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Business Research will help the business to understand nature of the business and provide the solution to the users. For the research findings to be effective the research question needs to be prepared in advance and the research needs to be well planned. Further a proper research approach needs to be adopted and the research strategy needs to be implemented throughout the process. In this case Tesco has been taken to evaluation of the finance and operation.
Further the data collection need to be planned and the findings needs to be properly documented then only the Tesco managers can take a proper analysis. This report focuses on investigating how the channels of communication with employees might be improved in a multi national organization.
Objective of the study
The objective of this study is to identify;
The important of communication in a company like Tesco that is operating in more than one country.
The existing communication channels in Tesco.
The weakness of the existing communication channels.
the possible future improvements to the communication
Research approach/ strategy
The research can be done in two types namely Deductive and Inductive. According to Engel "Inductive research starts with data which are then used to develop a general explanation (theory) to account for the data." In other words, in conducting the inductive research, the researcher works backward aiming is to establish a theory by working with data alone. The reader should be aware of the fact that because the researcher undertaking this type of research does not have any idea of the generalization to be induced, there is no hypothesis. Industry research for chain of supermarket can be disposable income, GDP growth of the country, inflation, no of competitors etc.
The deductive research starts with the different hypothetical theories and tries to organize data in a way sufficiently robust to challenge each hypothesis: "Deductive researchers show their hand or state their expectations in advance and then design a fair test of those expectations (Engel & Schutt, 2005, p. 41)." Put it simply, the deductive type of research aims to gather empirical data so that they can be used to confront the different hypothesis. Gill & Johnson (1997, p. 32) put forward a framework to describe the deductive research process.
This research is based on the inductive type where I have gathered the data using secondary source and try to conclude on the effectiveness of the channels of communication in a TESCO. And the research strategy used for this research would be theoretical, using the writings of others usually without any direct involvement in observation.
Problem of the study
The main problem of this study is the data which are used to draw the conclusion are based on the writing and the research finding of others. Further it is difficult to the multinational companies have different way of operating and the communication channels vary company to company, so it is difficult to get a common communication channel to analyze. For example if we consider the traditional company they have a formal communication channels whereas a company founded in the recent have more informal communication channels.
When considering the literature the communications channels and their effectiveness, in the multinational organization.
Communication will helpful to design the disciplinary procedure within the company and to effectively handle grievances and complaints relating to employees. And further it is observed that employees needs to be informed about matters affecting the company such as how the company's performance and the required improvements, laws or regulations affecting company operations, new contracts that the company wins, and the companies plans to launch new product.( http://www.bizmove.com)
Further based on research done by Bertha DLL-Babcock & Richard D. Babcock, suggest that the expatriate managers make in their communication styles and methods that can be understand by the local staffs since the communication within the company is essential for the company's day to day operations.
Another research finding shows that the communications in multinational national companies are very important since the organization is operating in more than one country. Further they need to be efficient in communicating goals and promote understanding between different countries. (Keke Zhao)
The main reasons for the communication become not effective due to the barriers. These barriers can be language or the culture. Since employees from different languages unable to understand each other and the cultural background also affect the smooth flow of the communication.
Existing communication channels
When we considering the communication channels in a multinational organization or Tesco, most of times they are sing a formal communications like memo, reports etc. further the companies are using telephones, fax and e mails as the formal communication method to communicate within the company.
Further when considering the multi national company like Tesco, there are lots of expatriates, who are working for the company, so the company's management will be using a common language in the office in order to communicate with all employees, the common langue is English. Further the employees needs to communication between different divisions which are situated different countries. So the company needs to have proper communication strategy within the company to facilitate the communication.
Further knowledge sharing is essential for the company's operations irrespective of the type of the organization even though are trading. Tesco is using the intranet as the channel for the internal knowledge sharing. Further through the intranet the company can share the useful industry information from different countries. This will help the company employees to make timely decision. Company's are also using the intranet to get the idea / opinions from the employees regarding the company's operation and how can be improved. This will help the company to increase the efficiency of the operations.
The other method for Tesco is using their ERP system to communicate within the company. The ERP system facilitates the internal communication such as the production requirements (If any) and sale demands etc. Which can be operate by different department of the company. Further senior management of Tesco can monitor the company's performance through the ERP. When considering the multinational company like Tesco the management can view the performance of the divisions in the different country as well. Further the employees can also communicate with different department in different countries as well.
Another communication channels would be the departmental meeting among the employees, and the manual or the operating procedures. Management of the company uses the procedure manual to communicate the procedures to the staffs and monitor their progress. Further management have performance appraisals annually or bi annually in order to appraise the performance of the employee and to arrange proper training secessions.
When considering the communication within organization, the communication between the senior staffs and their subordinates are important since the organization's goals and objectives needs to be communicated properly between the staff members. Further communications between the departments are also important in order to facilitate the achievement of the objective of the organization. (Refer appendix 01
Data analysis is important for the organization to take decision. However the data analysis will be success if the data collection had been taken place in a proper manner.
When considering the data collection, the management of the company can collect the data through the observation, the management can observe the employees in different departments or in different sales outlets of the company, further the data can also be collected form the secondary sources such as performance appraisals reports , or from the company's intranet where the employees of the company allow to express their opinions, further the researcher needs to make sure that the data have been collected covering all the population of the company. Once the adequate data are being collected the management can analyze the data and do the interpretations. Further evaluators or the analysts, who are in Tesco need to see whether their expectations regarding data characteristics and quality have been met.
Choice among possible analyses should be based partly on the nature of the data for example, whether many observed values are small and a few are large and whether the data are complete. If the data do not fit the assumptions of the methods they had planned to use, the evaluators or the managers have to regroup and decide what to do with the data they have. A different form of data analysis may be advisable, but if some observations are untrustworthy or missing altogether, additional data collection may be necessary. As the evaluators proceed with data analysis, intermediate results should be monitored to avoid pitfalls that may invalidate the conclusions. This is not just verifying the completeness of the data and the accuracy of the calculations but maintaining the logic of the analysis. Yet it is more, because the avoidance of pitfalls is both a science and an art. Balancing the analytic alternatives calls for the exercise of considerable judgment. For example, when observations take on an unusual range of values, what methods should be used to describe the results? What if there are a few very large or small values in a set of data? Should we drop data at the extreme high and low ends of the scale? On what grounds?
Finally when considering the documentation if the research findings the researcher needs to consider the summarization of the research findings, and if there is any unanswered questions, then he or she needs to consider whether any supplementary analyses are warranted, further is important to consider the data variations and the possible recommendation or conclusions arrived from the research, by documenting the research, the another researcher can continue the research in the future. Further after the research all the data needs to be properly documented and filed properly since the data which was collected for this research can be misused for another purposes.
Tesco's financial statement's key indicators are shown belowâ€¦.
The employees of the company (TESCO), and their performance will be reflected in the company's over all performance. And by having highly committed and motivated employees the company can achieve its goals and objectives easily. So the company is conducting the training programmes, to ensure that employees understand the Group's customer service objectives. By having continuous training the employees will have a good career path, and this will motivate employees to achieve their targets which ultimately help to increase the quality of the service offered to the customers.
When considering the company's HRM practices, the company gives equal opportunities for all employees irrespective of gender, race age color disability or trade union affiliation etc. and all staffs are treated in the same level when considering the training, development and promotion. Further the company has an internal communication channels such as intranet and emails to keep inform the employees about the recent changes and the performance of the company. Further the employees are rewarded under different schemes for their contribution to the company's profit. And the company also provide saving schemes for the employees.
Method of data analysis in the qualitative research
Logical analysis/Matrix analysis
Typology: This is the a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if possible, often they aren't. Basically a list of categories. example: Lofland and Lofland's 1st edition list: acts, activities, meanings, participation, relationships, settings.
Taxonomy: This is the sophisticated typology with multiple levels of concepts. Higher levels are inclusive of lower levels. Super ordinate and subordinate categories
Look for indicators of categories in events and behavior - name them and code them on document
Compare codes to find consistencies and differences
Consistencies between codes (similar meanings or pointing to a basic idea) reveals categories. So need to categorize specific events
We used to cut apart copies of field notes, now use computers. (Any good word processor can do this. Lofland says qualitative research programs aren't all that helpful and I tend to agree. Of the qualitative research programs I suspect that NUD*IST probably the best--see Sage Publishers).
Memo on the comparisons and emerging categories
Eventually category saturates when no new codes related to it are formed
Eventually certain categories become more central focus - axial categories and perhaps even core category.
Look at event and develop a hypothetical statement of what happened. Then look at another similar event and see if it fits the hypothesis. If it doesn't, revise hypothesis.
Begin looking for exceptions to hypothesis, when find it, revise hypothesis to fit all examples encountered. Eventually will develop the hypotheses that accounts for all observed cases.
The ethical issues involved in analyzing the data
When analyzing data to conclude on the research findings, the evidence collection method needs to be ethical that is the by taking the evidence the company's confidentiality or the employees confidential documents should not be published. Further when collectiong the data the researcher needs act with integrity, that is he should not try to manipulate the data. And when processing the research finding the there is always a concern of the accuracy of the data. Further when selecting the sample it needs to accurately picked, rather than picking the easily accessible samples.
Further the researcher needs to protect the data, since some of the research contains sensible data, so having data without a proper protection mechanism is considered as un ethical way of processing data for research purpose.
When reporting the research also the researcher needs to act in a ethical way, that is the research should not use publications without giving proper reference to the author. Further the research should not be copied from another persons work. Further it should not violate the copyright of any publisher or company. Further the research should not be use to misrepresentation of the work done by another researcher.
How the communication channels might be improved?
The communications are key to the success of any organizations, so the company needs to develop the communication within the company. When considering the company like TESCO it is a multinational company operating in different countries. So the management of the company needs to have a proper communication strategy to communicate with the employees and get their view and ideas to improve the efficiency.
The company can use the modern communication method to communicate within the company. Some companies are using intranet facility to share the knowledge between the employees and to communicate the company's policies and practices to the employees. The company can also can have blog to get the ideas form the employees, for example the company AIRASIA have a blog where the employees as well as the customers can express/ exchange their views.