The Different Organisational Cultures And Structures Commerce Essay

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This organization is a manufacturing firm. The organization involved high departmentalization,formalization and the system is centralization.power remains with high authority officers of the firms they are responsible to take all decision.good managers take a very successful decision,managers try not to implement ideas that deviate much from the status..There are strict rules and regulations in this firm that employees are always required to follow. Manager are concerned with the productivity no matter how much work force capacity does the employees have. Different tasks are devided among individuals.Employees are given tasks according to their skills and abilities,employees grouped their activities according to their deparments.

This organization is textile mill. This company's structure is flat, use decentralization, it has low formalization, and relies on participation of their all employees and then make decision. Here, however, management encourage their employees guide them and reward them for giving their best.Manager treat thier employees very well and dunt get harsh for their mistakes and consider their them a learning experience. There are few rules and regulations for employees to follow, managerz are polite because they believe their employees hardworking .Management is concerned with high productivity, but believes that this comes through treating its people right.Employees are satisfied with their work because they are given workload as they can easily complete it . Employees talk positively about the competition between teams. Individuals and teams have goals, and bonuses are based on achievement of these outcomes.


Organizational structure works within an organizational culture, but it is not completely separate.Organizational culture is more of a larger picture, a more general term it refers to a dofferent issues and problems have been creating within an organization. The structure refers to the infrastructure, and the various methods and practices within that infrastructure, that helps an organizational culture run with the efficiency and consistency ,whether it is in a corporation, sports team, or any other set up that is large enough to create its own organizational culture. How management works, what specific responsibilities supervisors have,what task he have to accomplish by keepin mind the the given criteria how a complaint have been passed within all oraganization these are all issues whichiz faced by the the organizational culture that are directly tied to how an organizational structure works. The structure is not limited to those three examples, but it would certainly include all of them.

Workers spending extra time in doing work they are doing over times to make their selves more productive and to get extra amount of money.

Workers want to enjoy work. They want to be interested in whateveri s going on that day, or long term goals.Being a part of that organziation the workers wants to make their experience better, which motivates them to be a more productive. The effects of organizational culture should help provide this setting.


The major factors that influence individual differences in behavioural patterns are demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality. Let us discuss them and they are as follows:-

1. Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc.

2. Abilities and Skills: Abilities and skills play a vital role in performing the job task.The manager always matches the job of the employees according to their skills and abilities .

3. Perception.employee always percieve differently according to the attitude of the manager.

4. Attitude: Attitude means to respond certain situations or person favourably or unfavourably.The attitude is formed by the behaviours of different organizations and our society.

5. Personality.Personality means the way person respond to different people.


What is Leadership?

Leader is someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. How they set that direction and influence people depends on a variety of factors that we'll consider later on below.

Theories About Leadership


There have been many different studies of leadership traits and they agree only in the general saintly qualities needed to be a leader.

For a long period, inherited traits were sidelined as learned and situational factors were considered to be far more realistic as reasons for people acquiring leadership positions.

Behavioral Theory.

Leaders are not born confident persons they learn how to guide persons working under them through their earned knowledge and experience .Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent.

Contingency Theory.

Contingency theory is similar to situational theory in that there is an assumption of no simple one right way. contingency theory takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader capability and other variables within the situation.

Situational Leadership.

The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.This recognizes that the leader's style is highly variable,it make decision depending on different situations.

Participative Leadership.

Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.

Traditional views of management associate it with four major functions:






The earliest views of organization structure combined the elements of organization configuration and operation into recommendations on how organization should be structured these views have often called classical theory.

Scientific theory.

F.W.Taylor is the foremost among those thinkers. He is considered as the father of scientific management. He considered men also as machines, well maintained machines produce more so also men.

He assumed there is one best method for every job. Ø

He introduced division of labor.Standardization of task. Analysis work ,and work

and time measurement Ø

He introduced the concept of fair day wages for fair days work.

Weber's bureaucratic approach.

Weber (1947) based the concept of the formal organization on the following principles:

· Structure In the organization,should be made in such a way each member should be given responsibility according to his skills.Tasks should be distinguished according to specialization,the organizations should regulate its functions according to the prescribed rules and authorities given to the employees should be according to their designations not according to the person approach.

Administrative theory.

The elements of administrative theory (Fayol, 1949) relate to accomplishment of tasks, the concept of line and staff, committees and functions of management.

· Division of work (specialization)

· Authority and responsibility

· Discipline

· Unity of command

· Unity of direction

· Subordination of individual interest

· Remuneration of personnel

· Centralization

· Order

· Equity

· Stability of tenure of personnel

· Initiative


Organization 1.

In this theories allow practitioners to abstract the events occurring around them in order to evaluate those events. Armed with the results of the theoretical evaluation, practitioners can then return to their concrete organizations with a clearer understanding of the conflicts and with possible ways of responding to them. Faculty evaluation in higher education is an area of conflict that can be addressed through the abstraction of organization theory. The theory of organization as culture provides a helpful framework for understanding the conflict in faculty evaluation.

Organization 2.


An organization is "a structured social system consisting of groups of individuals working together to meet some agreed-on objectives."2  Organizational theory (OT) is the study of organizations for the benefit of identifying common themes for the purpose of solving problems, maximizing efficiency and productivity, and meeting he needs of stakeholders.  Broadly OT can be conceptualized as studying three major subtopics: individual processes, group processes and organizational processes



Maslow was a psychologist who proposed that within every person is a hierarchy of five needs:

Physiological needs.

Safety needs.

Social needs.

Esteem needs.

Self-actualization needs.


Mcgregor is best known for proposing his two assumptions about human nature.Theory x and Theory y.In theory X he defines human nature as an irresponsible about their job activities and dislike doing work .In theory Y he present a positive views about a human acts that they perform their tasks willfully accept their work responsibilities.


Herzberg's two factors theory proposed that intrinsic factors associated with job satisfaction were what motivated people .


The three needs theory proposed three acquired needs that are major motives in work:need for achievement,need for affiliation,and need for power.


According to goal setting theory specific goals increses performance and specially when difficult goals are accepted the performace is better those goals easy to perform


Reinforcement theory says behaviour is a function of its consequences that immediately follows a behaviour.It solely concentrate on a people behaviour what happen to them when they do something.


According to this theory the jobs are design according to the work abilities ,skills,experience and knowledge of the employees.


Maslow's theory is highly recognized and implimented and have practising because its very logical and easy to understand.McGregor theory Y have positive impact on management its been highly implemented because its motivates the management regarding employees that they are serious and resposible with their given tasks,and they can face a very challenging task with a great efforts.According to Herzberg's management behaviour effects on employees if the employees are better rewarded they are highly motivated but if they have restrictions ,tensed enviroment bad officers behaviour with them that will let down their work capabilities.According to McCLELAND's people having need of achievement are the higly motivated employees they donot care about the rewards they wants to do something which is never done before.According to goal setting theory the challenging goals are superior motivating and they produce maximum output in organization.According to job design theory the managers design jobs according to the work capabilities of their employees.

3.2Discuss leadership style and the effectiveness of these leadership approaches.

Leadership is what leader does. He follows different styles in leading his team.

There were few styles of leadership discovered by the university of lowa.autocratic style in which the leaders only take the decision the participation of the employees were prohibited no interferance of any other member except leaders were allowed in this style.The other style Is democratic style in this type of style the leaders involve the employees and delegate authority and then use feedback for coaching employees,another style is laissez-faire style,in type of style the leaders let the employees to take the decsion on their own and then whatever decision is better the leader implement that decison.there are many others styles used by the leaders.i.e he infuence his team in accomplishing the task well on time under his guidance.He helps his members if they are facing any trouble.He has high desire for achievement ,leaders are ambitious and they have a great strenght to take initiative .They always wants to be on the top.they are very honest and polite with their employees .leaders are very self confident so that they convince their followers to follow them.They have to be intelligent so that they can gather and interpret a large amount of information.They have to make a correct and effective decision to take their organization toward success.Effective leader are well equipped of knowledge about the particular company or industry they working in


Different motivation theories have different effects. motivation has to be built into the structure and without the motivational theory without the practice of management. we have to learn a theories before we impliment them we cant practise it.

In order to be a a good manager or leader you have to be a good motivator, you should know the behaviour of employees that what motivates your staff and what doesn't. if a manager doesn't have a good techniques to motivate their employees can't perform a good, he has to improve the performance of the staff and motivate all of them.

4.1 Describe the nature of groups and group behaviour within an organization.

Nature of groups within an organization:

Def: A group is a collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals.


Help organizations accomplish important tasks.

Help to maintain a high-quality workforce by satisfying members' needs.

Effective groups achieve high levels of:

Task performance.

Members satisfaction.

Team viability.


Group behaviour with in an organization:

The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization.The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority.the employees are totally dependent on their boss so their own work capabilities are low.Economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees are security oriented and dependent on organization employee need that is met is security.leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees are performance oriented. The employee need that is met is status and recognition.partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization.

4.2 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning with in organization.

The use of new technologies can improve and in some cases hinder team functioning. As technology changes teams must update and maintain their knowledge in order to function effectively.  

  Technology on team functioning has been a big impact; members of teams can now communicate with each other about anything through computers. They can get their jobs done faster and easier online aswell , having a portable computer which is also known as laptop which is very demanding by team members regarding to store your data or you could store your files in a USB flash drive, this device is really small and portable anywhere you go.

Technology is found everywhere in various forms in small and large businesses, the service sector, and state institutions, manufacturing companies, educational institution, health sector ,multi-national organizations and the local shop.


4.3Investigate the factors that lead to effective teamwork and influences tha threaten success.

In today's workplace, the group leaders need to resolve the complicated issues. Leader have to be skilled enough to create positive working enviroment.He make sure that all members of the team are focused on the same direction.leaders is not capable all alone to meet too many demands, task requirements and varied sources of information he required to do it without the support of others.

The most important factor that can lead to efficient teamwork is motivation, it is a team leader's job to delegate tasks and to make sure that each member of their team contributes and is good at what they do.Another important factors which plays a vital role in interpersonal interaction.It enables the members of the team to express their feelings ,disclose their plans, share their ideas.

Leaders should build a good relationship with its members by making ideas together and supporting it,another factors is conflicts always arises no matter how the team members are loyal and sincere with each other .team members should always express their opinion without fear causing offence.its duty of team leader to sit with the parties of conflicts and make the differnces without faouritism They must be open and approachable.