The change may be externally imposed or voluntarily sought; explicitly defined in detail in advance or developed and adapted incrementally through use; designed to be used uniformly or deliberately so that users can make modifications according to their perceptions of the needs of the situation (Fullan, 2001, p. 69).
Change is inevitable in the life of an organization. In today's business world, most of the organizations are facing a dynamic and changing business environment. They should either change or die, there is no third alternative. Organizations that learn and cope with change will thrive and flourish and others who fail to do so will be wiped out. The major forces which make the changes not only desirable but inevitable are technological, economic, political, social, legal, international and labor market environments. Recent surveys of some major organizations around the world have shown that all successful organizations are continuously interacting with the environment and making changes in the structural design or philosophy or policies or strategies as the need be.
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According to BARNEY AND GRIFFIN, "the primary reason cited for organizational problems is the failure by managers to properly anticipate or respond to forces for change."
Thus in a dynamic society surrounding today's organizations, the question whether change will occur is no longer relevant. Instead, the issue is how managers cope with the inevitable barrage of changes that confront them daily in attempting to keep their organizations viable and current. Otherwise the organizations will find it difficult or impossible to survive.
Many organizations in this modern era are considering human resource as a key to sustained competitive advantage, hence Employee empowerment are being prioritized in most organizations. The changes in business environments have led into managing human resource. Human resource (HR) is management of employees within a workplace to achieve the goals of the business. It is the most integral part of the organization; it solely determines the performance of the organization. In broader context it deals with achieving business goals, conflict resolutions, maintaining discipline and good relationship amongst employees. HR is probably the most widely talked about topic in the present day corporate environment.( Huselid and Becker 1997) found that there were noticeable financial returns for the organizations whose human resource management (HRM) systems have achieved operational excellence and are aligned with business Strategic goals. Businesses employing HR practices flourish better, because it caters for the employees.
WHAT IS STRATEGIC HRM?
The linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop an organizational culture that fosters innovation, flexibility and sustainable competitive advantage is called STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. In the case of Strategic human resource management, the HR function is a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the company's strategies through HR activities.
KEY FACTORS OF SHRM PROCESS
The external environment - which is very dynamic in the current global business scenario
The business strategy - it affects and is affected by the SHRM process and which gives the organization a well thought of direction.
The internal environment - the organizational context and the general culture which is prevalent in the organization
The outcomes of the SHRM process - which should be evaluated both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
1.4 PRACTICAL ROLE OF SHRM
Build a Strategic Framework: Mission Statement, Vision, Values.
Help in goal setting. Look Beyond Traditional Goals.
Create Leadership Vision and culture of innovation.
Support Company's Brand (employees as customers approach).
Manage a cross cultural work-force.
Manage the young, overambitious recruits.
Manage continuous competitiveness in a changing business environment and technology and product delivery systems.
Keep HR cost to minimum possible.
Create employee loyalty programs
Design and utilize assessment metrics for evaluation of SHRM process.
NEED FOR SHRM
Increase competition in both local and global markets requires organizations to involve their people in developing the strategy for a sustainable competitive advantage.
Maintaining a competitive advantage by becoming a low cost leader or a differentiator is possible through good HR practices, as best practices in terms of the working of human capital within an organization are hard to replicate.
ADVANTAGES OF SHRM
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Each employee becomes a profit centre.
Accountability at all levels in the organizational hierarchy increases.
Business can meet ever increasing customer demands.
Employees become pro-active; align their personal goals with the goals of the organization.
Change is crucial in various aspect of life. It is difficult when change occurs especially when we are already so adaptive. Adaptation is vital for surviving change, meaning managing workers is of utmost importance. Maslow has a unique approach, where he demonstrates conclusively that one size does not fit all i.e. that different people needs to be managed different.
The increasing complexity of technological advancements so frequently requires special knowledge in all operations. Formerly, lower technological expectations and a firmly established hierarchy allowed managers to delegate narrowly defined personnel responsibilities to those functioning as specialists. Today however, such practices would be inefficient to the point of being considered static, and must be replaced. Failure to do so would be to ignore and fail to address the many unprecedented pressures that demand a comprehensive and more strategic view in relation to the organizations' human resources.
WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE?
Concerns over personal loss
Belief that the change is not in the organizations best interest
TECHNIQUES TO AVOID RESISTENCE
Negotiations and rewards: This can be a motivating factor where rewards such as wages, bonuses, salaries and perks can be examined and restructured to reinforce the direction of the change. This can perhaps change people's mind and drive them towards the change adaptation.
Participations and involvement: proper communication with employees and all other concerned people who are affected by change is very important. Perhaps they could be a part of change, this way they feel wanted and eventually change is resisted.
Education and communication: this is probably the most crucial approach to resist change. Proper communication and awareness is of utmost importance, where management should communicate not only the nature of the change but also its logic.
Facilitation and support: People tend to be venerable during change hence management should provide the support needed for the change.