact of the resultant strategy.


High-performance businesses actively manage their talent, matching the right people with the right jobs and hiring for fit rather than for specific skills. As a result, these companies are rewarded with engaged, productive and creative workforces.

From recruitment to training and support to retaining employees, Marriott stands out because it focuses on the entire talent development chain. Hiring by gut instinct is frowned upon; instead, hiring managers use a quantitative, predictive model that combines an assessment of candidates' job skills with an evaluation of their attitudes and values-attributes that Marriott considers more important than specific skills or experience.

Marriott's success with employees at all levels makes for great press. The company regularly appears on lists of best companies to work for-for example, in the top 100 rankings for both Fortune (eight consecutive years) and Working Mother (15 years). And the company's voluntary turnover rates are among the lowest in the industry.

Part of the reason can be found in Marriott's benefits and compensation packages. "Our largest group of employees is housekeepers-largely women with families," explains Keegan. "We've found that medical benefits are a critical driver of retention-it keeps our turnover low." But that's only part of the story. Training, career opportunities and the cultivation of emotional ties all play important roles in helping Marriott retain employees in an industry marked by high turnover.

Once it makes a hiring decision, Marriott devotes considerable resources to training and developing its people at every level. Senior managers attend a four-week, in-house executive development program designed to help them cultivate a broad, externally focused point of view. For hourly workers, the emphasis is on structured, task-driven, on-the-job learning. The company even incorporates a training budget requirement into its contracts with franchisees and managed-property owners. Career-growth opportunities are another key to high retention rates. Nearly half of the company's managers were promoted from within the ranks of hourly workers.

Marriott keeps its managers engaged by providing many opportunities for development and advancement. Senior executives have spent an average of 22 years with the company, while their direct reports have an average tenure of 15 years. The company prefers to promote from within and provides cross-functional opportunities for key senior managers as a way to cultivate its future leaders.

Another reason for employee loyalty-and another important intangible-is the emotional connection workers have to the company. Marriott conducted research that showed that this connection was based largely on employees' belief that Marriott treats them fairly. Marriott found that its survey results surpassed industry benchmarks, leading company executives to believe that their employees trust the organization's leadership to look out for their best interests. HR Chief Keegan: Hiring managers use a quantitative, predictive model that combines an assessment of candidates' job skills with an evaluation of their attitudes and values-attributes that Marriott considers more important than specific skills or experience.


Teamwork for Nursing in a General Practice:

An effective team can be defined as one where:

Roles and relationships are accepted and understood by team members

There is mutual support and trust between members

Task expectations and accomplishments are high with members taking initiative and energy being channeled into effective work.

There is respect for individual differences in values, personalities and skills.

The needs of individuals are met.

Effective teams commonly contain a mix of experience and expertise and rarely depend on status or rank. This introduces a specific challenge for practices as small organizations like GPs need to be both, the employer, strategic leader and decision maker and a professional peer to practice nurses in their employment. Unavoidably, it is hard to filter out these roles, thus leading to nurses feeling excluded as a full members of the team. Practice nurses bring a great range of professional, clinical and leadership skills on to the team, many times from an extensive career in nursing.

Simply putting a different group of professionals together will produce an effective team.

For this team to function effectively:

The team must have a motive for working together.

Members have to be dependent on each other, i.e. they need each others expertise.

Members must be committed to the thought more effective decisions can be made by working together as a team rather than working in isolation.

The team has to be accountable as a functioning unit.

All the nurses should work co-operatively within teams and have respect for the skills, expertise and contributions of colleagues

All colleagues need to be treated with fairness and without discrimination.

All nurses should communicate effectively and share knowledge, skill and expertise with other members of the team as required for the benefit of patients and clients.

Nurses should be involved in the decision making processes

Characteristics of an ineffective team:

Group objectives are unclear: no evidence that the group either understands or accepts a common commitment

Communications: A few people dominate discussion; information is withheld and flows mainly down.

Decision-making: Forced or majority voting.

Criticism: It is embarrassing and tension producing.

Task-achievement: Individual roles tend to be unclear and performance is rarely reviewed.

Leadership: Single-leader dominated, leader may compromise.

Use of Information Technology: Information Technology is an important feature of most work environments. Practice nurses make significant use of practice IT systems. The trend towards paperless record systems and the need to ensure accurate and timely recording of key clinical data to underpin the new GMS contract are driving the move towards increasingly intensive and extensive use of IT systems.

They also use IT in viewing the patient records to date, adding details of the consultation and the can also gather accurate and timely clinical data.