The Developments In Information And Communication Technology Commerce Essay


In Today's era, generation is becoming very advanced every second and it is because of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which made them advanced in a very short span of time. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) captured a big market in several countries and though these countries are taking great initiatives in teaching this technology to their peoples and in fact made it the compulsory subject with other basic skills like writing and reading and mathematics. All government bodies including UNESCO, developed or developing, is taking this initiative because they want their citizens to cope with the developed environment and excess to all the difficulties in the upcoming scenarios in the society and this is the biggest aim of UNESCO. ICT can be used in various fields like in building the software for the multinational companies, for building software for education purposes in schools and colleges so that youngsters can go broadly for their job aspects and can work according to the needs of the companies and the society. It can help in reflecting the diversified national and regional culture of the nations as world is getting globalised day by day and the whole world is working as a whole community (UNESCO, 2002).

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Rural economies have an advantage of being technologically sound as it provides full connectivity to the world outside the country. Building of strategic objectives only helps an economy to cope up with the outside environment. Various companies and countries implemented it because it has certain objectives and aims because it provides full information to the users all over the world in a single click. It can be used as the delivery of information to other areas within seconds. It has the objective to overcome the problems of invoicing as it helps in electronic transferring and hence reduces the competitiveness. ICT has a major impact in three vast aspects which are productivity and innovation, modernization of public services and the last one is advances in science and technologies. It impacts the first one by enhancing the creativity in innovations in industrial area and management; it has an impact on medical health, transport and education in various ways like connectivity and technologies from different sectors and at last it provides the fully access to the technologies worldwide and the information access in the globalized sectors. For Instance, in the seventh framework of European Union main stress is on advancement is on information and communication technology as it has an objective to improve the competitiveness of the society (Cordis, 2009).

Information and communication technology keeps on updating day by day and according to this every country has to be updated accordingly in order to taste the benefit of these technologies. Like some countries being marginalized like Africa of their technologies used in their countries which are embraced with the latest technologies in transforming their economies. Developing countries like Nigeria, it is a matter of concern that ICT's and globalization led to infrequent inequalities in the distribution of the benefits within the developed and the under developed countries. This is not a new thing, Globalization, as it is in existence since 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century as well (Adeboye, 2000 cited in Ogunsola.L.A., 2005). It is just the intensity and the magnitude of inequalities which generates this gap.

Transmission of information through a system, information processing and retrieval, reception is done through electronic based system called Information and Communication Technology, which indeed changed the lifestyle of the people, their way of thinking, way of working and the environment where people used to live. Globalization covers all the aspects of social, political, economic and cultural phenomenon, instead of realizing it limited to financial markets. Information Technology word is a converted phenomenon of telecommunication and computer technology with similar characteristics and components which is recognizable by all and is going under many generative changes. As a result the trading between the boundaries of two countries and continents became amorphous and had an exceptional change in the capacity of transferring and processing of information. Information and Communication Technology is playing a vital role in globalization and is known as "the world's greatest machine" and hence is a very complex in respect of its various hardware and software subsystems. As According to Kofi Annan (1999) "the Internet is holding a greatest promise for the humanities as ever known for the learning and universal access to quality education. Developing countries gets a chance to set a rightful place through information and communication technology in the global economy and its greatest objective is to provide wide access to information as maximum as possible (Ogunsola, L.A. 2005).

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ICT's have a different role in different sectors but it is playing a leading role in producing, accessing, adapting and applying the information in society's and the organizations. This technology acted as a messenger for post industrial age, knowledge of economy foundations, and acquisition of knowledge and transfer facilities is due to this technology (Morale-Gomez and Melesse, 1998 cited in Ogunsola.L.A. 2005). Despite of geographical locations, income level and wealth of the nation, everything is shared globally. Not only business environment is changing due to ICT but also giving push to globalization with having drastic changes at a rapid rate.

Poverty level is continue increasing as the trans-national corporations is taking full benefit of globalization by extracting huge profits with the growth of the world. Poverty level is so high that around 45% people of the world, that is, 2.8 billion people are having the wage of $2 per day or less (Stigliz, 2002 cited in Ogunsola.L.A. 2005). Africa is one of the countries which are badly hit by the economic crisis and the increasing level of poverty. ICT makes a country possible to grow its economy and helps them to participate in the activities of the global economy. ICT not only helps in absorbing the knowledge but ICT could also provide opportunities to the countries to increase the level of their educational system, formulation of the policies, wide scope of opportunities for the business and for poor. ICT has various advantages like it could help in providing knowledge networking, knowledge codification and so on and in fact helps in communicating people from different areas. Sometimes developing countries have a limited scope of ICT and in turn it creates problems for the country to take part in the ICT-induced global knowledge based economy. Although it is a concerning issue that the unequal distribution of the knowledge of ICT may contribute to the marginalization of the poor countries in respect to developed countries which will lead to social impacts. ICT made the people to be slave of it or may be "digital slavery" may cause harm to the developing countries to cope with the economy. The influences of ICT on globalization rises a question that is it worth for the developing countries organization's and societies as there is a wide difference between the availability and the use of ICT. It is also a concern that whether the technologies or information sent by the industrialized countries to the developing country and how they can be made feasible to use in accordance to meet the socio cultural requirements (Walshan, 2001 cited in Ogunsola.L.A. 2005). Information and Communication Technology has changed the global economy a lot but various researches are also going on this matter as it a concerning factor to a mankind as people are becoming slave to the electronic technology and is also creating a division like "Digital Divide" which is the greatest impact of ICT. National Information Infrastructure (NII) had a need to be planned, designed, and implemented to come up with the important aspect of ICT challenge.

Slavery can be defined as the word given by the law for the severe inhuman behavior in respect of other human. In this condition one human being works for another human being without any wage like owned by the other. The slave is a property, chattel considered by the law whose most of the rights are deprived by the free human. There is no particular definition of what the slave is and the institution for which slave works is. But there are some rights for slave but not more than the rights of its owner. Slave does not have liberty and rights to do whatever he wants to and the geographically as he desired to. Slave had very limited choices not to work when he did not want to. By previous analysis one can say that how the characteristics of slavery can be best fit into the concept of "Digital Slavery". Every aspect has two sides like ICT also have negative aspects both in developed and under developed countries, despite of very beneficial uses of the same. A barrier generally helps to know the full potential of the thing like these negative aspects of ICT helps to know its full potential but some barriers are like generation gap, gaining experience in ICT's. There are some other barriers as well which are common in developing countries like telecom infrastructure; general literacy and poor computer, illiteracy of internet are some problems which act as a barrier in developing countries. Another barrier is less knowledge of technologies and gaps. Old innovation like telephone and electricity etc are still far away from the developing countries and whatever the infrequent potential size of the opportunity costs and benefits go waste in 'digital society' to participate. ICT is the sector where growth is non uniform and keeps on advancing and because of that there are various difficulties in the use of ICT across various countries. Factors like income, equalities, and development legs behind the risks in developing countries in the increasing stage of digitalized world. Globalization in terms of advantageous or threat in itself is a very broad term and the most powerful image in our time (Veseth, 1998 cited in Ogunsola.L.A. 2005). Globalization is a very vast term and despite of so many literatures on it cannot be properly defined. Some researchers state it the process carried on after cold war, a long time but some researchers even today state it with the term 'internationalization' to describe the current changes in the economy. Though various researchers and scholars defined that globalization does interconnections between countries and ICT helps in doing business across the national boundaries smoothly and easily. From the analysis of various literatures it is clear that 'Digital slavery' is not a reality except African countries (Oungsola.L.A. 2005).

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In 1990s there was a change from slow productivity to accelerated productivity and resolving this paradox of slowdown using the ICT was not easy and not seems to be resolved and could be explained through these three factors which are as follows:

First of all is that in productivity statistics ICT cannot be consider like ATM (Automatic Teller Machines) it can be used only in some OECD countries because of the improvement in quality. ICT has a problem of measuring aggravated productivity as it allows greater customization services which is not possible in statistical surveys. Second reason is that ICT takes time to emerge like the other technologies like telephone as it takes time to adjust it in CR 18, ½ 60 to them. For example it takes time to train workers according to the technologies. Third factor is that MFP can be lift in part by ICT by the networks it provides and again it takes time to set up the network in the economy. In 1990'networks have broadened due to investment was high of ICT, assuming that in near future computers will show clear productivity statistics (Hagemann, H., 2008).

There is long history when the importance of information and communication technology was realized. The use of computerized banking for the purpose of negotiating with big international companies was suggested to trade unionist by Charles Chip Levinson (head of workers federation of ICEM) in 1972. Bulletin board service and emails were developed by the trade unions when an international trade conference was held in Britain in 1992. The use of internet has increased after that only, according to one of the writer the use of internet gives an opportunity to rediscover the principles of internationalism by the trade unions.

Philip Jennings who was the general secretary UNI in 2000 announced that the aim of the organization should be 'on-line organization'. He outlined an agenda for the unions who were supposed to be web friendly that during disputes these unions can include e-campaigns, online recruitment, e-solidarity and virtual union branches (world employment report 2001).

Information and communication technology is used by the individuals in various forms for their work, it depends on the type of work they are doing and the type of organization they are working in. Like the individual working in real estate have some requirement for a particular kind of information. Therefore requirement shapes the use of ICT (Crowston, K. et al. 2000).

Spatial as well as sequential repositioning of work is easily allowed by information and communication technology and this theme challenges the idea of distinct working day and distinct place of work. It would not be fair to say that these changes have come because of only technology. These changes have come due to many reasons just not only new technology. Talking about the labor relations there is a new indirect bond between the worker and the company. These days the relation between the employee and employer is not like earlier days when there was a loyalty as an exchange for reward and job security, but nowadays employees have to keep them up to date in terms of skills and should take care of their career and life. As an exchange employer prove employee a good working environment. As a result of these changes there are changes in the laws of employment, social and welfare, this would lead to redundancy and casting up of the trade union bodies. According to the statistics collected by ILO is about the membership of the trade unions of 36 countries. As expected there is a decline in the percentage of workforce having membership in the trade union also there is a decline in the number of total union membership. This decline in India is from 26.6% to 15.2% over a period of 6 years while this decline is from 34.8% to 27.0% over a period of 7 years; decline in US is from 16.1% to 13.9% over a period of 10 years. We should be cautious in saying that this all decline is a result of advancement in technology because this decline may also be due to political as well as economic factors in the countries and also may be due to the economic depression and unemployment in several parts of the world. Yet there are some argument that there is a form of service delivery needed which unions may not be best suited to provide it.

Now another issue which should be considered is to what extent the needs are met on a group basis rather than on a personal basis. ICT helps the employers to maintain a data of every individual there they can maintain a close relation with the employees based on the data they have, it is a similar situation like data mining where a personal profile is maintained of every individual. This helps the employers to maintain the relation with its employees without any mediators like workers representative. So growth in the e-commerce and internet has lead to the disappearing of the mediators for example the flight tickets can be booked online, insurance can be done online without any agents in between. There are couple of weaknesses of the trade unions which played some role in their decline. One of them is the image of trade unions and second one is the weak internal structure of management. According to the Ulrich Klotz the internal structure of union is like the control is exercised from top to the bottom and it is easy to operate easily as long the market is smooth but now days the environment is changing. These days unions are treated service providers and the working framework of service providers are different so they need to work differently in order to achieve success. Another weakness is the weak international links and fragmented nature of trade unions, during the period of Foreign direct investment, globalization and during the during the expansion of multinational companies trade unions were only dependent on the nation stated so trade unions do not have international exposure. Also the employees were employed on open ended contracts earlier but now they are employed on permanent contracts. Therefore the conduct of industrial relation has changed a lot due to the changes coming into the industrial whether it is change in technology or change in the economy (Bibby, A., 2000).