The Department Of Correctional Services Commerce Essay


Correctional officer grade 1 is the supervisory level, even though many are not having direct supervisees, progression to it was strictly time linked. It required many to have at least nine years of service to be a Correctional Official grade one. This tells you that these are the people who are having enormous experience of how to run ground floor operations of a Prison system (here-under referred as correctional system). These are the people who witnessed the transformation of the penal system, from brutal punishment system to the system that focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders. Officials who know the thinking of the offender, the practical know how of dealing with the offender, ranging from dealing with complaints, exposing the offender to rehabilitation programs to diffusing volatile/riotous situations.

One can add to say that this is the level where skills transfer is taking place as there is a lot of daily interaction between the new officials and the seasoned ones.

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One has noticed with disbelief the degeneration of morale amongst Correctional Officials grade one and the high exodus of these highly acclaimed officials. With what is noted in the latter two paragraphs, one can say this is a worrying factor. It is with this reality that, one can refer to it as the ticking time bomb, that motivated me to embark on this study. The importance of the retention of these officials cannot be over emphasized.

Kimberley Management Area, amongst the others including Kimberley Correctional Centre and Tswelopele Correctional Centre the two being the focus of this study, is faced with a mammoth task of officials who are under-performing, very dissatisfied, absenting themselves from work. There is a high number of officials who are talking resignation and this has been seen as not an empty talk due the number of officials who ended up taking the ultimate decision and resigned.

The main area of concern is who resigns, majority is Correctional officer grade 1s, putting a challenge to us in answering the question can the Department afford the departure of such highly skilled officials.

Many of these officials, Correctional officer grade 1s, have stood stand still for a long period of years in one position. Long period of years quantified in this regard, can be more than fifteen years in this grade in some instances. The officials have been very open in their dissatisfaction with the status of their immobility with pertaining to promotion.

The Department of Correctional Services was a closed department for a long time, with a veil of secrecy, the general public was prevented to know what is happening inside. Those who contravened were not free from reprisals. Even though the situation has since changed, the fear to reprisals to a large extent is still rife in the minds of these old vanguards. In respect to this inherent fear one had to be cautious not to set up a hostile atmosphere that might adversely affect the study, thus one had to protect the identity of the participants.

As tough as it was, one managed to assemble a research group representative of the two Correctional Centres under study that was willing to partake in the study anonymously.

One after conducting the study separated the results into two main groupings as mentioned below:

The impact of lack of promotion on morale of employees, Correctional Officials Grade One.

The impact of lack of promotion on turnover of employees, Correctional Officials Grade One.

What can be deduced from this study is that, lack of career advancement in an organization has a long lasting adverse effect in the continued effective functioning of an organization.

It is an irrebuttable fact that any employee wants to see himself/herself climbing the ladder in his/her career. This being an irrefutable fact, it puts an obligation on any employer to device the means to address this plight of employees to advance in their careers.

The employer, in this regard the Department of Correctional Services, must come up with a policy that will give rise to the career advancement of Correctional Officials Grade One.

The existence of such promotion policy will result in upward/lateral mobility of this grade of employees and in turn will uplift the morale and reduce the turnover in the Department Of Correctional Services at large.





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Lack of career mobility is a demotivating factor, which leads to the low morale amongst the employees and ultimately resulting in the employees leaving which is to the detriment of the employer. Resignation result in the loss of skills the employer took years to develop and investing highly in its employees.

This research seeks to confirm the above paragraph by scientifically investigating the effect of career stagnation on employees' morale and resignations.

The study will be conducted amongst the staff of Correctional Services in Kimberley Management Area. Kimberley Management Area comprises of the Area Commissioners office, Social Re-integration, Kimberley Correctional Centre, Douglas Correctional Centre, Tswelopele Correctional Centre and Barkly West Correctional Centre. For this study one will focus only on the two Correctional Centres, namely, Kimberley and Tswelopele.


Kimberley Management Area, which includes Kimberley Correctional Centre and Tswelopele Correctional Centre amongst the others, is faced with a mammoth task of officials who are under-performing, very dissatisfied, absenting themselves from work. There is a high number of officials who intend resigning and those who took the ultimate action and resigned. Many officials have stood still for a long time and they have continuously echoed their dissatisfaction with regard to lack of growth opportunities.


The study aims at answering the following questions:

Is the career stagnation the cause of high turnover?

Does lack of promotion opportunities cause low morale amongst the employees?

What can be done to reduce the high turnover?

Does the current promotion policy promote career development amongst the Correctional Officials grade one?


Primary objectives

The primary objective is to highlight the adverse effect of lack of promotion opportunities in the workplace.

Secondary objective

The secondary objective is to influence the Management of The Department of Correctional services, Kimberley Management Area, to champion possible policy change that will enable the Correctional Official grade 1s to achieve upward/lateral mobility.


Lack of promotion opportunities for Correctional Services Act appointees(Correctional Official grade 1s) at Kimberley Correctional Centre and Tswelopele Correctional Centre between 2006 and 2012 is the cause of low morale and skills erosion.


2.1 Introduction

In this ever rising global competitiveness, the employees are considered as the most valuable assets of any organization. The sustainability of any organization to a very large extent depends on its human capital. The organizations are even prepared to sign hefty deals to lure away its employees and former employees from its ever threatening competitors.

The organization can boosts of its "valuable sophisticated state of the art equipments/technology", but if it is lacking human resource to put those expensive resource to a good use then those resources are of no use.

The above paragraphs highlight the necessity of the endeavors at all times to retain this valuable resource, human resource.

2.2 Definition of terms

Correctional Centre - institution housing offenders/prisoners

Correctional Official - employee of Correctional Services appointed under Correctional Services Act , primary duties is to rehabilitate and guard the offenders.

Correctional Official Grade 1 - the Correctional Official on the rank of Grade 1, senior to Grade 2 and 3

Career plateau- stage where it seems unlikely to be promoted.

Career stagnation- state of no career progression.

Job enrichment- increasing of responsibility level to make work more challenging to the employees

Lateral mobility

Vertical mobility

Horizontal mobility


2.3 Literature review

McShane and Travaglione (2003:42-43) states the war for talent includes keeping the best people, not just hiring them. The knowledge that employees carry in their heads represents a large portion of an organization's intellectual capital. Long-service employees have valuable knowledge about work processes, corporate values and customer needs. Thus, knowledge management involves keeping valuable employees with the organization. 'At 5 pm, 95% of our assets walk out the door', says an executive at SAS Institute, a leading Institute, a leading statistics software firm. 'We have to have an environment that makes them want to walk back in the door the next morning.' The problem is that many employees don't return the next morning. Over 20% of call centre employees in Australia and New Zealand quit each year. The average annual employee turnover is above 25% in Hong Kong hotels and more than 50% in Singaporean hotels. One recent survey reported that 50% of Generation X employees in Australia would consider moving if approached by another organization. Why do people quit their jobs? One recent survey of executives in Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand sums up the answer this way: employees usually choose to leave due to 'push' factors- the negative experiences of the current job- rather than the 'pull' factors of a better job offer from another organization. This suggests that the main cause of high turnover isn't that other firms lure away good employees. The main problem is low job satisfaction- a person's evaluation of their job and work context. Employees become dissatisfied with their employment relationship, which motivates them to search for and join another organization with better conditions.

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Career development can be defined as an 'ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes or task'. (Greenhous & Callanan. 1994:7 in Swanepoel B, et al. 2000:436)

Career development in simple terms, it means providing employees an opportunity to grow, especially to those who deliver performance.

Growth means to an employee, one of the following:

Climbing up the ladder in the organizational hierarchy

On-going increase in remuneration

Acquiring higher level skills and competencies

Occupying higher level job positions

Having an opportunity to avail of some exclusive benefits

Larsen, 2011, states that we all want to see our work rewarded. It's only natural to feel good when a boss says good job or be told that you've earned a raise. Accolades or financial awards are nice, but we as humans need to feel like we're getting somewhere and making progress in our work-lives

Career development is not a mere management responsibility. It is a composite organizational process which involves people, addresses their ambitions, assigns them roles and responsibilities commensurate with their potential, evaluates their performance and creates job positions to accommodate growth ambitions of employees.

MacFarland DE. (1979:247) states that those who yearn for absolutely stable and predictable organizations are in most cases doomed to disappointment. Change is the most constant reality. The better the manager, the more likely the others will want that manager too. Also the better managers are interested in advancement and more likely to plan their working careers carefully and to make strategic changes.

MacFarland DE. (1979:249) further states that in most organizations, staffing begins with consideration of changes that can be made by advancing or transferring individuals already employed, a policy that is often called "promotion from within". Such a policy benefits employee morale by giving an opportunity to be considered for advancement. The internal candidate has a visible record, continuous performance appraisal, and a shorter learning time in new responsibilities.

Promotion from within encourages internal mobility and adds flexibility to the work of organization's planners. Changes that occur gradually and according to systematic planning are healthy in an organization and help create a climate of success.

We face a growing mismatch between jobs and available labour supply. Both are changing, but in different, often opposite directions. As a result, the job openings increasingly do not fit the available people. In turn, qualification, expectations and values of people available for employment are changing to the point they no longer fit the jobs offered (Drucker, 1986:154).

It is advised that, don't give new people new major assignment, for doing so only compounds the risks. Give this sort of assignment to someone whose behavior and habits you know and who has earned trust and credibility within your organization.

Promoted employees usually assume greater responsibility and authority in return for higher pay, benefits and privileges. Psychologically, promotions help satisfy employees' needs for security, belonging, and personal growth. Promotions are important organizational decisions that should receive the same careful attention as any other employment decision (Cascio, 2006:392-393).

Forsyth P (2006:54) cites that no one likes to stand still. People like to feel they are making career progress. The feeling of making progress is motivational. Taking on additional small responsibilities may be part of that. So too is the way you organize and use organizational hierarchy. Promotion is, of course, motivational. Grades and titles may be used to create sufficient levels so that people are able to rise and rise again. This may assist retention of good staff.

"The one who aims at nothing, shoot nothing all the time" (Unknown). Forsyth P. (2006:55) further states, work at giving people something to aim at, regular changes and evidence of real progress and they will stay longer and work more effectively in a job than if they are in a rut.

Organizations must continue to live with those who are bypassed for promotion. Research indicates that these individuals often feel they have not been treated fairly, their commitment decreases, and their absenteeism increases. Conversely, promoted individuals tend to increase their commitment (Cascio, 2006:393).

After attracting and developing employees, an organization must have human resources systems to retain employees. Employees' turnover can reduce overall efficiency, profitability and morale (Lussier, 2003:253).

Currently, one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation is Victor Vroom's expectancy theory. Although it has its critics, most of the research evidence is supportive of the theory. Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on attractiveness of that outcome to the individual (Robbins, 2006:140).

In more practical terms, expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal, that good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards like a bonus, a salary increase, or a promotion, and that the rewards will satisfy the employee's personal goals (Robbins, 2006:140)

According to the expectancy theory, the organization needs to ask itself tough questions like the one implied in the latter paragraph, does the current reward meet the employees' individual goals? For example the employee hoping to get promoted, gets a thank you instead. This will by all means kill the individual employee's morale and ultimately brew the desire to leave.

According to Robbins et al. (2006:455) research on the relationship between satisfaction and turnover is much stronger. Satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover while dissatisfied employees have higher levels of turnover. The organization typically does everything it can to keep high performers, they get pay raises, praise, recognition, increased promotion opportunities and so forth.

Probably the best theory of motivation is psychologist Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. He stated that within every human being exists a hierarchy of five types of needs (Robbins & Decenzo, 2004:280). Amongst the others this includes self-actualization. Self-actualization means growth achieving one's potential and self-fulfillment, this is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.

Research consistently confirms the equity thesis: Employee motivation is influenced significantly by relative rewards as well as by absolute rewards. Whenever employees perceive inequity, they will act to correct the situation. The result might be lower or higher productivity, improved or reduced quality of output, increased absenteeism, or voluntary resignation (Robbins & Decenzo, 2004:280)

According to Hellregel et al. (2008:273) when people perceive that they are being treated unfairly, they are likely to look for justification for the treatment. Failing to find any, they may behave in ways that harm the organization, for example, when high performers leave the organization, the company loses their productive talents. If dissatisfied employees stay, they may react by withholding effort in order to restrict output or lower quality. Being hostile towards customers is another way that employees deal with unfair treatment. Sometimes employees resort to more drastic, and even illegal, ways of dealing with the perceived inequality. Deliberate sabotage of equipment is an example of drastic employees' reaction.

Hellrigel et al. (2008:275) further states that positive reinforcement creates a pleasant consequence by the use of rewards to increase the likelihood that behavior will be repeated. Any reward that encourages an individual to repeat a behavior can be classified as a positive reinforcer. Some common positive reinforcers used by organizations are praise, recognition of accomplishment, promotion, and salary increases.

High performers leave because their aspirations for growth and recognition cannot be managed effectively.

Branham, in Bopp, 2009, in his analysis of unpublished research of Saratoga Institute conducted from 1996 to 2003, looked for common denominators and grouped the reasons for leaving to determine root causes. According to Branham's analysis:

"[I]t became clear that employees begin to disengage and think about leaving when one or more of four fundamental human needs are not being met:

The Need for Trust: Expecting the company and management to deliver on its promises, to be honest and open in all communications with you, to invest in you, to treat you fairly, and to compensate you fairly and on time.

The Need to Have Hope: Believing that you will be able to grow, develop your skills on the job and through training, and have the opportunity for advancement or career progress leading to higher earnings.

The Need to Feel a Sense of Worth: Feeling confident that if you work hard, do your best, demonstrate commitment, and make meaningful contributions, you will be recognized and rewarded accordingly. Feeling worthy also means that you will be shown respect and regarded as a valued asset, not as a cost, to the organization.

The Need to Feel Competent: Expecting that you will be matched to a job that makes good use of your talents and is challenging, receive the necessary training to perform the job capably, see the end results of your work, and obtain regular feedback on your performance."9

In fact, the number one response to the question, Why did you leave? was "limited career growth or promotional opportunity" (16% of responses), indicating a lack of hope.10By now, the reader might be asking-so what do I do as a leader in an organization to improve employee engagement and therefore increase business performance? IBM has used career development as a way to engage employees and increase satisfaction.

Healthfield,2012, states a promotion is viewed as desirable by employees because of the impact a promotion has on pay, authority, responsibility, and the ability to influence broader organizational decision making. A promotion raises the status of the employee who receives a promotion which is a visible sign of esteem from the employer.A promotion is a form of recognition for employees who make significant and effective work contributions. Consequently, a dilemma arises in organizations since repeated promotions generally place an employee in a management role. Employers are challenged to provide alternative career paths for employees who deserve the benefits and recognition provided by a promotion, but do not aspire to manage the work of other employees. Individual contributors must be eligible for promotions that recognize and reward their role as contributors. A promotion is a powerful communication tool about what is valued within an organization. Thus, a promotion must be available to employees who play any role in the contribution of work and value

Dwyer, 2012, states "The department that I was in did not acknowledge the skill sets of the employees there. They would go out and hire a senior analyst instead of promoting from within. There are employees who have advanced degrees and who have been in management that never get promoted. It would increase the morale of the employees if the company would start to promote from within."

Dwyer,2012, further indicate that when organizations have an open position, why do they hire outside the company rather than promote from within? Sometimes, organizations hire from the outside because they think it is easier or think they need a new perspective. That may be true at times. More often, internal systems don't work and/or organizations have little knowledge of what skills exist internally. Because of this, it is often thought that whatever the position calls for can only be found by going outside the company. Do you have a clearly defined internal job bidding policy? Communicating the internal job bidding process will help increase the internal candidate pool and encourage promotions from within the organization. It will also minimize the potential for misunderstandings. What will be considered in the selections process: qualifications, performance reviews, competencies, etc., How long will jobs be posted? Will the company recruit internally and externally simultaneously? How long do employees have to be in their current positions before being eligible to apply for another job? All of these questions should be answered as part of an internal career advancement program. Equally important to the internal job bidding process is having an updated internal talent inventory. A compilation of the skills, education and experiences of current employees will help guide workforce planning. Knowing what the position requirements are along with the internal capabilities that exist, will help increase the speed with which positions are filled, reduce the cost of recruiting, decrease employee on boarding and training time, and increase productivity along with company morale. Long term, promoting from within provides many advantages for employers and employees:

• When employees see there are opportunities for career advancement, they are more like likely to stay.

• Filling positions internally fosters a deep sense of loyalty and stability among employees.

• Internal opportunities incent employees to improve their existing skill set and acquire new skills.

• Newly promoted staff can assist with training their replacements.

• Being known as an employer who offers opportunities for career advancement is attractive to prospective external candidates.

• Existing employees already fit in with the company culture.

Recently different studies have shown that as few as 34% up to an amazing 84% of employees said they plan to search for a new job in 2012. It is becoming increasingly important to be known as an employer of choice? What are you doing to motivate your employees to stay?

Weaver, 2011, contend that every employee should know that their supervisor has a clear idea of where they want their career to go. The advancement plan could contain a path for a promotion or a lateral move. Having an upward or promotion goal gives the employee insight into the skills and experiences they must develop in order to achieve the advancement. Many times this will prompt them, often at their own expense, to take advantage of continuing education programs offered at Macomb Community College. The college has hundreds of classes available at their campuses in Warren and Clinton Township. These include computer, business, financial, language, and other talents that can help an employee better compete for a promotion. When they have an advancement plan showing the classes will help, they are more motivated to successfully complete them. As for lateral moves, business leaders should understand that today's Generation X and Y employees want to have a broad resume. If you do not give them the opportunity to experience different types of careers someone else will. What this means is that a company can allow an employee to experience a career in sales, marketing, finance, human resources, and other disciplines without them having to change employers. In both cases put your employees into a position where they can get exposure with other supervisors and in order to build their reputation. This will pay you back in higher levels of engagement, productivity, and retention.

In Nguyen, 2012, Kraimer, Seibert, Wayne, Liden, and Bravo (2011) discovered that employees who've been trained by their company will leave if they do not see any chance to advance. On the other hand, workers who see a career opportunity within the organization will stick around.

Further Nguyen, 2012, states that, training does not occur in a vacuum and, by itself, is not enough to retain employees, if those employees do not see career opportunities in their future.

Researchers defined two important concepts: (a) organizational support for development (OSD) as "employees' overall perceptions that the organization provides programs and opportunities that help employees develop their functional skills and managerial capabilities" (Kraimer et al., 2011, p. 486); (b) perceived career opportunity (PCO) as "employees' belief that jobs or positions that match their career goals and interests exist within the organization" (Kraimer et al., 2011, p. 486).

Most notably, the researchers found that development support was associated with reduced voluntary turnover when perceived career opportunity was high, but it was associated with increased turnover when perceived career opportunity was low. In other words, even when organizations provide programs and opportunities to help employees develop their skills, if employees perceive that career advancement opportunity is low, they are more likely to leave.

According to Swanepoel et al. (2003:399-400) young adults also tend to pass through a stage of trying out various careers in their late twenties, followed by stabilization in their thirties and early forties. This is in turn followed by a period of consolidation and advancement, without which the individual usually becomes frustrated, causing him/her either to stagnate in a career or to change careers.

Swanepoel et al. (2003:400) further states that those who fail to advance tend to stagnate and become disillusioned. They now avoid opportunities to learn new skills and develop a passive approach to their work instead of actively acquiring and applying new knowledge. The more motivated keep up to date in their career fields, while the innovators are constantly exploring new avenues.

An individual has reached a career plateau when the likelihood for opportunities to progress further up the organizational hierarchy is limited (Meyer, 2002:288).

Plateauing only becomes dysfunctional if the individual perceives it as an obstacle to further personal growth and such frustration leads to poor attitudes and diminished performance (Meyer, 2002:288).

According to Gerber et al. (1998:134-135) employees wish to have control over their own careers, and the new generation of younger employees wants greater job satisfaction and more career options. Being given the ability to advance increases the quality of work life of employees.

According to Hersey et al. (2001:71) job enrichment means the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in work.

Hersey et al. (2001:71) further states job enrichment may be illustrated by the experience an industrial relations superintendent had with a group of janitors. After a transfer to a new plant, the superintendent learned that the position responsibilities included supervising 15 janitors in a maintenance crew. There was no foreman over this crew. Reviewing the files one day, the superintendent noticed there was a history of complaints about housekeeping around the plant. After talking to others and observing, it took the superintendent little time to confirm these reports. The janitors seem to be lazy, unreliable, and generally unmotivated. They were walking examples of Theory X assumptions about human nature. Determined to do something about the behavior of the janitors, the superintendent called a group meeting, discussed some of the problems, and asked the janitors, because they were experts, for ideas. "Does anyone have a suggestion?" there was dead silence. The superintendent sat down and said nothing. The silence lasted for almost 20 minutes. Finally, one janitor spoke up, related a problem, and made a suggestion. Soon others joined in, and suddenly the janitors were involved in a lovely discussion while the superintendent listened and jotted down their ideas. At the conclusion of the meeting, the suggestions were summarized with tacit acceptance by all, including the superintendent. After the meeting, the superintendent referred any housekeeping problems to the janitors, individually or as a group. For example, when any cleaning equipment or material salespersons came to the plant, the superintendent did not talk to them- the janitors did. In fact, regular meetings continued to be held in which problems and ideas were discussed. These changes had a tremendous influence on the behavior of the crew. They developed a cohesive productive team that took pride in its work. Even their appearance changed. Once a grubby lot, now they appeared at work in clean, pressed clothes. All over the plant, people were amazed at how clean and well-kept everything had become. The superintendent was continually stopped by supervisors in the plant and asked, "What have you done to those lazy, good-for-nothing janitors, given them pep pills?" Even the superintendent could not believe what had happened. It was not uncommon to see one or two janitors running floor tests to see which wax or cleaner did the best job. Because they had to make all the decisions, including committing funds for their supplies, they wanted to know which were the best. Such activities, while taking time, did not detract from their work. In fact, the crew worked harder and more efficiently than ever before. This example illustrates several positive aspects of job enrichment. The tasks were redesigned so that the janitors would be responsible for the housekeeping of the plant- what is called horizontal job expansion. In addition, the janitors were given responsibility for making decisions regarding equipment, supplies, and methods-what is called vertical job expansion-previously reserved to higher management. Both horizontal and vertical job expansion are required to gain the greatest improvement in motivation and satisfaction. This example also illustrates that even at low levels in an organization, people can respond in responsible and productive ways to a work environment in which they are given an opportunity to grow and mature. People begin to satisfy their esteem and self-actualization needs by participating in the planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling of their own tasks.

Career plateauing is associated with stress and dissatisfaction. Unfortunately, this problem is intensified by the fact organizations are flattening- and reducing the number of managerial jobs- in order to save costs and increase efficiency. Managers will thus need to find alternatives other than promotions to help employees satisfy their needs and to feel successful, and employees will need to take a much more active role in managing their careers (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2004:59).

Kreitner and Kinicki (2004:59) further give seven managerial initiatives that may help organizations to keep older workers engaged and committed and their skills current:

Provide challenging work assignments that make a difference to the firm.

Give the employee considerable autonomy and latitude in completing a task.

Provide equal access to training and learning opportunities when it comes to new technology.

Provide frequent recognition for skills, experience, and wisdom gained over the years.

Provide mentoring opportunities whereby older workers can pass on accumulated knowledge to younger employees.

Ensure that older workers receive sensitive, high-quality supervision.

Design a work environment that is both stimulating and fun.

2.4 Conclusions

Through the literature study one has successful spelt it out that there is a correlation between the lack of promotion and employees turnover/low morale. It could be clearly seen that every employee has a desire to grow in his career. The desire if not that often result in increased employee turnover. There is more than enough literature speaking the same language as the study.

TABLE 1 Key issues in organizational career planning, human resource planning, and individual career planning

Organizational Career Planning

Human Resource Planning

Individual Career Planning


Strategic business planning



Induction and orientation

Defining staffing needs

Defining job requirements

Identifying relevant labor markets

Influencing supply of talent available

Providing realistic information to recruits

Validation of selection procedures

Socialization of new employees

Developing self-awareness regarding abilities and interests

Planning life and work goals

Choosing a career or job


Defining career paths

Job/role planning

Personnel inventories

Promotion procedures

Management succession planning


Identifying and defining career paths

Development and implementation of personnel inventory

Employee involvement in job/role planning

Validation of promotion procedures

Managing career progress for fast-track employees

Controlling and managing relocations

Locating one's area of contribution

Planning to achieve goals

Learning how to fit into the organization

Growth and development

Training needs analysis

Program design and development

Program evaluation

Personnel research

Performance appraisal and judgment of potential

Career counseling for employees

Defining alternative approaches for meeting needs

considering alternative approaches for meeting needs

evaluating costs, benefits, and quality of programs

Developing realistic assessment of own potential, managerial skills, interpersonal skills

Exploring alternatives for retraining and personal development within and outside the organization

Considering alternative career ladders within and outside the organization

Leveling off and alternatives

Job redesign



Designing alternative patterns of work and rewards

Developing policies regarding lateral career steps

Developing terminations policies to ensure legal compliance

Providing retirement planning and counseling

Late career individual assessment of interest or ability to cope with change, personal abilities, interests, and preferences

Letting go and retiring

(Cascio, 1991:241)


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Results obtained

3.3 Analysis of results and discussion

3.4 Conclusion


4.1 Introduction

The situation is quite alarming with regard to the turnover amongst the Correctional Officials Grade One. Knowing that these officials are the actual backbone of the ground floor operations of any Correctional Centre, this urged me to embark on this specific study. The study sought to establish the correlation between lack of promotion opportunities for the Mentioned officials and their propensity to resignation and low morale.

One has no doubt that the study was successful in highlighting this relationship. Thus this put me on the better position to come up with workable suggestions and recommendations to remedy the current situation that if not addressed have a very adverse effect on the continued functioning of the correctional system.

4.2 Conclusions

4.3 Recommendations

O'Leonard, 2010, indicates that the question of career advancement is on the minds of most high performing employees and job seekers. But to many companies trying to recruit or retain talent, this poses a conundrum. The mere mention of promotions may make managers squirm, because they know that the chance of promoting employees in the coming year is about as good as winning the lottery. The problem for many companies is that a return to significant job growth is still a long way off. Therefore, pre-recession rates of upward promotions, facilitated by an expanding employee base, will be unlikely for some time to come. Recruiting and retaining the best and brightest employees in this type of environment is a challenge, to say the least. Some companies are looking at ways to motivate employees with lateral career opportunities - moving toward a career lattice, rather than career ladder, model. This has a number of implications for the organization's talent initiatives. L&D programs must be adjusted to build a diversity of skills through job rotations and other development activities. Leadership development and succession management initiatives must also incorporate lateral movement. Career paths may need to be adjusted, and career development discussions will obviously need to factor in possibilities for lateral movement. The company's recruiting approach may also need to change to target candidates who are looking for a wide breadth of experience, rather than a purely upward trajectory. As an example, a midsize insurance firm reported that its recruiting strategy has changed considerably during the past two years. Rather than looking for highly skilled, upwardly mobile candidates (the target profile in past years), the company now looks for candidates with a more diverse set of skills who have the potential to succeed in a culture of lateral career moves. The firm's interviewing process now uses panels to incorporate a diversity of perspectives. The talent philosophy is to recruit for potential and then build the necessary skills in various disciplines. This is a very different approach from prior years and impacts nearly every talent process - from recruiting to development to career and succession management. As another example, we talked with a UK accounting firm that has a highly talented workforce of over 2,000 employees. Career paths and promotion rates are extremely important to the firm's staff, who have traditionally had high career expectations. In past years, high performing staff expected to be promoted up through the ranks to partnership in a fairly short amount of time. But as is the case with many companies, the recession has resulted in a business contraction and the firm is expecting slower growth over the next few years. Far fewer partner positions are becoming available, so that the track to partnership is much longer and more difficult than in past years. Recent focus groups revealed that many staff were discouraged by the limited opportunities for career advancement. So to keep its staff motivated, the firm created a new career development program targeted at Directors - staff at the level just below partner. The program provides training opportunities and access to different experiences, such as leading high-profile projects and cross-functional assignments. Coupled with this program, the firm is launching a new rewards and recognition program which contains a number of monetary and non-monetary awards. The new initiative will allow Directors to enhance their skills, gain broader experience and exposure, and receive rewards and recognition for their efforts, albeit without an official promotion. Through this combination of development, career management, and rewards, the firm hopes to retain its best and brightest through a difficult period of slower growth.

Chicago, 2009, states that for employees, an important aspect of the perception they have toward their job is based on their opportunity for promotion and career advancement. This is one of the keys to creating a "Magnetic Culture®" which draws customers to the organization and talented employees to the workplace, and sustains an environment in which they are less likely to leave, and for the gaming industry it is not any different. In the gaming industry, only thirty-nine percent of employees feel that job promotions within their company are fair and objective. In addition, only forty percent feel promotions within the company are based on performance. This research illustrates that employees in the gaming industry are unsatisfied with the criteria in which managers use to promote employees within the company. A commitment to promotion and career advancement in the workplace will enable steps toward the development of a Magnetic Culture® to raise the Engagement level of employees in this industry.The gaming industry can look towards the healthcare industry for best practices regarding promotions and career advancement. Over half of employees in healthcare feel job promotions in the workplace are fair and objective, which is over ten percentage points higher than the gaming industry. In addition, employees who feel promotions are based on performance is fifty-four percent, fourteen percentage points higher than employees in the gaming industry. One best practice the gaming industry can utilize to improve is to present employees with opportunities to further their education, thus strengthening employees' skill sets to receive consideration for a promotion and advance their career. Another best practice for the gaming industry to consider is to provide training opportunities for employees as well as feedback to employees who previously applied for a promotion."Oftentimes, gaming leaders are not focusing on being an "Employee Developer" as regularly as they should with their employees" explains Chris Dustin, HR Solutions Inc. Executive Vice President of Sales and Consulting. "In fact, employees are less likely to believe that promotions are based on performance rather than a perceived favoritism if their leader is not working on a career development plan for their employees. Importantly, employees must accept ownership of their career development plan and work with their leader to achieve their career development goals such that career growth is possible" recommends Chris Dustin. Creating a positive outlook for the gaming industry regarding promotions and career development can be developed by approaching employees with feedback about the skills necessary to qualify for a promotion. These best practices are the keys needed for managers to develop a path for employees toward a promotion.

McShane and Travaglione (2003:314) indicate employee involvement tends to improve job satisfaction, organizational commitment and feelings of empowerment. This, in turn, reduces turnover and increases work motivation. For example, a recent survey of New Zealand companies reported significantly lower turnover and higher productivity in companies with high-involvement practices. Employee involvement is a form of job enrichment, so its benefits are apparent only when employees receive adequate training, are sufficiently happy with their work context and have high growth need strength.

It is an irrefutable fact that the Correctional Official Grade Ones are the most experienced officials in the ground floor. Therefore, we are left with no option but to ensure that we retain these officials in our employ at all cost. Thus the followings are recommended:

Promotion policy should be developed as soon as possible.

Such policy should ensure that there are at least two additional ranks between the Correctional Official Grade One rank and the Senior Correctional Official.

Progression to these newly introduced ranks, should be based on performance and years of experience on the particular rank.

Promotion to management echelons, to a large extent, should be based on internal officials rather than external candidates. Internal candidates should be given first preference for promotions.

The retention strategy should be extended to Correctional Officials Grade Ones not only scarce skills.

More real incentives to be introduced to reward loyal service and good performance, not to be dictated by the availability of funds.

Officials, who obtained new qualifications relevant to the services of the employer, should be appropriately rewarded in terms of rank progression or salary notch increment.

The salary ranges should be extended to overlap into management salary ranges, to give the officials the feeling that they are not stagnant in all respects.

According to Robbins et al. (2006:535) another approach to designing motivating jobs is the vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities -job enrichment. Job enrichment increases job depth, which is the degree of control employees have over their work. In other words, employees are empowered to assume some of the tasks typically done by their managers. Delegation of powers should be reviewed in the Department. Exercising of certain powers should not be concentrated only at top management, certain powers should be decentralized to the level of Correctional Official Grade Ones.

There should be continued engagement with this Grade of officials by management to show level of importance of this grade.

Programs to target low morale should be developed and implemented with clear targets.

The Department must buy into the employer of choice concept, the Department must be seen as carrying the interest of employees at heart.

In a society where most organizations are hierarchical, the inevitable result is that some people will not achieve their career goals. To the individual this may mean psychological failure; to the organization it may mean turnover and low employee motivation. However, one remedy for this problem may be to redesign lower-level jobs so that they will be more rewarding (Cascio, 1991:240).

Kreitner and Kinicki (2004:59) gives seven managerial initiatives that may help organizations to keep older workers engaged and committed and their skills current:

Provide challenging work assignments that make a difference to the firm.

Give the employee considerable autonomy and latitude in completing a task.

Provide equal access to training and learning opportunities when it comes to new technology.

Provide frequent recognition for skills, experience, and wisdom gained over the years.

Provide mentoring opportunities whereby older workers can pass on accumulated knowledge to younger employees.

Ensure that older workers receive sensitive, high-quality supervision.

Design a work environment that is both stimulating and fun.