The Change Masters In Corporate Entrepreneurship Commerce Essay

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The aim of my review is to examine the contribution of the authors of the book and journal reference to assist me in seeking and examining ways to understands how firms and corporations adapt to the process and consequences of of change as a result of the complexities of our external economic and business environments, pressures and business opportunities combined with internal decision-making ranging from short term decision-making to long range planning and their impact on my own business and company. This is also an important topic under Organizational Behaviour on Organizational Change. I am the owner of an event management business and such a review would enable my firm to be prepared and responsive to our ever changing business environment having an impact on our products and services which must also be moulded and customized to suit clients' needs and requirements.

Rosabeth Moss Kanter holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship at Harvard Business School, where she is a specilaist in management strategy, innovation, plus leadership in organizational change. She is also the former Editor of Harvard Business Review from 1989 to 1992, It is remarkable to know that Professor Kanter has been named to The Times of London lists of the "50 Most Powerful Women in the World" and the "Top 50 Management Thinkers in the World". Amongst her many written work comprising of eighteen books are prominent bestsellers including "When Giants Learn to Dance, and Confidence". Her latest work are is SuperCorp: How Vanguard Companies Create Innovation, Profits, Growth, and Social Good. When she was at Harvard, she is chair and director of the Advanced Leadership Initiative, a University-wide initiative targeted at showing a leadership team of well experienced and qualified leaders aspiring to provide solutions and answers to tough national and international problems in the next phase of corporate life. Rosabeth Moss Kanter is a multi faceted management specialist and is an authority on Organizational Change, as her prolific books covers a wide range of management subjects. The author views herself, however, as a leader of thoughts and builder of ideas, and is famous for her nook on change management plus innovation. A lot of Kanter's successful effots are due to a fusion of detailed and vigorous research work, practical industrial experience, including her ability to write in a clear plus substabtive style, using many vivid illustrations.

Kanter has written and co-written msny books and more than 150 major articles. Her doctoral thesis was written on the area of communes, Her early books, completed during the early 1970s, were on the subject of sociological. The three publications for which she is best-known are "Men and Women of the Corporation", "The Change Masters" and "When Giants Learn to Dance". There is a logical sequence embedded within the books, in that the first book studies the stifling effects of bureaucratic organisation on individuals, whilst the following books go on to discuss avenues in which flatter, "post-entrepreneurial" organisations release, and consequently make use of, and exploit individuals' talents, qualifications and experiences. All the three books were exceedingly successful. More recent works include "The Challenge of Organisational Change" (with Barry A. Stein and Todd D. Jick), "World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy" and "The Frontiers of Management".

In my opinion, one of the the purpose of the book is to deal with individuals and groups especially in relation to the effectiveness of their management from their perspective within their own corporations. Examinations of individual structures and groups are made at organizational level and the limitations of their decisionmaking activities and organizational performances. It also evaluates the role of management as the pivotal decision making role in a corporation which exercises power and the corporate culture developed and the varying degree of aims to serve the purpose of bodning the policies, the structures and individuals so that all of them can perform with sufficient success. Particulalrly, elements pertaining to organizational behaviour are examined separately from the broader context in order to understand such components more easily. All the various elements are gel together in order to comprehend their inter-relationships ate organizational levels. However, Kanter managed to simplify matters in a clear and concise manner. The book attempts to address the above mentioned problems by focusing on the process of change management. Kanter views Organizational Behabiour and Development gtpm the perspective of a dynamic entity whereby the key individuals, groups, corporate structures and cultures comprise part of a evolving, developing, complex and dynamic corporation which has to react and respond to changes in the activities of competing economic forces of other entities and adapt to the volatility and instability in the local and global marketplace.


In The Harvard Business Review Journal on 'The Hard Side of Change Management', it is mentioned that "Companies must pay as much attention to the hard side of change management as they do to the soft aspects. By rigorously focusing on four critical elements, they can stack the odds in favor of success". The article were written by Harold L. Sirkin, Perry Keenan, and Alan Jackson Harold L. Sirkin ( is a Chicago-based senior vice president and the global operations practice leader of the Boston Consulting Group. He is the co=author of "Fix the Process, Not the Problem" (HBR July-August 1990) and "Innovating for Cash" (HBR September 2003). Perry Keenan ( is a BCG vice president and the global topic leader for rigorous program management based in Auckland, New Zealand. Alan Jackson ( is a BCG senior vice president in Sydney, Australia. More on change management and an interactive DICE tool mentioned discussed extensively in this article are available at The purpose of this article is to examine, to understand and evaluate the usefulness of the DICE Change Management Program in assisting organizations in preparing and assessing change projects within their respective organizations and entities.



The book attempt a best effort on addressing the impact of change by emphasis and seek to look at organizational behaviour in a very dynamic perspective whereby individual groups, structures and cultures make up part of a complex and evolving organization which has to react and respond to the activities, strategies and information of competing entities and adapts to the dynamic economical changes, market volatility and instability within the local Singapore markets and the global market place. In this review, an attempt is made to analyze the impact of the book on the pressures faced by contemporary corporations and business entities in Singapore and their respective identification of solutions and answers to the challenges faced in their continual quest for survival and profitability.

Although the contents in the book may be limited in scope to provide solutions to the enormity of complexities facing the overall economy in Singapore especially in the light of the global financial crisis, it foes provide a basis and foundation in the preparation for rapid chamges in the global marketplace and within individual business entities. The following articles would also proving valuable. "Men and Women of the Corporation" IS amother of Kanter's work won the C. Wright Mills Award in 1977 for being the year's best book on resolving social issues. It is a well researched analysis of the effects and nature of the power distribution and lack of it within the corporate headoffice of a large, multinational corporation (called Industrial Supply Corporation, or Indsco, in the book). The effects of lack of power on organizational behaviour are examined and the negative outcomes of disempowerment, both for the corporation and individual employees, are examined and clarified. Female employees were the most apparent group affected by lack of power within the organization, but Kanter also stresses that other affected groups outside the white, male norm, such as ethnic minority members, are included. Three main structural variables are offered to explained the organizational behaviors: • tstructure of opportunity, • structure of power, • proportional distribution of different types people. Before this book was released, it was widely assumed that organizational behavioural differences underlay female employees' general lack of career advancement but Kanter's study made structural issues important, and as a result the ramifications for change management were [ronounced. If all employees were to be more empowered, then in accordance to Kanter's study, organisations rather than employee would need to change. Consequently, the book ends with practical policy recommedations to create and implement relevant structural changes. During the period of writing this book, Kanter identified the requirement for organisational change to enhanced working life, institute more equal opportunities, and make better manage and utilize employees' talents within the company.

: "The Change Masters" presents multiples approaches to accomplishing these ends. Kanter compares four traditional corporations with six other competitive and successful corporations, described as "change masters". All researchess were compared with the results of many other corporations, and much other sources. From the six dynamic organisations, Kanter achieved a model for promoting innovation. Innovative companies were discovered to possess a unique, "integrative" style of management, while companies less likely to innovate were said as "segmentalist" insofar as they were described as compartmentalised into units or departments. The discrepancy commences with an organization's approach to problem-solving, and extends through its structure and corporate culture. Entrepreneurial companies: • performs at the edge of their level competency, focus on seeking the unknown factors rather than on focusing and controlling the known factors; • developing a Vision Statement (future projections) rather than by past standards (historical and present). Three groups of structures and processes are pinpointed as factors that encourage power circulation and access to power: open communication systems, network-forming arrangements, and decentralisation of resources. Their practical implementation is discussed Companies that are innovative were found to have a unique, "integrative" style of management, while companies that are not likely were said to be "segmentalist" insofar as they were compartmentalised by units or departments. Individuals are also capable of being experts in change. "New entrepreneurs" can also comprise of people who can enhance current businesses as opposed to starting new ones and can be discovered in any functional business area and are described as, quite literally, the right people.


The purpose of the journal is to highlight the immense difficulties associated with managing change. <oreover, it highlighted that part of the problem is the lack of consensus on the factors required for the successful implementation of such change programs.

The primary reason is that different organizations, groups and individuals perceived factors critical to such change programs differently based on their own respective backgrounds, experiences and qualifications.

The article also mentioned that in recent years, many change management gurus have focused on soft issues, such as culture, leadership, and motivation. Such elements are important for success, but managing these aspects alone isn't sufficient to implement transformation projects. Soft factors don't directly influence the outcomes of many change programs. For instance,

visionary leadership is often vital for transformation projects, but not always. The same

can be said about communication with employees. Moreover, it isn't easy to change

attitudes or relationships; they're deeply ingrained in organizations and people. And

although changes in, say, culture or motivation levels can be indirectly gauged through

surveys and interviews, it's tough to get reliable data on soft factors.

What's missing, we believe, is a focus on the not-so-fashionable aspects of change

management: the hard factors. These factors bear three distinct characteristics. First,

companies are able to measure them in direct or indirect ways. Second, companies can

easily communicate their importance, both within and outside organizations. Third, and

perhaps most important, businesses are capable of influencing those elements quickly.

Some of the hard factors that affect a transformation initiative are the time necessary to

complete it, the number of people required to execute it, and the financial results that

intended actions are expected to achieve.

A research conducted by the writers of the Journal shows that change projects fail to get off the ground when companies neglect the hard factors. That doesn't mean that executives can ignore the soft elements; that would be a grave mistake. However, if companies don't pay attention to the hard issues first, transformation programs will break down before the soft elements come into play. That's a lesson we learned when we identified the common denominators of change. In 1992, we started with the contrarian hypothesis that organizations handle transformations in remarkably similar ways. We researched projects in a number of industries and countries to identify those common elements.



Summary of major contents are as follows :

Part One :-THE NEED FOR AN AMERICAN CORPORATE RENAISSANCE-Introduction. Transformations in the American Corporate Environment, 1960s - 1080s.

Part Two :- WHY WE ARE IN TROUBLE. THE QUIET SUFFOCATION OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT IN SEGMENTALIST COMPANIES - Innovating Against the Grain : Ten rules for stifling Innovation . The withering of the grass roots : The fate of employee innovation in an indifferent environment.

Part three :- PLACES WHERE INNOVATION FLOURISHES - AND WHY - Cultures of pride, Climates of Success : Incentives for enterprise in High-Innovation companies; Empowerment ; Energizing the grass roots : Employee Involvement in innovation and change.

Part four := CAN AMERICA DO IT? REALIZING CORPORATE RENAISSANCE - Trying to turnaround an American archetype : The General Motors Story ; Reawakening the spirit if Enterprise : Toward an American Corporate Renaissance.

Major conclusions are as follows :-

Although the book emphasize on the causes and subsequent results of organizational change and the problems which need to be rectified by management, the range of methopdology examined is particularly diversified. It is apparent that there are many variations in assumption, method, and generalization of the conclusions reached which make an overall assessment or integration of the views generated by the different methodologies very difficult. In such circumstances, therefore, it may be highly relevant and appropriate to indicate the defining criteria which should be applied to the comparison and evaluation of the viewpoint presented. The basic and underlying presumption in change management is that the organization is changing for a better future in terms of success. Therefore, the book is an attempt on prescriptions for organizational success. The work of Kanter strive to identify the common denominator for a small number of successful organizations.Thus, by narrowing down a small number of common denominators, Kanter develop a vision or a target or an objective for corporations and an agenda for senior management to evaluate and implement. Kanter's analyses are based on the most systematic research methodologies but it is hampered by severe limitations because there is no further attempts to determine any contributions generated by the identified key success factors to the innovative track records of the organizations.

On Organizational Development, Kanter's work and approach is limited in scope and incrementalist in style and strongly confined to scientific social research methodology. It does not appear to place great emphasis on the creation of a particular organizational structure and practice albeit the fact that there is a prescriptive element within her approach. The primary contribution to Organizational Development lies in the identification of the most appropriate and relevant interventionist strategies, methods and techniques to achieve particular management changes. This is perhaps another version of the perennial chicken and egg problem. Because, without a vision of the type of organization we wish to create, there is very little point in choosing between the different techniques and without a comprehensive understanding of the manifold techniques and their capabilities, there is actually little prospects of achieveing the vision. Nevertheless, the matter is even more complex if we have doubts on the appropriateness of the vision of the successful organization of the future. This doubt exists due to the sheer complexity of the change process and the difficulties in isolating the role of the particular internal or external variables. Thus, at this point, a degree of caution and reservation should be expressed and applied to the generalized characteristics of the future shape of a corporation with products and services, corporate culture, people, , corporate structure, marjet place, suppliers, competitors, etc to name but just a handful of the important variables.


Summary of major contents are as follows :

The Four Key Factors :

If you think about it, the different ways in which organizations combine the four factors

create a continuum-from projects that are set up to succeed to those that are set up to fail.

At one extreme, a short project led by a skilled, motivated, and cohesive team, championed by top management and implemented in a department that is receptive to the change and has to put in very little additional effort, is bound to succeed. At the other extreme, a long, drawn-out project executed by an inexpert, unenthusiastic, and disjointed team, without any top-level sponsors and targeted at a function that dislikes the change and has to do a lot of extra work, will fail. Businesses can easily identify change programs at either end of the spectrum, but most initiatives occupy the middle ground where the likelihood of success or failure is difficult to assess. Executives must study the four DICE factors carefully to figure out if their change programs will fly-or die.

Duration. Companies make the mistake of worrying mostly about the time it will take to

implement change programs.

Integrity. By performance integrity, we mean the extent to which companies can rely on teams of managers, supervisors, and staff to execute change projects successfully. In a perfect world, every team would be flawless, but no business has enough great people to ensure that. Besides, senior executives are often reluctant to allow star performers to join change efforts because regular work can suffer.

Commitment. Companies must boost the commitment of two different groups of people if they want change projects to take root:

Effort. When companies launch transformation efforts, they frequently don't realize, or know how to deal with the fact, that employees are already busy with their day-to-day responsibilities.



Critique :

"When Giants Learn to Dance" completes Kanter's trilogy on the requirement for change which, she reckoned, United States corporations had to courageously face and manage in order to compete more effectively on the global marketplace. Her work is based on studiea from within many corporations, primarily through consultancy tasks and projects. The global marketplace economy is compared to a "corporate Olympics" of competing firms and businesses, with results determining which organizations, as well as which countries emerged as winners. My review also hope to highlight and appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of her book. In addition, Kanter's book is chosen because it provides an excellent analysis of problems caused by many corporations in the United States by corporate structures, career paths and reward system, corporate cultures and management styles which have failed to respond to new and changing business and economic climate in the local and global marketplace. Moreover, it provide a vivid and detailed illustration of the results that can be achieved by utilizing appropriate and effective change strategies under suitable corporate conditions.Other renowned management writers like Peter and Pinochot also make important contributions to identification or problems and difficulties faced by contemporary corporations especially under change management.

Strengths :

The games may be different, but successful teams do possess some common denominators such as strength, skill, discipline, corporate continuous trainings, good organization, and emphasie on individual excellence. To excel, American corporations would have to become progressively more entrepreneurial and less bureaucratic. Kanter recommended as a model for the 1990s the "post-entrepreneurial" corporation, in which three shaping forces would play the key roles: • the context set at the top • top management values • project ideas and approaches coming up through the organisation. Such a type of "athletic" organisation of this kind would be lean, flexible, and able to do more with less, and would seek to create synergies through the use of team and partnership approaches. The organization would be developed on empowerment, and employees would be highly valued within team-based or partnership relationships. Kanter picks out seven skills or sensibilities that characterise individual "business athletes".

These are as follows:- • ability to operate and get results without depending on hierarchical authority, position, or status; • ability to compete in a way that enhances cooperation, and aims to achieve high standards rather than destroy competitors; • high ethical standards needed to support the trust that is crucial for cooperative approaches when competing in the corporate Olympics; • a dose of humility, basic self-confidence being tempered by the understanding that new things will always need to be learnt; • process focus, that is, respect for the process of implementation as well as for the substance of what is implemented; • a multifaceted and ambidextrous approach that makes possible cross-functional or cross departmental work, the forming of alliances where appropriate, and the cutting of ties where necessary; • a temperament that derives satisfaction from results, and a willingness to be rewarded according to achievements.

Kanter analysis of the causes of the changes which have and continue to have an impact on American businesses is in a number of important respects simil;ar to other writers but her work differs in her usage of a more sophisticated theoretical framework. At the bery heart of Kanter's analysis of the role of corporate entrepreneurs and the organizational conditions under which they can gain the resources and support to "make things happen" is the distinction between "integrative" and "segmentalism". These are conceptualizations of a complex combination of corporate features. Including structures and policies, leadership styles, reward systems, decision-making, corporate cultures, level of involvement and participation. In addition, Lanter utilize the distinction to relate to individuals and groups within the organizations. 1. Integrative-peoblems are seen as a whole with all round implications in a multi-directional manner, fro instance, crossing functions and organizational boundaries and involving supervisors and manual workers.Any attempt to deal with issues in such a manner may result in inter-departmental conflict and may require cooperation between the different units and the development of a mechanism for conflict resolution whereby the exchange of information can be carried out by a neutral party in a professional and unbiased manner. It also requires diverse point to be taken seriously for the sake of decision-making. Integrative thinking can succeeds where there is a cooperative environment and an emphasis on team work leading to a high level of sustained innovation.


There may be differences recognized and even encouraged-an array of different specializations-diversity of people-but the mechanism exists for transcending differences and seeking a common ground. Units may be temporarily isolated to undertake an important piece of work without external interference ..but the isolation is only temporary ( Pg.26). Segmentalism-Here change is limited and innovation is restricted.It is a structure and an attitude that breeds a compartmentalized view of activities and problems in which issues are assessed as narrowly as possible and their repercussions on other departments, levels and processes are ignored and shut out.

Most of Kanter's studies are made on consultancy projects based on selected American corporations and have since beed superseded by far complex financial turbulence in the global financial markets albeit providing a basic framework for change management but may be inadwquate for change management in other countries particularly in Singapore and other Asian countries. There is restricted exchange of information across segment boundaries and minimal interest in cooperation because each unit is working independently and separately on a specific aspect of an overall plan devised at a higher level on the management structure. The danger is that whilst a segment may develop a good idea there may be a lack of mechanism and encouragement to transfer the innovative products or services to other segments for the broader benefit of the organization. Where segmentalist thinking is predominant, precedent, procedures and protocols are emphasized whilst innovation and change may be slow.


Critique :

The DICE Scoring System may possess limited capabilities in the sense that it ignores many other factors which may be crucial to change. Analysis of different forces and their direction serves to distinguish between those issues which senior executives may or may not exert control due to limited time and resources and especially external factors over which managers may have little influence expecially factors that are external to the organization. In the selection and choice of strategy over which managers must decide, is directly related to the nature and the workforce, the competitive pressures faced and the extend of the changes that the corporation has decided to execute contingent on these four variables and largely ignoring other so called less important variables such as structure, leadership and corporate culture may result in a flawed decisions as change itself is occurring in every other facet of the internal or external environment especially in the global marketplace.

Strengths :

"A company can compare its DICE score on the day it kicks off a project with the scores of previous projects, as well as their outcomes, to check if the initiative has been set up for success. When we calculated the scores of the 225 change projects in our database and compared them with the outcomes, the analysis was compelling. Projects clearly fell into three categories, or zones: Win, which means that any project with a score in that range is statistically likely to succeed; worry, which suggests that the project's outcome is hard to predict; and woe, which implies that the project is totally unpredictable or fated for mediocrity or failure. Companies can track how change projects are faring by calculating scores over time or before and after they have made changes to a project's structure, (Extracts from the Journal)".

Weaknesses :

There are three human factors involved namely integrity, commotment and efforts. Such a programme assessing change which focus on peopleattempt to make the organization more effective through encouraging greater participation and involvement at all levels of the structure of the organization. Change, for instance which have bearings on management style, communication and conflict handling are also vital as a pre-requisite for project of change within the organization albeit containing qualitative and subjective discretionary areas. Other programmes can also provide valuable input for management of change such as survey feedback and team building. For example, survey feedback is based on the longheld custom of primary research and involves the collection of information about attitudes in different aspects of the organizations. These statistical analysis are presented back to the researcher in order to provide a basis for understanding work relationships and the associated problems and shortcomings within the organization. The discussion and adoption of the results of such a survey feedback will go a long way in making an effective contribution towards a long term change plan. It is particularly important in highlighting the differences and discrepancies in perceptions although for top management, perception may not seem as important in change management technology or structure although it can have a significant effect on organizational behaviour wjich happens to be three our of the four factors listed under DICE. A case study occur with a small architectural design organization which underwent a development programme. It was differentiated by other organizations by its distinctive corporate culrure and structure.Specifically, the architecture professionals have developed a very open and participative structure with minimal hierarchy to complement the corporate culture. A chief concern of management focused on the speed of decision making and the effectiveness of management in a rapidly fast paced and ever changing work environment. Consequently, a standard questionnaire was administered to the active membership of about 30 which measured agreements or disagreements with statements describing the firm in various key issues including clear and agreed objective trust and support, effective management decision making and good inter-relationships at all levels.

The study rvealed a dicersity of opinions ranging from total agreement to total disagreement including statements as descriptions of the company. Now although such a result can be expected in a traditional hierarchical organization where positios from the bottom to the top should generate broad ranging opinions but was remarkably surprising in a cooperative organization with minimal hierarchy. It is interesting to note that one of the participant who had described the organization in very positive terms had witten on the questionnaire casting reservations on the questions asked which were thought to be highly inappropriate in a so called open and participative cooperative. Howeverm the reality for some of the participants was that the objectives were unclear, the trust levels were poor and that power distribution within the organization is unevenly distributed. Feedback from members on the survey serves to heightened awareness of the ways the corporate structures work in reality and practice rather than in the theoretical emobodiment in the organization chart whereby many members saw that they were excluded from certain key decisions whilst the process of decision makings were long winded and may incurred lengthy period of time on inconsequential issues. This case study serve to illustrate the many pitfalls involved in qualitative and subjective data especially involving people such as integrity, commitment and efforts for which measurement of such qualities is not an exact science dependent on the judgement of the key executives involved in data collection, tabulation and analysis. Any flawed or non representative analysis may lead to an inaccurate judgement whereby we may reject a correct project or accept an incorrect project.



Before studting a number of practical attempts to manage change, it may be useful to weigh the primary issues and arguments considered thus far. The toughts of futurologists provided us with the commencing point and introduction to recommendations and prescriptions by Change Management authors like Kanter, Peter and Pinchot. Whilst there are comparatively a large degree of agreement amongst these authors over the causes of relatively poor performances of American organizations and businesses,there is some degree of differences in their agreement around a common concern of enhancing the capacity for innovations in products and services and the structures and cultures of work in the organizations. However, many queations were raised about the practical applications of their offered solutions and also about details of their methodology in achieveing desired future outcomes. At this point the different Organizational Development methods were carefully examined in order to provide an understanding the technologies available for implementation of change. But before the recommendations and methodology of change can be coordinated in a concerted effort and brought to bear on a number of corporate cases of change management, the issue of resistance to change must be addressed. It is particularly important especially given the historical example in Western socities over the past 200 years when conflict and opposition had been shown to be as inevitable as change itself.

Lewin, one of the pioneers of Oganizational Development played a pivotal role in highlighting this issue and recommended a frameowk for managing the problem. He considered change feom the viewpoint of Force Field Analysis. This conceptualize change as a dynamic balance of forces pushing in different and perhaps opposite directions. At any particular moment, an equilibrium exists between the forces introducing change - technology, the values and expectations of the workforce, product life cycle and the forces resisting change, the comfortable familiarity and habit of established ways of working, , economic insecurity, threats to the power and influence of established individuals and groups. Globalisation, it is argued, offers an opportunity to develop businesses and give new life to the regions. From her studies of regenerative areas, Kanter suggests that business and local government leaders can work together to draw in the right sort of companies to create prosperity. European as well as American successes are used to illustrate the benefits of globalization, and the centrality of regional economies. All these mean that Kanter's book does have positive imp-lications for management practice especially in a globalized economy like Singapore.


Harvard Business Review Online | The Hard Side of Change Management

Calculating DICE Scores Sidebar R0510G_B Companies can determine if their change programs will succeed by asking executives to calculate scores for each of the four factors of the DICE framework-duration, integrity, commitment, and effort. The implications for management practice although a useful tool must be viewed with reservations. The evaluation of any Organizational Development programme is extremely hard, time consuming and exorbitant in terms of cost but without it there can be hardly any sound and reliable basis of determining the success or failure of any intervention and little prospect of learning anything for the future of the organization. There is a vroad variety of changes in which an Organizational Development activity such as the DICE Tool can set out to achieve. It is normal to determine between the two types of outcomes ie Hard Changes represent for examples , improvement in productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, profitability, turnover and absenteeism. On the other hand, Soft Changes involved organizational processes and relates to the levels of trusts and perceptions of leadership and management styles.