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Within an organisation, the human resources department simply deals with recruiting the right people for each job. It also involves ensuring that training and development are provided to employees as necessary and keeping records of all employees, past and present.
'Human resource management (HRM) involves all the management decisions and practices that directly affect or influence the people, or human resources, who work for the organisation' (Fisher et al cited in Mullins 8th Ed 2007)
A human resources manager is responsible for managing and overseeing the human resources department within an organisation. Effective human resource management is achieved when the right mix of skills, knowledge and attributes of the staff meet the needs of the organisation. The human resource management within the hospitality industry is complex because its aims to balance the needs of everyone - the employees, the employers and their customers.
There are two major approaches that influence human resource management
The unitary perspective and the pluralistic perspective.
The unitary perspective, the organisation is viewed as integrated and harmonious with managers and other staff sharing common interests and objectives (Mullins 2007) With the unitary perspective, among the management and staff of an organisation there is loyalty, the spirit of teamwork and the general acceptance of one leading all.
The pluralistic perspective views the organisation as made up of competing groups unlike the unitary approach they have their own separate interests and objectives (Alan Fox cited in Mullins 2007) This approach believes that the achievement of management and other staff in agreement and stability in employee relations is the best way to balance the demands of competing groups but it also recognises that conflicts within an organisation is something that is unavoidable but can cause effective change. According to Fox (1966) the pluralistic perspective is a more realistic approach stressing the importance of seeing work situations through the different groups within an organisation rather than following the unitary approach.
There are also models that have been created to better explain human resources within an organisation . The one of most recent is the Guest Model
The Guest model was created by David Guest (1997) and its has 6 components
This model shows that human resource management is distinctively different from personnel management, that it adopts the unitary approach and the employee relationship is viewed as one between an employee and the organization.
Status and security
Return on investments
Source: Guest, 1997
Some of the main stages in human resources management include - job analysis, recruitment and selection, induction of new employees, and training.
Job analysis is the process of putting into detail particular job roles and requirements and also the importance of these roles for a given job which leads to a written job description.
Recruitment and selection
After a job analysis has taken place the next part in human resources management is the recruitment and selection process which deals with finding a group of potential job applicants and selecting the best person for the job.
The main stages in recruiting and selecting a candidate for a job role, are job specification, and job description, person specification, managing applications, selecting candidates - Shortlisting, interviews and assessment and joining the organisation and induction.
Job specification and description are generated from the information gathered through the job analysis. The usual information includes - job title, the department, the purpose of the job, specific roles and responsibilities. Person specification identifies the best person for a particular job role and the Seven Point Plan by Alec Rodger (1970) was devised to do so leaving HR managers to decide on the essential qualities a potential candidate needed for a job.
Seven Point Plan
The suitability for a job is usually assessed by looking for certain skills and attributes. Evidence of these skills required for a job would usually be provided in a CV.
A candidate may also be assessed on the basis of an interview. Interviews are a common part of the recruiting and selection process. Studies of the selection process have mainly centred on the validity of the process, in the sense of its ability to predict future performance. (Boddy 2002) Studies have shown that the interview is poor in reliability and validity when selecting the best candidate. (Wagner 1949) There are several screening methods that can assist in the selection process one of which include selection tests to check an applicant's knowledge of the job.
Induction of new employees
Once an employer has offered the job and the applicant has accepted the offer an induction process is absolutely vital for the new employee. An induction makes new employees feel welcome and settled in quickly at the organisation ready to start work.
To conclude, people are the key organisational resource, without them organisations would not exist or function. All businesses need to invest time and effort in the people that they employ if they are to use this resource effectively to achieve their objectives within the organisation.