Entrepreneurship education are emerging fields that blossoming in many business schools around the world. It has attracted the attention of many education institutions and the policy maker (government). This is due to the nature of the entrepreneur that becomes the heroes of the country by contributing to the growth of the economy and give job to the people. Entrepreneur derived from the word entreprende in French which mean to undertake.
Many previous researchers have done a research on the entrepreneurship education. Many universities in the world have offered the entrepreneurship course. It has become the main topic in many business schools. The entrepreneurship spirits are universal whereby the entrepreneur are people who create something out not nothing but their visionary. As mention by Kuratko and Hodgetts(2001) ' we are having entrepreneurial revolution in this twenty first century'. In Malaysia the government have seriously involved in the supporting the area by establishment of ministry of entrepreneur development in 1995.
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The important of entrepreneur and the contribution to the economy growth have well known to many policy maker around the world. In Malaysia the number of people who become entrepreneur have shown a reducing trend since 1982 to 2008 as in figure 1. This is shown that many people prefer to work with private company or government than becoming entrepreneurs. To increase the number of the people to become entrepreneur especially the bumiputera government have launch many scheme and action to encourage people to become entrepreneur, As the government aware that education can act as the agent of change the entrepreneurship education have been introduced to the middle and tertiary education. To encourage the entrepreneur development in university The ministry of higher education introduce a policy that entrepreneurship course become a compulsory subject to all the student in all the university.
In Malaysia the situation is different where the number of people who actually become entrepreneur is little compare to number of people who have taken the course. Even though there are funding that are specially for the graduates. Many previous research have look at the entrepreneurial trait and skill that have been develop in the student instead of the effect of the course. This research will look at the relationship between the entrepreneurship course and the entrepreneurial intentions of the student. The aim of the study to understand whether the entrepreneurship course in the university has relationship to the entrepreneurial mindet. It does not aim to find the teaching method that can encourage the entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial mindset is where people have interest in the entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial intention was define as "intention to start a new business"(Pillis and Reardon,2007; Thomas and Mueller,2002;Wu and Wu ,2008). By understand the intention can predict whether the student will open business in the future.
Then in 2010 the government have make a new entrepreneurship development policy to support the entrepreneurship development in the university . Eventhough the number of student that take the entrepreneurship education have increase but still the number of graduates who become entrepreneur is still little. Here
1.3 Research Objective
The main objective of this study is to explore the effect of the entrepreneurship course towards the student entrepreneurial mindset. Specifically the study will cover the following objectives;
To investigate whether entrepreneurship course raise entrepreneurial intention of students
To compare which course develop more entrepreneurial intention among the students
1.4 Research Questions
This research trying to answer the following questions
What factor can trigger the students to be interested in entrepreneurship
What trigger the student to be more interested in entrepreneurship
What are the structure of the class
Do the students that take the course have a families background in business
Do the students have intention to involve in business
Do the male student have higher entrepreneurial intention than female
Which course create more entrepreneurial intention among the students
Do the student which already posses high entrepreneurial trait have high entrepreneurial intention
1.5 Importance of the study
1.6 Definition of terms
Before move on to next chapter a few term definition that is importance for this research is explain here.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Until today the definition for entrepreneur does not achieve a mutual meaning from all the researcher. Although many research have put definition on it but each have different meaning on the definition. Originally the word entrepreneur "derive from entreprendre which mean to undertake" (Kuratko and hodgetts,2009). The definition of entrepreneur according to Collins dictionary as "the owner or manager of a business who ,by risk and initiative attempts to make profit ".. Zafir and Fazilah (2003) have list down all the definition by previous researcher (from 1775-1985)regarding the meaning of entrepreneur as in table 1
The latest definition was mention by Kuratko and Hodgetts (2009) where they define entrepreneur as "people who undertakes to organize and assume the risk of business where they recognize opportunities where others see chaos or confusion".
The word entrepreneurship have been use by economist since 1725 and become popular when Schumpeter (1934 ) relate the importance to the economic development (Kuratko and Hodgetts,2009).Entrepreneurship can be define as the process by which individuals, team or organizations identify and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities without being ultimately constrained by the resources they currently control. Similar definition also use by Ireland et. al (2009,p 334) where entrepreneurs are " individuals ,acting independently or as part of an organization who perceive an entrepreneurial opportunity and then take risks to develop an innovation to pursue it".
2.4 Entrepreneurial Intention
Entrepreneurial Intention which is the main objective this study want to measure.
As mention by Linan and Chen (2009) entrepreneurial intention is considered as 'essentially adequate to analyze the intention of becoming an entrepreneur'. This can be use as a way to measure the potential entrepreneur. (Ireland 2009).
was to measure the effort that the person will take to carry out the entrepreneurial behavior
"State of mind directing a person's attention and action toward self employment".(Souitaris et. Al ,2007)
2.5 Entrepreneurial mindset
This entrepreneurial mindset can be define as an orientation which values uncertainty in the marketplace and seeks to continuously identify opportunities with the potential to lead to important innovations (Ireland et. al ,2009.p334).
Developing research hyphothesis
Based on this study the following hypothesis have been proposed:
Hipothesis 1 : student with entrepreneurship major have more intrepreneurial intention than other major of students
Hipothesis 2: Male students have more entrepreneurial intention than female students
Hipothesis 3:Entrepreneurship course can create interest in entrepreneurship
Hipothesis 4 : Student who have higher entrepreneurship intention have more perceived behaviour control
Hipothesis 5: Student with business major are more interested in entrepreneurship
Hipothesis 6: Student with entrepreneurial family background or know a good entrepreneur will be more interest in the subject
Hipothesis 7: The course trigger to change the mindset to interest in entrepreneurship
Limitation of the study
1) Using cross sectional method to collect data. The longditudinal methodology will have a better result.
2) The limitation number of factor examine . According to literature there are many variables that can influences the entrepreneurial mindset.
Further research suggestion
1) The educational approach that influence the entrepreneurial mindset
2) The combination of all the variables that influences the entrepreneurial mindset
3) The research to be conduct on longditudinal methodology.
1.7 Structure of Project Paper
This project paper was done base on the format and style that was explain in the guideline of project paper tittle "The Guide to the Preparation of Project Paper" prepared by Graduate School of Management ,University Putra Malaysia.
At the beginning of this research paper the content include tittle page , declaration, acknowledgements and abstract . Others are the table of content, list of tables and list of figures.
This project paper was divided to six chapters. Chapter one describe the introduction which provide the background of the research, significant of the study, research problem and research objective.
Chapter two present the literature review . This chapter consist of the critical review of the past literature that are related to this topic.
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Chapter three discusses the research framework for this research. The discussion was on the theoretical framework, proposal research framework and the hypothesis to be tested.
Chapter four explores the methodology and method use for this research.
Chapter five explains the finding and discussion that related to the topic. This will explain the details of the results of this study.
Lastly chapter six presented the recommendation and conclusion as well as the implication of the research. These chapters also include some limitations and the suggestion for future research.
Research in India by Anjan (2005) in India showed that 24% of students have intention to become entrepreneur. Base on his research he found that there is a lack of entrepreneurship education in Asia.
Research in entrepreneurship was first started in economic field by Richard Cantillon (1755) .
Today Ministry of high education have put a priority in fostering entrepreneurship from the university by create an entrepreneurship development policy starting year 2010. But unofficially it have started in 2007 where all the first year student in the university is compulsory to take the entrepreneurship course.
In the west theimpact of the entrepreneurship education field have been well known as mention by Ayers(2004) where the MIT graduate have open more than 4000 companies. In Harvard case more than 50% of the students have involve in venture business(Anjan,2005). Similar effect also had happen in early research in Europe (Harhoff,1999) which prove that entrepreneurship education can be taught . But although it can be taught but the course must be different from the business management course which does not develop entrepreneurial attitude( McMullan and Long 1987;Vesper,1988;Gupta,1992;Decker and Hostager,1999).
Some other research showed that the effect of the entrepreneurship education is different to each student which also depend "on the personality and the attitude of the student towards entrepreneurship"(Luthje and Franke,2001).
The important issue in the entrepreneurship education effect depend on"what is taught, how is it taught and who is taught" (Anjan,2005). Anjan (2005) propose the content should be the integration of knowledge and skills. The teaching method should include the and external activities which cover lecture ,guest speaker, case study, creation of business plan and internship. The lecturer for this course must be people who are specially train in this field. This opinion also was similar as previous research by Hynes (1996 ) as he present in his model of entrepreneurship education as in figure 1.
This chapter will reviews the literature on Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Intention, Teaching Method. The discussion will also used to develop the conceptual framework that is related to this research.
Research variables for this research can be divided to independent and dependent variables. As cited by Cooper and Schindler (2008) from Kerlinger (1986) variable are " symbol of an event ,act, characteristic, trait or attribute that can be measured and to which we assign categorical values.
Independent variables is "predictor variable which is manipulate by researcher to cause effect on dependent variable"( Cooper and Schindler ,2008).The independent variables for this study is entrepreneurship course . To measure the relationship of the course to the dependent variables it been divide to the course structure .
"Criterion variable which is synonym for dependent variables are variables which is expected to be manipulate by the independent variable" (Cooper and Schindler ,2008).Dependent variables for this research is the entrepreneurial mindset which is the intention to open involve in the entrepreneurship in the future and the skill develop during the course.
This chapter examined
Exploring the early
The chapter presented
The chapter cponcluded
This chapter attempted
This chapter begin with the concept of and then explore
The chapter discusses
Issue such as
At the end of the chapter
In attempting to explain
This chapter discusses the methodology and the method used to collect data for the research. It consists of several section ; the research variables ,followed by research design. Then, it describes the sampling technique, data collection method, research instruments and the method for data analysis. The end of this chapter will discuss the reliability test of the data.
4.1 Research Variables
This study focus on the relationship between the entrepreneurship course taken by the university student and the relationship to the entrepreneurial mindset. Previous research done by many researcher show many factor that influences entrepreneurial mindset . This research will find out the level of entrepreneurial intention among the student as the effect of the entrepreneurship course.
4.1.1 Dependent Variable
The original proposal for this study was to collect data and compare among from 5 IPTA which is UM,UKM,UPM,UUM,UTM and USM. Due to the time and resource constraint the sampling for this research were limited to the student in UKM that take entrepreneurship course that were offer in the university.
Base on study by Mwasawiba(2010) 3 most common indicator for the effect fron the course are start up by graduates, academic result and intention towards entrepreneurship. Due to time limitation the impact that will be measure are the entrepreneurial intention among the student.
4.4 Data Collection Method
The researcher collected the data using two main sources of data ; secondary and primary data. Secondary data are "research by others for their own purposes"(Cooper and Schindler ,2008). This source of data include newspaper,article on internet ,book and online journal. These reference are used to write the introduction, literature review and the theoretical framework To collect the primary data a questionnaire was designed to evaluate the relationship between the entrepreneurship course and the relationship to the entrepreneurial mindset. The questionnaire consisted of question that were taken from previous study and additional question by the researcher base on the theory. Then the self administered questionnaire were distributed among the selected respondents and the questionnaires were then analyzed using SPSS.
4.5 Research Instrument
The research instrument used for this research is self administered questionnaires that are design to evaluate the factor that influences the entrepreneurial intention. Questionaires are the most useful and popular method of collecting data because the researcher can obtain the data fairly easily and the responses were easily coded using computer software (Sekaran,2000).
The research will be conduct on cross sectional survey using self administered questionnaire.
The questionnaire will be adopt from combination of various previous research .
Eda . Gurel et. Al (2010)
Linan and Chen(2009,2010)
Souitaris et. Al (2007)
4.5.1 Description of Questionnaires
The questionnaires was designed to test the developed hypotheses. The actual questionnaires use for the research are shown in the Appendix A. The questionnaire used is divided into XX sections as follows;
4.5.2 Pilot Study for The Questionnaires
A pilot study were conducted in order to eliminate ambiguity and to ensure clarity of the questionnaires items. Six students from various background were choosen to do the pilot study. The issues that were assessed during the pilot study were related to the clarity in instruction, keyword in the question, questionnaire layout and the length of the questionnaire.
The result from the pilot study were used to improve the questionnaires and minimize any weaknesses that it might indicate. This is to ensure that the questionnaire is adequate ,valid and reliable enough to be used.
4.5.3 Selection of Respondent
Selection of respondent was done by distributing questionnaires to the student that have taken entrepreneurship course in the university. The questionnaires were distributed to the entrepreneurship course student in faculty of economy and management and faculty of education in UKM. In addition the survey also was done to the weekend entrepreneurship courses that were open to the whole university by the faculty of education. All the questionnaires distributed were self administered during the class at the end of the course with the prior permission from the lecturer in charge.
4.5.3 Implementation of Survey
. A total of 135 questionnaires were returned out of 135 questionnaires distributed, which bring the response rate to 100%..
The sampling used for this research is non-probability sampling . This method are use because it is more practical for this study due to the time and cost limitation compare to probability sampling (Cooper and Schindler ,2008 ,pg 396).The sampling taken are base on judgment sampling where the student that meet the criteria as student who take entrepreneurship course only taken as sample. The student also must attend at least 80 % of the course to be able to judge the class.
4.6 Data Analysis
The data for this study was analyze using quantitative methods. Various statistical tests using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 were use in for the analysis. Statistical techniques were used to the hypothesis of this research.
A number of statistical tests were used to analyze the result of this research. First frequescies,mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample demographic and general results.
4.7 Reliability Test
Reliability test were conducted to make sure the measurement is free from error. The range of score is between zero and one. The higher the score of coefficient alpha the more reliable the items are in measuring the constructs. Table XX shows that all variables have a relatively high degree of reliability between 0.xx and 0.xx.
The research will look at 3 different groups that take entrepreneurship course in UKM. The target groups are students from the Faculty Economy and Business(Ekonomi dan Perniagaan) , Faculty of Education(Pendidikan) and the student that take a special entrepreneurship course name Cahaya Usahawan.Cahaya Usahawan course are a course that was held by combination of lecturer ,guest speaker and entrepreneur which were offer to all UKM staff who want to take the course. All three course have different structure and different syllabus. The respondent that take the course by faculty business and faculty pendidikan are a compulsory course . The course name Cahaya Usahawan was join by the student and on their own choice.
Before the questionnaires were given to the target respondent a pilot study was conducted among 15 master students for feedback regarding the questionnaires to ensure the clarity and understanding of the questionnaires. Among the issue that was assessed during the pilot study was the instruction, question, use of the wording, statement clarity and the length of the questionnaires.
The feedback by the master student was taken to improve the questionnaires. Base on the feedback some of the wordings were change to make the question more understandable with clarification of meaning on some difficult word .The printing of questionnaires also was change from 4 pages to 2 pages by printing on front and back to make the target respondent psychologically feel the question is not so much. Due to little change only on the questionnaires which does not effect the data of the questionnaires the reliability test was run on the data which bring cronbach alpha result of 0.905. Original researcher obtain the cronbach alpha result of 0.943.
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
In the early research by previous researcher there is a debate whether entrepreneurship can be develop through education. Whether it is born or can be made like the Ganian proverb mention by Nyanducha (2008).
"if you hen brood an egg and a stone the egg will hatch but stone will remain stone " .
135 data was collected from the three courses as below;
Number of respondent
Faculty of education
From the total 3 was removed due to missing data and the student does not meet the criteria for evaluation. After analysis using SPSS the demographic data the respondent consist of total 128 respondent where 38.3 % are male and 61.7 are female students. These respondent come from various background as the table 1.
Place of birth
Position in family
Antropologi and sosiologi
Entrepreneurship and busine
Industrial and int. economics
Tecnical and vocasional
There is a need for longditudinal research to see whether this entrepreneurial intention can become action (Harry,2006).
Previous research showed that people who select the course by their willingness instead of have to have higher propensity to involve in entrepreneurship activities(Brown,1990;Vesper and Gartner,1996).
Ho : All the population mean are the same
H1: Not all population mean are the same
Significance level Î±=0.05
Base on the test conducted there are significance different between the means among the 3 groups where Ho: Î¼1â‰ Î¼2 or Ho: Î¼2â‰ Î¼3 or Ho : Î¼3 â‰ Î¼1 or Ho:Î¼1â‰ Î¼2â‰ Î¼3.
Base on the result the null hyphothesis is rejected .
The Tukey HSD result show that student in Cahaya Usahawan Course have a higher interest than student in Faculty economy and student in faculty education. This result was base on confidence level 95 % or Î±=0.05 .
Interest toward end course
Subset for alpha = 0.05
EKONOMI DAN PERNIAGAAN
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Interest toward end course
Sum of Squares
The ANOVA table show the value for the F value =18.173 and P value =0.000. Since P value is less than the predetermined alpha level (Î±=0.05) so the null hyphothesis which state that all group mean the same is rejected. This mean that the cause bring a different interest toward the student and the Cahaya Usahawan course have the highest interest to the student.
Other prove that show that the alternative hyphothesis is accepted are the multiple comparison between the student who take the course Cahaya Usahawan,Faculti Ekonomi and Fakulti Pendidikan. The different between mean of student use take Cahaya Usahawan and Fakulti Pendidikan is 1.79757(5.6923-3.8947). The different between mean course cahaya Usahawan and Fakulti Ekonomi is 0.49750(5.6923-5.1948). The different between mean Fakulti Pendidikan and Fakulti Ekonomi is -1.30007(3.8947-5.1948). The null hyphothesis state that there should be no different between the mean difference but the result show otherwise so the null hyphothesis can be rejected. Base on the mean different it self we can say that Cahaya Usahawan course create more interest to the student follow by Fakulti Ekonomi and Fakulti Pendidikan.
:Ho : The mean scores of the three entrepreneurship course are the same (Ho: Î¼1=Î¼2=Î¼3).
The mean score for the group are the same according to gender.
H1: At least 2 groups of student show significant difference in the means scores of population (H1: Î¼1â‰ Î¼2â‰ Î¼3 or H1: Î¼1â‰ Î¼2 or H1: Î¼1â‰ Î¼3 or H1: Î¼2â‰ Î¼3).
The signifance level Î±=0.5
Result from the probability value showed that 0.000 for the course and 0.278 for the gender is less than predetermined alpha value so the null hyphotesis is rejected.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter discuss the research findings and results. The chapter begin with the respondents profiles and the findings generated from the data collected and analyzed. Then it will follow by the results of the descriptive and inferential statistics carried on the data.