Creativities relate to the social activities, such activities participate in a social context, influence with other people and collective knowledge become contributors. Nowadays, many individuals and organisations realised that creativity is more important than the past to deal with societies problems. Build up the relationships between individual and social creativity by integration.
How can creativity and innovation effect on organisations? Art and creativity training carry out by organisations. The paper based on creativity theories and also practical examples from Apple Inc, how did Apple achieve the world leading innovation company through the creativity. The other study is Google; the firm encouraged colleagues bring creative ideas to organisation.
In 2008, financial crisis has overwhelmed the world, such crisis has huge impact on world stock markets, and fallen sharply. Many large financial institutions have bankrupted or took over by other companies, and governments in even the developed countries have had to deal with rescue packages to bail out their financial systems (Anup Shah, 2010), include United States, the UK, Spain and Japan. In times of crisis, such as the one effected in Euro zone, new ideas created to organise and manage the new businesses, jobs and protect individuals away from risk, such as redundant.
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There are many artistic and scientific creations emerge from joint thinking, shared struggles from different people, and passionate conversations, emphasizing the importance of the social dimension of creativity (Bennis & Biederman, 1997; John Steiner, 2000). Creativity connects people in different fields, share ideas and cooperate with each other to find out new solutions.
The purpose of this essay is relation between social and organisational creativity, how can creativity bring the change and innovation the companies and management, and help them to grow business, also inspire people and society. Creativity is a new solution for organisations to achieve target and improve performance. A case study from Apple, one of the best creative corporations in the world, Steve Jobs was the most innovative CEO who has completely changed the view of technology industry. Support creative engineers to work on their own projects, this is the creative way of Google.
Concept of creativity
What is creativity? Creativity is the production of new and useful ideas, products, services, processes or strategies and to bring new thing into being. (Amabile, 1996). It is come from the imagination of human being, or accidentally found a new idea and solution. Creativity often brings the imagination from the mind, which are fascinating and interesting. Something non-exist of the world, even beyond our knowledge, also skills, encourage individuals and organisations to invent. There is much creativity in science fiction films, such as star wars, super advanced technology which cannot achieve nowadays, but one day technology would conquer the challenge. Film directors bring new concept into the film by their imagination to inspire public. Creativity combines with economic, artistic, culture and technological, it is an mixed concept.
Creative thinking brings innovations from solutions to simple puzzles and ideas to invent that have radically altered the world. (Robert W. Weisberg, 2006). Thinking in a different way would bring more opportunities than thinking of traditionally. It may radical and has huge impact on human being thought. Creativity is change; conservative people cannot accept the change, which challenge their traditional routines.
If no creativity in the world, human being can hardly to progress, it also difficult to define the difference between human and animals, creativity improves our life quality. People cannot simply understand when they see new innovation created and need explanation by creators. For instance, digital products usually provided user guide to explain them how to use the new device, avoid any damage, such as computers, cameras and mobile phones.
Creativity based on individual, domain and field. Individual creates new pattern and domain. Creative person has high ability adapt from different situations, a single person can make big change in organisations, teams and communities. Domain presents symbolic basis, an individual can act and think with clarity and concentration. The existing domain is the evidence of mankind creativity, for instance, graffiti on walls, pictures around buildings.
Fields could impact on the innovation in many ways. The first way is reactive or proactive, reactive field does not solicit or stimulate novelty. The second way is the approach to new creativities. Some fields only allow new items to enter the domain at all time. Only choose the best way. The rest are more liberal in allowing new ideas into their domains. Novelty supported by fields when they link to the rest of the social system and own domain.
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creative is like the Mars, which human being has never landed on it. No one knows whether any life- forms on that planet. Scientists have curiosity to discover the universal, find out the truth. Creativity is revolution, it may has risk, but without dangerous will not attain innovation.
Creative persons make a big difference, such as football and basketball captains, prime ministers, and Steven Allan Spielberg, a famous film director of Hollywood. One of best examples is Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple Inc. a genius who has changed the world, simplified personal computers and digital technologies, invented remarkable new products which are more than customers' preference. Co Individual creativity based on different situations and problems, personal experience, imagination, knowledge, and innovation are the basic elements of social creativity. But, no one is better than a team, individual creativity has limits, such wrong decision making, cannot cooperate with other people. Society in nowadays, people who are competent in all of science has to fail due to the single person mind is limited (Campbell, 1969; Shneiderman, 2002).
Creative person has enthusiasm and energetic, often hard working till late night, always with passion. Individual talent is difficult to work as a whole; they do not listen or take advice from others, and act as a tough role in their groups or organisations.
One individual is not enough to solve all problems, creative activities connect to groups, businesses, organisations and communities. Share ideas and knowledge with other people in societies, understand with each other. Social creativity can be positive, interact between two groups. Social creativity simply as keep and share creativity. For instance, "Japanese workers are able to suppress ego and direct their efforts to collective objectives more than to individual interests" (Lampi-koski and Emden, 1996: 185). In Japan, organizations believed that the power of individual cannot do better than a team; team work is such an important thing. It is more efficient work as a group. Sheridan and Tatsuno (1990) pointed out that Japanese people "who generate deviant, wild or weird ideas will be punished by social sanctions". They should not have radical ideas and strongly conservative.
Social creativity users have to deal with new things and unpredictable situations, also experiencing failure and costs loss. Creativity is risky, people can learn from the pain and unique opportunities to improve innovations.
Creative processes present by liking words, each arrow goes to different direction. It shows that creative actor and proposes a name to the produce of creative outcome. To understand the map, who produce and which produce illustrate the action.
Social creativity concept map
Can be carried out by
Social units such as teams
Within a system
With each other
With situational factors
Who produce Which
Socially constructed creative outcomes
Individually generated creative outcomes Produce
Socially generated creative outcomes
Socially influenced creative outcomes Who produce
Adapted from Elizabeth, Watson, 2007
The processes carried out by four actions, creative persons, individual, social units such as teams and organizations. The first step of this map concerns with creating of person, who generated outcomes individually. Individual characteristics relate to talent people, such as genius. An example relates to Thomas Alva Edison, the inventor of United States, who had invented electric light and conquered darkness, brought the light to human life at night.
Individual interact with situational factors, with each other or within a system result to creative outcomes by individuals. In addition, individual can influence by social creativities. An idea carried out by him or herself, it may implement by others if the idea shared. A single person may not have creativity mind, but he or she works in an innovative company which produce creative tasks. Situational factors involved in external influence. Assume creativity is an event, and influenced by situational factors. Creativity of individual qualities is relevant skills or resources, creativity skills and creative thinking techniques, and essential motivate task. Creative outcomes produce by individual or small group workers. Work environment affects individual creativity, also motivation. The organizational components relate to organizational motivation to innovate, resources in the task, and management practices or skills in innovation management. (Elizabeth Watson, 2007)
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The process of creativity could be implemented by teams through the activity systems
Which result the socially constructed creative. This process associate with team activity, create new projects by using existing skills or techniques. Engestrom (1999, p. 382) pointed out that objects in construction "does not happen in a solitary manner or in harmonious unison. It is a collaborative and dialogic process".
Organisations carried out the fourth process of creativity, which generated the social creative outcome. Organizational creativity is share and communicates with communities, always deal with challenge. Individual and groups creative contribute organizations. Microsoft is a software corporation which develop operating systems for computers and mobile phones. In October 2012, the company has launched the latest operating system Windows 8. Steven Sinofsky is the father of Windows 8, an individual talent creator, he and Windows department work together and created this remarkable system, which sold 40 million copies one month later after launched. Creative and innovative corporations often carry out new objects by change, to achieve higher target and expectation, changes is necessary, risk may bring high return for organisations.
The dotted arrows illustrate that socially influence and constructed creativity generated social creative outcomes, these effects produced by individuals and social teams.
In this map, each process goes to different direction and generated different results. However, individuals cannot connect to creativity of social constructed and social units.
Integrating individual and social creativity
Individual and social creativity should build up relationships and support each other, but not enemies. Businesses enhance the power with individual members through the creativity. John-Steiner (2000) point out that the mind is dependent upon the reflection, renewal, and trust inherent in sustained human relationships. Integrating diversity by bring the back talk situation, provide open and transparent system.
Individual and social creativity integrated by collaboration models, appropriate community structures, meta design, process models in artifacts support by natural evolution, also boundary objects (Gerhard, Elisa, Hal, Masanori and Yunwen, 2005).
Engage between individual and creativity by connect different communities to find a solution. The cultures behind the diversity, people all from different background, countries, behaviours, traditions and the way of thinking. However, diverse cultures are difficult to manage, such as how to understand each other, people who have different point of views.
Creative innovation in organisations
What is creative and innovative corporation? Andriopoulos and lowe (2000) explained that "any business entity whose main source of income comes from the production of novel and appropriate ideas, processes, products or services to tackle clients' problems or opportunities identified". Creativity could range from suggestions including incremental ideas for adaptations to radical and major breakthroughs in the development of new products (Mumford and Gustafson (1988).
Woodman et al. (1993) defined term organizational creativity as "the creation of a valuable, procedure, useful, service, new product and process by individuals working together in a complex social system" (pp. 293). Creativity is a new way and useful solution to grow business in organisations. Corporations would loss value if no creativity and innovation inside of their strategy plans.
An organizational practice relate to the suggestion scheme in different value of orientation. Japanese companies have created such alternative schemes, it is the way which opposite the traditional European scheme on problem finding, others can share and generate new concept, reward system added to encourage staff bring the change into organisations. These schemes play an important role in the incremental, process innovation of Japanese companies (Basadur, 1992).
Art and creative training connect management and staff to use art in organisations, helping each other work as one team, to improve skills, such as how to make good speech internal and public, draw pictures, sculpture, aims are generate and create new perspectives through the creative training. One of example is body language commonly used in business workplaces, which can help people relief, the nervous and stress, it is an efficient communication skills. More than 50% of conversation is received by sight, 38% is from the sound and just 7% are the actual words. 35% of face to face conversation is done through verbal speech, the rest 65% are done by body language, we distinguish 11,000 different sounds and see up to 35,000 different colours, but we can only process 7 information at each time (Allan and Barbara, 2004).
Apple and creativity
What is the most successful creative company in technology industry? The answer of this question is Apple Inc. innovation played a key role that makes Apple become the cutting edge of technology; it offers unique experience of usability, and top level of industrial design attracted many consumers. Apple takes huge advantages than its competitors; they are just followers of Apple.
Apple is a special corporation compared with other businesses organization. A great company must have a great leader, that individual creative is Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple Inc. he believed that a product making should not meet consumers preferences, the expectation of consumers' time have past. Bring the new thing and innovative technology to the product is the way of Apple, be different also creative.
Apple has been invented many incredible products, such as iPhone, iPad, 5mm thin iMac in October of 2012, which is break the record that the thinnest all in one computer in the world. Apple had launched the first mobile phone in 2007; since then iPhone has been sold more than 100 million worldwide, become most popular mobile phone on the market, it was the revolution of mobile phone industry. Three years, iPad launched by Steve Jobs, a bigger iPhone with the same operating system and entertainment tablet. Although the device was criticized by many criticizers, but sales were remarkable.
Innovation on hardware just is the part of creativity, Apple connected new technology with business models. Apple business strategies contain 6 modes, the CEO Steve Jobs, innovation and creativity, innovation in products, process, business model, customer experience and leadership. (Sanjay Dalal's, 2012). The culture of Apple is always being the best one on market; they do not accept the failure, always surprise consumers through the innovation.
Innovation in Google
Google offers its staff to spend one day a week and every week to do their own projects to generate new creative ideas bring to the business. This particular concept is unique, staff have more freedom focus on creativity, as a result, Google is the world leading search Engine Company.
On the other hand, creative engineers can access more authorities to work as full time on radical ideas which can bring new revolution for Google. For instance, two Australian brothers invented Google Wave which replaced traditional email, Google offered research and development costs.
Google collects feedback on new applications from users, whether continue develop or cancel the project, this help to reduce the risk and save costs. Nowadays, Google map has wildly used on mobile phone, personal computer and tablets, it is a useful application to help users find a place, how to go to the destination. Translate application instantly translate websites, files and texts between 60 languages. The software automatically detected languages for users and listen to the pronunciation of the searching language. There are still many more creative concepts would develop soon.
How to solve the problem when staff quit the job and take ideas away? Google is a large financial contributor, it supports creative individuals free of risk, and they would not make any loss.
Creativity is play a key role in 21 century; this concept has released mankind imagination, make the life colourful, by using existence knowledge to created new objectives have never done before, remarkable experience and reach a new level. Transform old things into a new form, beyond our expectation, unforeseen results fascinated and attractive public.
Creative individuals relate to talented person, genius who can bring the big change to the public, societies and organisations. Every child is individual artist; the difference between them is grow up in a different way. Social creativity is not only a technical problem; it requires new cultures and new mindsets. The complexity of design problems transcends the individual human mind by requiring the integration between individual and social creativity.
many organisations realised that creativity and innovation are beneficial, which is increase the profit, also improve the performance. It has changed the perspective of people, make difference than others. Apple is the typical creative and innovative company, by offering new experience and products which are completely different than others. Change hardware is only part of creativity, the most important issue combined with business mode. Google supported creative staff generate new ideas bring into the company, even encourage them work on full time to achieve it; staff do not have to worry about research costs.
Art and creative training introduced in organisations, such as body language which can help speakers improve the communications skills, distract nervous by using hand signs, leggings and head.
Creativity lead to new era, connect people who from the different culture, background, and tradition. Without innovation, the world could be vitality.