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Human resource management (HRM) is responsible for the people dimension of an organization. It has a significant role to play in today's world in that it not only has to assist the organization in achieving its strategic direction, it also has to represent and advocate for the organization's employees. At its broadest level, HRM comprises the functions of staffing, development, motivation, and maintenance. With the aim to providing trained workforce needs of society, HRM programs helps students to quickly integrate and adapt to labor market training programs should be built close to reality, advanced and flexible operation.
Graduated students Administrative staff can work in those departments of the Organization of the Party, State and other political organizations - social, from the central to local levels, particularly Students can work in office management personnel of enterprises.
1. Job Design:
1.1Excellent Dividend Workforce
McDonalds is a restaurant provide fast food so the manager have to make sure that they have enough labors for adopt JOT ( just on time ) in production process. The manager also make sure that there is no extreme labor at one moment while they get lack of labor at the other moment. To avoid that the manger have some strategies to manage their workforce, depend on size of store. For example, McDonald store at 133 New Bridge Road #01-01 Chinatown Point, Singapore #059413, the store open 24 hours, so the manager have to divide the workforce to 3 shifts per day, the first from 7:00am to 3:00pm, the second from 3:00pm to 11:00pm, and the last one from 11:00pm to 7:00am. In one shift, they have 4 persons in the kitchen, 3 persons in reception counter, 2 persons do errands work like clear the tables, throw wastes, put stock in and out, ect. The McDonalds' manager usually recruit young people and adult people for kitchen and counter positions. For kitchen position, male was more preferred because of job require have good health to work in hot, fast, and accuracy environment in long time. Female employees as usually work in reception counter, this positions have some requirements suck as can use the counter and enter customer's order fast and correctly. The counter also require out looking. The elder employees were arranged to work at errands work positions which is not much requirements on health, speed and accuracy.
1.2 McDonalds and Motivation Theories
This organization has based its success on motivation theories have changed some aspects of them. Using the full resources of an organization is one of the most important advantage, allowing the company to occupy the leading position in world markets. 'McDonalds' inspection personnel as their main source of progress in the field of quality and productivity. The McDonalds' company flourishes because of the integration of appropriate staff to solve problems. The company complies with the principle: 'The result is done by a man'. 'McDonalds' adheres to four simple principles, which give the possibility to increase the performance of its employees:
-The company must have highly structured systems of motivation for each department.
-The personnel must have clear and realistic aims.
-The aims must change: managers should have one aim for half of a year.
-The rise of salary amount must be sensible for an employee.
'McDonalds' company apply the three components of the system dynamics: financial incentives, not financial incentives, and social policy. All three factors are described in the theoretical hierarchy of motivation, Maslow's needs. This hierarchy has five levels of human needs and a degree must be completed to move to the next level of the system. hierarchy starts with physiological level which is basically the normal demand. Once this is completed the next level is safety, where the staff must feel safe and personal finance to move to the next level of needs, but social needs ", following that self-esteem and then self-realization. The study of ' McDonalds' company, its strategy and showed that only one structure simultaneously the needs of employees will increase the performance of staff. It is not necessary to perform all of the needs of all levels. In fact the staff have a set of needs in each particular moment.
Man is the most important resources of an organization. They ensure the interaction of financial, industrial, and other resources to the organization can function. Today, the management experience to realize that the financial rewards can not only in the category of a staff incentive. Employees need to be considered as an entity led to the search engines non-financial. There are many engines did not exist a financial connection with the satisfaction of the needs of employees, such as recognition of his participation, decided to perform the growth of individuals, and others .
McDonalds 'also applies the theory of two factors' written by Frederick Herzberg, which clearly distinguish the difference between satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the two factors "driving force" and "hygiene factors '. Just to improve wages, and state security (hygiene factors) does not encourage the employees. It just makes people less satisfied with their work and it will not help increase yield. To increase output, managers need to give positive feedback to employees and encourage them to do the best possible. This suggests that employees are recognized for their work they do, thereby increasing their motivation.
2. Recruitment and Selection:
McDonalds in recruitment process is decentralized. Every branch of McDonalds is to hire independent workers. Usually employees are hired at McDonalds in a form of heraldry. Besides the change of personnel in the McDonalds franchise was held for the recruitment of staff. A typical McDonald's restaurant can use around 60 people including management and staff on the floor.
With 500,000 employees serving more than 90,000 branches worldwide, McDonald's Restaurant Group is the world's largest employer and second largest in the United States, after Wal-Mart. Based on studies of the BCC-channel, fully 12.5 percent of American workers have received their first job from McDonald's. To improve the quality of staff, Richard Floersch, who participated in the McDonald's in 1993 as vice president of human resources of McDonald's Corporation, is determined to change the old system.
Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes checking the position, considering the source of suitable candidates, making contact with the candidate attracts applications from them, hear a short interview and final Induction of candidates selected in the company's budget office.
In conditions of employment, give the shift of the needs of employees better compensation and benefits, especially health care, the first Floerch enforcement action is to upgrade the health care system employees worldwide. Cooperation with other corporations such as IBM, Ford, and GM, to bargain with insurance companies to offer a lower rate for employees. The new plan called "Affordable Healthcare Solutions" to attract more people to participate in the workforce and retain talent within the company. Floersch estimated that 30-40 percent of the chain operator plans to buy the box of McDonald's corporate health care for workers by the hour, and 75 percent of franchises are part of the supply coop coverage of medical management.
In addition to the plan aimed at existing employees, McDonald's refined its recruitment process for building "a pipeline of quality candidates," the report Floersch. McDonald's also created a questionnaire and crew management if potential candidates interested in working on the team and feel comfortable interacting with customers. McDonald's UK also pioneered information kiosks on the street, called 'iPlus Points, recruitment advertising.
Description of candidate positions and parameters underlying the job ad. When advertising jobs in writing to the department of human resources at McDonald's decided to feature in a location that can attract potential candidates. To recruit good candidates to review McDonald's knowledge, skills, qualifications and other personal characteristics required for a current position. All job descriptions are specified in advance and the efforts of organizations that are targeted to the choice of suitable candidates. Hence the opportunity for a highly effective recruiting more significant.
Framework of job advertisements include a number of steps such as introducing the purpose and organization of its activities in the short form of reference; provide full information employment; outlines specific skills , knowledge, abilities and personal characteristics of people with jobs must have; stating the terms and conditions of employment, specifying how and where job applications must be submitted.
A big responsibility in employees' selection process is undertaken by the human resources management department because there are some steps in the selection process as preliminary interview, selection tests, employment interview, reference and background analysis, physical examination, job offer and employment contract.
To be part of the organization's environment, the candidates can choose either to apply online on the McDonald's website or go personally to the company and hand in the CV. When applying online for a job the applicant needs to register and have an account in order to fill some steps as personal information, education, qualifications, employment history, availability, references and additional information. Then the candidate has to answer some questions regarding his personality and some tense situations he may deal with at work; thus McDonald's finds out a little more about the candidate.
If the outcome of the application form is positive, the candidate will be invited by the recruiter for an interview with the manager. In the same time the candidate's references are checked at the source such as the previous employers.
The manager has to convince himself about the credibility of the information written in the candidate's CV and application form and he conducts an entire set of questions regarding studies, qualifications, experience. The applicant needs to impress the manager with his attitude and positive view on things.
As a last level of selection process the candidate has to solve an online practical examination regarding the food safety and hygiene. If he passes the online examination, the applicant is invited by the employer to sign the contract and be told when to start work.
3. Company Background and Competitors Analysis :
3.1 Company Background:
McDonald's story started about 50 years ago in San Bernadio, California. Ray Kroc was a salesman, specializing in providing "milkshake - milk shake before drinking and food mix" for a food store to serve customers and drive through the two brothers Dick and Mac McDonald. Kroc estimated that the store is sure to sell over 2,000 boxes every month and since then milkshake, Kroc curious to know more why the business of the two McDonald brothers prospered so again. He visited the shop "quick service" and extremely amazed by the speed here Hamburger serving: 15 seconds for a 15 cent hamburger with potatoes and milk shakes. Kroc saw growth potential of the business and decided to participate. McDonald brothers agreed with the suggestions of the Kroc bought the copyright of "fast food shops." And April 15, 1955, Kroc opened McDonald's fast food for the first time in Des Plaines, a suburb north of Chicago. With the fast pace of development, the system stores sell McDonald's hamburgers over 100 million units within the first 3 years and 100 McDonald's first opened four years later, in 1959. By 1961, Kroc paid 2.7 million dollars to buy all of the rights from the McDonald brothers in 1963 and to sell a billion hamburgers a second was broadcast live on television advertising in rush hours. McDonald's not only popular in America but also quickly gained success in international markets such as Canada, Japan, Australia and Germany. Today, there are about 1.5 million people work for McDonald's worldwide. McDonald's is just beginning an American phenomenon but now it has become a truly international brand.
3.2 Competitors Analysis :
KFC and Bugger King consider are two main competitors generally identified with McDonalds. They have different strength on different market segment such as KFC is the leader company that provide fried chicken and it has a very long history in the fast food provider. KFC has the secret recipe of 11 herbs and spices to made it become the most famous in fried chicken. As for Burger King they have their own recipe for varieties type of burgers adopt any customer's taste.
The Burger King company is considered like the world's largest burger restaurant chain They have some strength points such as created a good website and at the Burger King restaurant also sell video game with purchase of a value meal, while the games are now unavailable in store, is still selling the game through its online store. But like the other, Bugger King also have some weaknesses like they sell almost about the burger, customer have no much choice for choosing their foods. While people are more concerning to healthy and nutrition food, but the first image of Burger King give to customer is junk food. This image of burger is unhealthy food.
As part of KFC policy employees undergo several trainings at different levels before they get promotion . In the same way , the general managers they employ on their branches must have acquired appropriate training and experience from the company . Likewise , all franchisers as part of the agreement have to undertake courses at Yum ! University to obtain familiarity with the culture of the Kentucky. In this way, both emigrants and immigrants will have the opportunity to incorporate the culture of KFC and their own culture to suit to the taste of their clientele. The training employed for both franchise and non-franchise managers are on the same basis that everyone is required to attend trainings held at the company 's headquarter at Louisville. Likewise , these front line people will take the responsibility in providing trainings for their employees using training manuals and product guides. In that way , the top management is assured that the KFC culture penetrates another culture effectively.
According the year 2009, the global economic was affected by economic crises. But for fast food industry, economic crises is a opportunity because fast food is such a integral part of many people's diets that they will continue purchasing it no matter what. Others who usually don't buy it will turn to fast food as a kind of comfort food in uncertain time. In order to get out of deficit, McDonald's company have remake their marketing strategy to suit with the economic. This report was showed how McDonald's company developed their HRM issue and applied it to business. Follow financial performance in 2009, The U.S., Europe and APMEA segments account for 35%, 41% and 19% of total revenues, respectively. France, Germany and the United Kingdom (U.K.),collectively, account for approximately 55% of Europe's revenues; and Australia, China and Japan (a 50%-owned affiliate accounted for under the equity method), collectively, account for over 50% of APMEA's revenues. These six markets along with the U.S. and Canada are referred to as "major markets" throughout this report and comprise over 70% of total revenues, McDonald's company continues to reaffirm its position as a top fast food company in innovations.