The United States at one time was the leader of the in the flight of human capital known with some foreign resentment as the Brain Drain. This was large-scale emigration of individuals with much needed skills particularly in the tech sector. With so many countries in conflict or lacking in opportunities, it was prudent to migrate elsewhere. This was made easier if you had a skill that was in need in another country. Immigration was facilitated by the company needing your skills.
In the last 10-15 years experienced the exact opposite occurred to the United States. You could call it revenge or payback. Technological developments have enabled global distribution talent creating multinational corporations through globalization. Wage differentials have stimulated offsite software services creating this migration. Industries have been exported to countries like India, Bangladesh, and as far as China where it is cheaper to do business because they have an eager labor force. This created a huge problem for the US workforce. Too many jobs migrated overseas and they took our technological staff with them.
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Now we are encountering another problem global supplies of the best talent are already tapped or being used by the technology giants, and there are no significant new sources readily available in the near future. This implication for US trade and public policy are far-reaching. (Barr. Tesssler, 1996) This was predicted in 1996.
Oracle's Corporate Culture emphasizes a work environment where advancement is based on ability, contribution and results count. The focus is on achievement, and they help bring out the best strengths in their work force.
We applaud team efforts
We attribute our success to (and reward) individual creativity.
We foster a learning environment.
We invite commitment.
We shun bureaucracy. (Oracle.com 2010)
Oracle encourages their employees to move up within the corporation and transfer their talent to new projects, locations and countries. Oracle employee's lifeline is the company's software platform that affords them global access to company resources.
"Intuit culture places an emphasis on feedback and personal responsibility. Intuit also has several social responsibility initiatives, including paid time off to volunteer, matching of employee donations and employee-nominated grants. They also make donations of money and products to nonprofits and free tax prep and filing to those that meet certain eligibility criteria."(Intuit.com, 2010)
Intuit has been named the most admired software company in America by Fortune Magazine and usually ranks pretty high in their list of "best places to work".
"Cognizant Culture is emphasizes empowerment of the individual to make decisions in the best interests of the client. Importantly, it also rewards personal achievement and contribution, financially and through public recognition. (Cognizant.com, 2010)"
Currently the trend has been not only to utilize our global sources of talent but also to halt the reverse brain drain and job loss industrialized nationals have been experiencing with the end result to bring talent back to our shores. Cognizant Technology Solutions is among the top 10 companies receiving H-1B visas to bring foreign workers to the United States. They are a leading provider of information technology, consulting, and business process outsourcing services. Cognizant's is dedicated facilitating global technology and innovation. They have worldwide resources working with clients to make their businesses stronger. They have over 50 global delivery centers to keep pace with demand. This keeps their presence global while keeping the technology base local. Currently they are experiencing significant challenges providing enterprise to their customers with the continuity they need, regardless of their location.
Publishers of software such as Oracle and Intuit have to create products that accommodate local languages and needs. This is easier for them to do locally in the host country and is a likely stepping stone Global sourcing. Intuit's product for a German's personal finances for instance is different from an American. Intuit found that making the process cheaper would be easier if they could be sources locally also. ((Erickson, 2007)
Diversity impacts the cultural of a multinational corporation and with globalization comes more opportunity. Companies become involved in complex transactions of a global business. They are also forced to adhere to various local laws pertaining to global trade, technology, antitrust, intellectual property and employment. A multinational corporation operating today profits from having talent from diverse populations and can take advantage of their experiences, insights, approaches and different perspectives.
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Countries, companies and individuals have begun to compete on a more level playing field. Countries currently hosting the companies while currently supplying the talent have an opportunity to expose their people to technology and different corporate culture. These countries market their people as sources of talent. That talent is being trained to work at higher levels for less money that the imported worker. In the end these countries are getting a workforce trained for free by offering their people at a cheap rate. At some point in the near future these companies that think they are getting over and making these huge profits will find themselves paying more for the talent that they are exploiting now.
Oracle and Cisco are trying to keep pace with changing and innovative technology by acquiring companies. They both evaluate companies they want to acquire by how they manage their people. They believe in allowing staff to be rewarded for their performance encourages them to be creative. Companies that facilitate their working effectively in teams use this as an adequate indicator of the company's ability to integrate into their corporate culture and operations. The human resources department has to take this seriously when put in to a global context with national cultural, language and legal differences. Bohlander states that "Today, more companies are preparing families by offering them cultural and language training." (Bohlander-Snell, 2010)
Globalization in the second half of the 20th century was mostly driven by large Multinational corporations. Globalization is increasingly influenced by foreign technologists who came to the US to study and work and are returning home to start their own companies. While this is good for the start-up guy, new innovation and free enterprise, this could be the death knell for the companies that expanded overseas and created this diverse infrastructure.
The new buzz word that might push globalization into the background is Cloud. Both Oracle and Intuit produced a Cloud collaborative Platform. Cloud computing is gaining popularity because you can have staff on all points of the global working on one project from a computer hooked up the company's network. It is an on-demand market and Cloud computing allows companies to enhance and revitalize their operations while positioning themselves for economic growth.
Cloud doesn't require local software so software incompatibility would not be a problem. Everyone will be working with the same software.. The user just logs in onto the platform and begins to work. With audio video or telepresense, face to face communication is made easier across borders. Instead of cloud it should be called "workforce without borders." Globalization as we know it has to evolve to keep in step with technology.
Economies grow in cycles and we have to manage out talent through these cycles. As companies venture globally their environment and culture will diversify. To better understand and respond to new markets diversity guides have been established to help employees transition into their new role as a member of a global workforce.