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Increasingly, a lot of companies set up as the society develops; different kinds of good administration methods appeared to control the business, in order to make it run better. Since the companies are basically pursuing money, they have to motivate their employees, by doing those, the employees are more willing to work for them. Therefore, companies can make more money and achieve their goals by using some theories. There is one common theory that many administrators are willing to use, it is called 'Taylor's theory', which meant that all the employees should be motivated by money. Thus the motivate method is set out by paying according to how much the workers had done (NetMBA, 2010). One good example is the Apple Company, every employee in the company will be able to borrow one computer after they had already worked for two months, and after ten months, this employee can own the computer, this is the motivation method Apple Company used to motivate their employees (Zhuoling .H 2002). This can be called financial motivation. However, this method is not enough for the companies, this essay will compare and contrast the other two theories -----one was devised by McGregor , the other was accessed by Hertzburg. There will be advantages and disadvantages in making these two theories in use. The purpose of this essay is to identify them clearly and try to find out which method will be mostly fit for the companies.
When referring to the use of theory X and theory Y from Douglas McGregor. Theory X states that all workers are very lazy and they should be forced to work, if not, they will not be willing to be on duty and the company will suffer greatly, while theory Y prefers that all employees can be motivated by different kinds of factors and they are responsible. When these two theories are combined together, they would create a great method to administrate the employees, which means the employer can make some different kinds of strategies aiming to different kinds of personalities so that the employees can be motivated effectively. For example, Theory X suggested that workers should be forced to work, while Theory Y preferred that employees could be motivated by different methods (Hackman R. 1976). Actually, there is no conflict between these two theories, theory X suggest that workers are lazy, combined with theory Y, one way to motivate them is to put them into a higher position. For example, being a manager may be a common way in motivating the employees. Try to promise the employees that if they are doing well, they can have a raise. Otherwise, they may suffer a lot. This can also be called job enrichment, which means that the employees can attempt to do something higher than their current ability so that they may feel they are more important, and they will work harder, in fact, this will be a good way to motivate the workers. And it is going after those theories. If the workers are lazy and not willing to be on any duty, they can also be motivated using some other aspects. This can be one of the examples for these two administrating theory.
Some other motivating methods such as job enlargement and job rotation, job enlargement means to let the employees do more work in the same of a similar nature. (Hall,D. et al 2008) For example, the employee may firstly major in making chips, but now, the employee may also be responsible to work on the sauces, this may make them feel interesting because they are not doing the same work repeatedly, so that they are more willing to work; lastly, job rotation, which is similar to job enlargement, however, there are still differences between them. Job rotation means that the employees can change to another department from their original department, which will make them feel like they have different ability because they can both play important parts in these departments. (Hall,D. et al 2008)
All the methods above were set out by a psychologist (Herzberg, F.I. 1987), therefore, the theories above were specialized in dealing with the employees' psychology, and this can be called as "non-financial motivation" what is being introduced below is about the method of "financial motivation". It was set out by Hertzberg, for example, in this theory, Hertzberg set out some suggestions such as: To offer the employees some health insurance or health care, when the employees are well cared, they will feel like they are very important, and also feel that this company is a trustable and reliable one because they can think of caring the health of their employees. Another method is that the administrator will offer the workers a better working surrounding so as to encourage the employees, for example, a better working surrounding or some modern facilities. As soon as the employees are well encouraged, the working efficiency will be greatly increased and this will benefit the company a lot. Moreover, through these sensible measures, the employees will be more responsible because they will feel like more satisfied with their job and they will devote themselves into doing the job to get more achievement, which is totally fitting for the employer's idea.
There are also disadvantages in the theories X and Y, for example, some employees will receive the negative effects and some psychological hint, and their working performance will be even worse and worse. By that time, the company will suffer seriously because their employees are not well motivated. By the opposite, they are losing confidence in their work. If that situation keeps on, the firm will be certainly suffer a lot from this kind of motivating method.
One example can be used as a piece of good evidence in proving the motivating method from Hertzburg, there is a story about the company of Google, in this company, all the employees are able to have a good surrounding while they are working, for example, some rooms for them to play games in order to inspire their creative. And they also set cafeterias for the company to relax themselves as well as modern facilities, all the workers in Google are perfectly motivated and they are more willing to work harder, that is the main reason why Google is now still a very outstanding company all around the world. (Hall,D. et al 2008)
In brief, if all the companies are using the same method of motivation, such as Taylor's method, sometimes the cost will be too high, the aim of making the workers develop themselves into their jobs seems to be hopeless, when acting as what McGregor said, workers should be motivated by great pressure, the workers will not be satisfied and they will work with their bad mood, this can make the company suffer seriously, the best way to motivate employees may be using Hertzburg's theory, employees are always able to motivated by having a good mood, by then, the company will also be benefited because of this. In other words, non-financial motivation will be better for the employees actually.
Reference: [online] Taylor's theory (2010)
Available at: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/scientific/
Access date: 2011-3-16
[online] Stories about Frederick Irving Herzberg (Herzberg, F.I. 1987),'One more time: How do you motivate employees?', Harvard Business Review, Sep/Oct87, Vol. 65 Issue 5, p109-120
Access date: 2011-3-15
How Apple Ltd. motivate their employers: Zhuoling.H (2002) Commercial Research. China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House P 123
The employees in google company: Hall,D. et al (2008) Business Studies(Fourth Edition). Ormskirk:Causeway Press Ltd. P 377, Q3
Access date: 2011-3-14
The other two motivating methods: Hall,D. et al (2008) Business Studies(Fourth Edition). Ormskirk:Causeway Press Ltd. P 389-391
[online] (2010)The theory X and theory Y
Access date: 2011-3-14
The two-factor theory: Hackman J. R., & Oldham, G. R., (1976), "Motivation through design of work", Organizational behaviour and human performance, vol. 16, pp. 250-79
Access date: 2011-3-15