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According to Jonathan Wallace [email protected] he states that Authority is quite simply the ability to make particular decisions without having to ask someone else's permission. For any kind of human enterprise to operate, hundreds or thousands of decisions must be made daily.
Authority is given to only what you manage in the organisation; it is the right to issue orders. And to further simplify one is a superior and the other a subordinate. (Cronje,et,al 2004) states that authority : which provides the leader with the right, by virtue of his/her position within the organisation, to give instructions and delegate work to subordinates. One philosopher, Bertrand de Jouvenel, has put it more strongly: "The phenomenon called 'authority' is at once more ancient and more fundamental than the phenomenon called 'state' the natural ascendancy of some men over others is the principle of all human organisations and all human advances" ( 1957, p. xiii).
An individual cannot be a leader without having power. Power simply has the potential to influence others. Leaders must be able to influence their followers to achieve greater performance so that their superiors and peers make important decisions to ensure the organization goals and targets are achieved. During my work experience, I noticed that leaders believe that the higher the level they are in the organisation is the higher level of power they have.
(Cronje, et, al 2004) states that power: which refers to the leaders ability to influence (without necessarily using his/her authority). There are many definitions of power one of the being the capacity to produce effects on others being the energy that gets things done. I feel the way we use power will determine whether it is harmful or beneficial.
We face many challengers in the work place regarding getting a subordinate or team to do something with ease. That is where influence and art of persuasion comes to play. Using the influence and the art of persuasion will effortlessly get the organisational gaols met without concern. From influence and persuasion we can extract, trust, team spirit and employees going the extra mile. Influence is allowing the team or subordinate to see the bigger picture: what will be gained to adapt to change.
(Cronje, et, al 2004) states that influence: which involves using authority and power in a manner which inspires and motivates subordinates to take action.
The key challenge of a leader is to know what to delegate and to who the responsibility should be given to. Often times we face that the tasks delegated is not done to standard. The accountability always stops with the superior who is delegating the task. To delegate means to empower, subordinates with authority and the buying in of ensuring the task is done. I delegate because some of my tasks to my subordinates is because it frees me to focus on the urgent and more important matters first. The task I choose to delegate to the responsible subordinate makes the subordinate feel I can trust him/her and it also empowers him/her to develop his/her skill.
Responsibility and Accountability
We all have key performance areas that we are responsible and accountable for, which we are measured on how effective and efficient we carry out our tasks, either through a performance management system or reports that we send to the business. The difference between accountability and responsibility in my opinion is that when you delegate tasks to teams or individuals they will be responsible for the task to be carried out but the accountability still stays with you as the leader to ensure it is done according to what is required. (Cronje, et, al 2004) states that responsibility and accountability is where the leader is responsible for carrying out his task and must account for his/her performance.
Reading the case study, I came to a realisation as to how important and effective the above elements play in leadership. Taking in account the leaders of the 21 century and constrains, challengers they face in this volatile and globalized hyper connected age, it phenomenal to see how they utilise the elements of leadership.
Delegation and influence is utilised extensively in the case study which expresses how their energy and attitude in sequencing decisions to focus on key issues first, not after they have been depleted by lesser matters, looking at ways to continually to improve in meeting their customer needs and organisational goals. One of the key points the case study comments regarding influence are that leaders must create cultures of constructive scepticism and surround themselves with people who bring multiple perspectives and have no fear of challenging the boss. This to me means you need a generation of employees who can think out of the box, be able to brain to storm and come up with ideas for an effective resolution.
Responsibility and accountability is utilised in the tri - sector athlete, indicates that it is too large for any leader to manage individually with regard to issues such as infrastructure, unemployment, education, or protecting the environment. Therefore, accountability belongs entirely to the leader.
Authority and Power is utilised looking through a microscope and a telescope indicates how leaders to need to see the world in multiple ways at once. They need to take authority in making blameless decisions in order for the long term goals to be achieved. Leaders need to make decisions as to how to reallocate resources and keep up with innovative technology.
1.2 Differentiate between leadership and management. According to the extract, how can leaders become more effective? Discuss.
Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, ie: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction
Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established.
The difference in my opinion is that in management, you manage for example tasks, and to ensure the work is done. And in leadership, you lead which is people focused.
In my opinion some of the Management responsibilities comprises of analysing reports, setting operational standards, planning budgets, planning short term goals, managing service level agreements, staffing, conflict resolution, meetings and discipline in the work place. A manager is someone who often works his way up the company through loyalty and experience. He/she also has good knowledge of technical skills.
Warren Bennis. In the On Becoming a Leader, volume Bennis listed the following differences:
1.The manager administers; the leader innovates.
2. The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.
3. The manager maintains; the leader develops.
4. The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.
5. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
6. The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
7. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.
8. The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader's eye is on the horizon.
9. The manager imitates; the leader originates.
10. The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
11. The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
12. The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.
The manager plans and budgets; the leader creates vision and strategy [direction]
14. The manager is generally directing and controlling; the leader allows room for others to grow, and change him/her in the process [alignment]
15. The manager creates boundaries; the leader reduces them [alignment]
16. The manager's relationship with people is based on position power; the leader's relationship and influence is based on personal power [relationships]
17. The manager acts as boss; the leader acts as coach, facilitator, and servant [relationships]
18. The manager exhibits and focuses on (a) emotional distance, (b) expert mind, (c) talking, (d) conformity, and (e) insight into organization; the leader: (a) emotional connectedness, (b) open mind, (c) listening, (d) nonconformity, and (e) insight into self [personal qualities]
19. The manager maintains stability; the leader creates change [outcome]
20. The manager creates a culture of efficiency; the leader creates a culture of integrity
In order to be a leader you need to have certain qualities, which will influence employees to follow you. A leader is one who influences the behaviour and work of others in group efforts towards achievement of specified goals in a given situation. According to the extract leaders can be more effective, once you have done the analysis, made the decision, and then you have to learn to simplify the decision in communicating it to others. When a decision is made you need to stick by it. Because these leaders move so fast in crisis situations they, empower people to make decisions for themselves.
These leaders depend on the expertise, judgement and buy-in of their team to achieve company goals and objectives. Looking at the extract leaders need the three skills as discussed in the extract which is, see with a microscope and a telescope, compete as a tri-sector athlete and stay grounded during a crisis.
Microscope and telescope
The overview of the microscope and telescope leaders need to look through two lenses, show how leaders of the 21st century need to handle situations. They need to focus on the pressing issues in minute detail, force their organisation to challenge conventional wisdom in order to keep up with the ever changing technological and demanding environments. Top management needs to have telescopic vision of the long term goals. They need to study the success patterns of entrepreneurship in developing countries.
Compete as a tri-sector athlete
According to McKinsey the tri-sector athletes," means your work at McKinsey can span combinations of all three sectors, giving you the unique perspectives and expertise to take on clients' toughest challenges.
Taking issues such as infrastructure, unemployment, education or protecting the environment, it is too big for a leader to handle alone. He needs the collaboration of other sectors to achieve the company's success.
Staying grounded during a crisis
Leaders have to have a natural gift in staying focused and controlling their emotions in crisis situations. The extract talks about the demand of the leader, their emotional and physical stamina to go on overcoming the tough situations they sometimes need to face and how they react. Below is image of a balance life style.
http://balancewines.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/lifestyle-pie-chart1.jpg%3Fw%3D450 from balance.worldpress.com
1.3. "Resilient leaders, as Shimon Peres reminded us, are those who 'ambition for a cause greater than themselves.'" Discuss some of the characteristics of resilient leaders.
Some of the characteristics of a resilient leader are to be positive, stay focused, stay flexible and be organized. Being positive means to be confident, optimistic and focusing on the good things rather than the bad. Staff often pick up on how you react to situations, whether it's is verbal or your body language. Staying focus is to be completely committed until the end. To be flexible one needs to be ready for change and change with the circumstances. A leader needs to be in search of a solution and be progressive in resolving the situation. Being organized is to work in a systematic and efficient way. A resilient leader uses structured approach when managing ambiguity.
A leader needs to step out of the pack and to see new possibilities. They need to embrace opportunities and look at challengers in order to grow. A resilient leader must be able to bounce back from failure or misfortune. It can be summarised as pushing past the pain, focusing on achieving what ahead of you. Resilient leaders learn from the past mistakes rather than seeing themselves as a victim of circumstance.
Write a comprehensive essay on the organising function of managers, include relevant theories and diagrams. Your essay must not be a copy of the module guide and should be between two and four typed pages in length including diagrams.
The management consist of four fundamental functions, which is planning, organising, leading and controlling for company gaols and objectives to be met. I would like to explore the organising function and its importance. Organising is an important part of management function, it guides you not to forget
Reason for Organising
Organising is putting together and coordinating the human, physical, financial, informational, and other resources need to achieve goals. The activities of organising include attracting people to the organisation, drawing up of job profiles, creating departments and allocating resources to create conditions so that people and activities work together to achieve extreme success. According to Chester Barnard, "Organizing is a function by which the concern is able to define the role positions, the jobs related and the co- ordination between authority and responsibility. Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results. The central role of management process is organizing. After the plans are created the manager's task is to see that they are carried out and given a clear mission, core values, objectives, and strategy, the role of organizing is to begin.
Besides identifying activities and departmentally organising the activities, managers need to classify the authority and co-ordinate between authority and responsibility. When the departments are made, the manager likes to classify authority and its extent to the managers. There are three levels of management; Top management is into formulation of policies, the middle level management into departmental supervision and lower level management into supervision of foremen. Each level will be responsible in achieving the set targets and objectives in order to meet the company's goal.
Looking at the mission and vision of the company organisation design starts with a plan and a set of decision guidelines by which employees will choose suitable actions. Strategic planning describes the objectives and evaluates both internal and external to formulate a strategy. Strategy joins the intent of the organization and focuses the employees towards actions designed to accomplish the preferred results. The strategy applauds actions that support the purpose and discourages those that do not.
Diagram from : http://www.lmmiller.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/UnityModel-1024x1004.jpg
Basic Principles of Organising
Responsibility and authority to me remains me of the organisational chart. The employee knows to whom they have to take orders from and to whom they are accountable and to whom they have to report.
When work is divided it helps bring specialisation in various activities of concern. Jobs are defined putting right men on right job, which can be done by selecting people for various departments according to their qualifications, skill and experience. This clarifies the role of every employee. Every departmental manager will give a budget to higher management for approval. Therefore financial planning and budgeting falls under organising. Henri Fayol's principles of management: administrative theory has listed below. He argued that these principles can increase the efficiency of the management process.
Division of work (specialization)
· Authority and responsibility
· Unity of command
· Unity of direction
· Subordination of individual interest
· Remuneration of personnel
· Scalar chain
· Stability of tenure of personnel
· Esprit de corps
· The concept of line and staff
· Functions of management
- training. Commanding and coordinating
Frederick Taylor's principles of scientific management are based on the concept of planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. The approach to increased productivity is through mutual trust between management and workers. Taylor (1947) proposed four principles of scientific management:
· Science, not rule-of-thumb;
· Scientific selection of the worker
· Management and labour cooperation rather than conflict
· Scientific training of workers
Below is an example of an organisational chart
Diagram from: http://images.vertex42.com/ExcelTemplates/orgcharts/functional-business-organizational-chart.gif
. Organizing is an important aspect of successful management because without organization things can be forgotten or neglected
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3784778 authority
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Authority.aspx accessed 16/08/2012
Jouvenel, Bertrand de (1955) 1957 Sovereignty: An Inquiry Into the Political Good. Univ. of Chicago Press. â†’ First published in French as De la souveraineté: À la recherche du bien politique.
http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadership-basics.html accessed 17/08/2012 difference between leadership and management
http://www.mckinsey.com/careers/what_youll_do/shape_the_world tri sector athlete
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ltl.440/pdf resilient leaders
http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e03.htm#exhibit 4: fayol's principles of management: administrative theory