The Change Is Inevitable Commerce Essay

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The environment within which corporate organizations operate is dynamic and changes due to factors like globalization, the disruptive influence of new technologies, political instability, deregulation and other known factors. (Johnson; 2010)

Thus, due to this changing environment corporate organizations may need to change bothe externally and internally the way they do business in order to stay robust and enjoy sustainable strategic advantage.

The concept of change management cannot be understood without an understanding of what change really is.

Change is defined as "changes in the content of a firm's strategy as defined by its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantages, and synergy"(Hofer and Schendelt; 1978).

Goodman (1984) also defines change as the alteration from one state to another.

Similarly, Nickols (2010) defines change as moving from one state (A) to another state (A'). Moving from A to A' is typically accomplished as a result of setting up and achieving three types of goals: transform, reduce, and apply. Transform goals are concerned with identifying differences between the two states. Reduce goals are concerned with determining ways of eliminating these differences. Apply goals are concerned with putting into play operators that actually effect the elimination of these differences

Change is defined as a difference in the form, quality or state over time in organization's alignment with its external environment (Rajagopalan&Spreitzer, 1997 Van de Ven& Pool, 1995).

Change could also be an innovative way of doing things. It could be doing something new, replacing an old system with new one or modifying an old system to yield different results that shows improvement within an organization.

Change is inevitable. This means one cannot prevent change from happening because of our dynamic world.

Change management comes to play when an organization has determined or identified the need for change. In other words, there cannot be change management when there is no change in an organization.

Kotter (2011) defines change management as the utilization of basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. Change management's goal is to minimize the change impacts on workers and avoid distractions.

According to Akid (2008) Change Management is an organized, systematic application of the knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provides organizations with a key process to achieve their business strategy. Change Management is a critical part of any project that leads, manages and enables people to accept new processes, technologies, systems structures and values.

Lynch (2000) defines Change management as the proactive management of change in organizations to achieve clearly identified strategic objectives. It involves the implementation of new strategies that involve substantive changes to normal routines of the organization.

Lamarsh (2012) defines Change Management as an organized, systematic application of the knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provides organizations with a key process to achieve their business strategy.

The various definitions given above show that, there is no general or a specific definition of change management. Nonetheless, it could be deduced from the definitions above that change management involves planning, application or utilization (implementation) of resources, monitoring and evaluation of change strategies or process which involve substantive changes to both the individual level and the normal routines of the organization with the primary aim of achieving a specific business objective as well as minimizing the risk of failure of implementing change.

There are so many forces or drivers that cause a strategic change in an organization. Examples of these forces include technology, globalization, merging and acquisitions, business relationships, shifts in economy, competitive pressures, legislative changes, re-organization, working conditions and management philosophy. (Johnson; 2010).

Merging and acquisition was the drive or force that caused Standard Trust bank Ghana to change in the year 2005.

Standard Trust bank until the year 2005 operated as an indigenous financial institution in Ghana. (www.ubaghana.com).

The primary aim of Standard Trust was to make it possible for the ordinary Ghanaian to have access to banking services and also to create the savings culture among the ordinary Ghanaian.

However, due to the external pressure (competition) from other banks especially the colonial banks such as Ghana commercial bank, Barclays bank, Standchart and even Ecobank merging and acqusition was undertaken between Standard Trust bank of Ghana and United bank for Africa Nigeria in 2005.

The change in the year 2005 gave birth to UBA Ghana and the strategic intent was to make UBA Ghana plc a role model for African businesses by creating superior value for all stakeholders; abiding by the utmost professional and ethical standards and building an enduring institution.

Furthermore, the vision of the change was to democratize the financial services industry in Ghana with world class customer driven solutions. UBA Ghana is part of UBA group which has its parent branch in Nigeria. The group has nineteen (19) subsidiaries operating in 19 African countries and has agencies in London - UK, New York - US and Paris (France). The bank aims to do this by making financial services and products widely and easily accessible to all irrespective of socio-economic status and geographic location. In this manner, UBA seeks to bring financial services to the broad masses of the population and makes it entitlement of all. (www. Ubaghana.com).

1.1 Statement of problem

The efficiencies of private companies is measured based on profitability. However, in spite of the major strategic change that was undertaken by United bank for Africa (UBA) Ghana, the bank made losses from the years 2005 to 2008. Due to these losses, the bank could not publish its financial statements from the years 2005 - 2009. The losses were huge to the extent that in the year 2010 the income deficit stood at negative Ghc 11,598,303. Source: (2011 Annual report of United bank for africa Ghana).

In 2009, the CEO of UBA Ghana who had served from the years 2005 to 2008 NnamdiOkonkwo was changed and replaced by Gabriel Edgal.

Intensive reshuffle of staff, training and development programmes, improvement in conditions of service and revision of the organizational core values were done during the term of the new CEO Gabriel Edgal in order to position the bank in a robust state.

This major strategic change management in the year 2009 has chalked so many successes for the bank to date.

The bank in 2011 banking awards won a total of seven awards which was the second highest number of awards on the 26th of May, 2011. The categories were:

Winner - Best bank in short term loan financing.

1st Runner up - Best bank in corporate banking.

1st Runner up - Best bank in trade finance.

1st Runner up - Best bank in IT / Electronic banking.

1st Runner up - Best growing bank

2nd Runner up - Best bank in medium term financing

2nd Runner up - Best bank in long term financing

Source: Www.ubaghana.com

However, the poor performance of United bank for Africa (UBA) Ghana from the years 2005 to 2008 could be due to ineffective management on the part of previous leadership or other external factors in the economy.

In light of these circumstances, it is vital to critically analyze the impact of key factors in an organization that either impede or facilitate the strategic change process on performance and suggests pragmatic strategies for managing the change effectively in order to enjoy sustainable competitive advantage.

Therefore, United bank for Africa (UBA) plc. is served as a relevant case-study to enable leadership and others understand the effects on change management process.

1.2 Research question

What was the effect of change management and its implications on the performance of United bank for Africa (GH) plc?

1.3 Research objectives

The main objectives of the research are to:

Identify what factors led to the merging of UBA and Standard Trust bank

Enumerate and Analyze the challenges associated with the change

Evaluate how leadershipmanaged or mismanaged the change

Assesshow the leadership overcame significant challenges that emerged and how that affected performance

Explain the benefits of the change and change management if any on performance.

Recommend measures for managing the resistance and challenges associated with change.

1.4 Significance of the study

The result of this study will help management and leadership of organizations in Ghana to know what is required of them and be more effective during change management process. Moreover, the study brings to bear some factors that account for successful change management. It further highlights some challenges to strategic change management and how they could be mitigated if not prevented.

Apart from contributing to the rather limited literature on change management in the Ghanaian Banking Sector, this work could also be used as a source of information for researchers who will like to investigate further into this research topic.

1.5Limitations of the study

This relates to constraints like time, finances and even access to data from primary sources like interviews and questionnaires.

For instance some respondents misplaced their questionnaires hence could not produce them at the time needed by researcher.

Others were also busy consequently could not be interviewed.

Finally, financial and time constraints could not permit the researcher to read and print voluminous document for the study.

1.6 Scope of work

The research examines change management and its implications on the performance of corporate organizations. Nonetheless, it was limited to United bank for Africa (UBA) Ghana limited. The reason being that the bank has undergone many changes in its operations and thus the need to investgate how the changes were managed or mismanaged within the organization.

United bank for Africa (UBA) Ghana limited was born out of the merging and acquisition terms of Standard Trust bank Ghana and United Bank for Africa Nigeria in the year 2005.

1.7 Organization of the report

The research has been organized into five (5) chapters.

Chapter one comprises the background information of the study, definition of the problem, research questions and objectives, significance of the study, limitations of the study and scope of work.

Chapter 2 concerns the Literature review on the topic: Strategic Change management.

Chapter 3 deals with the Methodology and data collection

Chapter 4 concerns Empirical studies and critical analysis.

Finally, chapter 5 concerns Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

It is a succinct overview of what has been studied, argued and established about the topic. It also provides some justification for the relevance of the research by identifying the gap in the literature that the current research will fill.

2.1 The Concept & definitions of Change management

The environment within which corporate organizations operate is dynamic and changes due to factors like globalization, the disruptive influence of new technologies, political instability, deregulation and other known factors.(Johnson;2010).

Thus, due to this changing environment within which corporate organization operates, even if mission statements of an organization does not change its strategies and objectives need to be changed in order for United bank for Africa (UBA) Ghana plc. to stay robust, competitive and enjoy sustainable competitive advantage.

Hamel (2000) discussed strategic decay, the notion that the value of all strategies, no matter how brilliant, decays over time. The inference made from Hamel's argument is that for an organization to maintain industry leadership, strategies employed in achieving a specific task must be changed since it could even be imitated by competitors.

Change management comes to play when an organization has determined or identified the need for change. In other words, there cannot be change management when there is no change in an organization.

Johnson (2010) during his investigation into managing change argued that, for change to take place in an organization one must determine the need for it. He further argued that determining the need for change in an organization actually forms the first step in change process within an organization.

This argument was supported by Jackson (2008), Grant (2008), Goode (2008) and Kotter (2005).

Change has been defined by so many authors within different context however; a few of these definitions have been presented below.

Strategic change is defined as "changes in the content of a firm's strategy as defined by its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantages, and synergy"(Hofer and Schendelt; 1978).

Goodman (1984) also defines change as the alteration from one state to another.

Similarly, Nickols (2010) defines change as moving from one state (A) to another state (A'). Moving from A to A' is typically accomplished as a result of setting up and achieving three types of goals: transform, reduce, and apply. Transform goals are concerned with identifying differences between the two states. Reduce goals are concerned with determining ways of eliminating these differences. Apply goals are concerned with putting into play operators that actually effect the elimination of these differences.

Strategic change is defined as a difference in the form, quality or state over time in organization's alignment with its external environment (Rajagopalan&Spreitzer, 1997 Van de Ven& Pool, 1995).

The definitions of change given above show that there is no one-fit definition for organizational change.

Even though Goodman (1984) definition of change was succinct, one could argue that, it shares the same meaning asNickols (2010), Ven& pool; 1995, Rjagopalan&Spreitzer; 1997 and Hofer and Schendel; 1978.

Change is inevitable; this means one cannot prevent change from happening because of our dynamic world.

Paulson (2008) quotes an uncle's advice: "It's easiest to ride a horse in the direction it is going." In other words, don't struggle against change; learn to use it to your advantage.

The success of a company is based on the changes that are made regularly to ensure the company is up-to-date in all areas. Failure on the part of management to change its ways of doing things when the world keeps changing renders the organization non-competitive in its industry.

Therefore, in order to keep pace with competition and other business environmental developments or pressures, and in order to grow and be innovative, companies need to change. (Creasey & Haiit; 2009).

Goode (2008) asserted that organizations need to change constantly, adapting to changing external circumstances otherwise they risk becoming obsolete.

Change has been recognized as an important phenomenon because it denotes the means through which organizations maintain co-alignment with shifting competitive, technological and social environments which occasionally pose threats to their continued survival and effectiveness (kraatz and Zajac ; 2001).

Kraatz and Zejac; (2001) argued that factors such as shifting competitive, technology and the environment could affect the efficiency and even survival of an organization if such organization fails to change its ways of doing things.

However, Hamel (2000) discussed strategic decay, the notion that the value of all strategies, no matter how brilliant, decays over time.

The inference made from Hamel (2000) is that, every strategy expires when it achieves its objectives. The strategy used yesterday that chalked success cannot be used today which could be due to factors like imitation from competitors and technology. And thus, the need to change strategies regularly in order to stay robust, gain and enjoy sustainable competitive advantage.

Tichy (1983) wrote that because we are all beings of habit we tend to repeat what we are comfortable with and that this is a trap that constrains our creativity, prevents us from exploring new ideas, and hampers our dealing with the full complexity of new issues.

He therefore developed a systematic method of dealing with change that involved looking at any new issue from three angles: technical and production, political and resource allocation and culture.

Similarly, Armstrong and Stephen (2008) advocated that in managing change cognizance should be taken about the fact that most people resist change.

Therefore, for change to achieve its objectives, it must be coupled with effective leadership. In other words, change in itself does not achieve results it takes effective management to do it.

Numerous studies have identified leadership and participation by top management as the single greatest contributor to success in change management programs (Kanter 1983; Kanter et al. 1992; Goodstein and Burke 1995).

Leaders are needed to provide vision, inspiration, and conviction and to demonstrate integrity, provide meaning, generate trust, and communicate values. They must also know how to pace and sequence change efforts to avoid change fatigue and cynicism (Abrahamson 2000).

This means the effective management of both the human element and other resource element within an organization helps change to achieve its strategic objective.

Change Management has been defined in diverse ways by several authors.

However, below are some selected authoritative definitions of change management for the purpose of the study.

Kotter (2011) defines change management as the utilization of basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. Change management's goal is to minimize the change impacts on workers and avoid distractions.

According to Akid (2008) Change Management is an organized, systematic application of the knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provides organizations with a key process to achieve their business strategy. Change Management is a critical part of any project that leads, manages and enables people to accept new processes, technologies, systems structures and values.

Lynch (2000) defines Change management as the proactive management of change in organizations to achieve clearly identified strategic objectives. It involves the implementation of new strategies that involve substantive changes to normal routines of the organization.

Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment. SHRM Glossary of human resources terms, http://www.shrm.org.

Lamarsh (2012) defines Change Management as an organized, systematic application of the knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provides organizations with a key process to achieve their business strategy.

Rouse (2010) delineate change management as a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level.

According to Nickols (2000), change management has at least three basic definitions, which includes:

• The task of change management, which refers to the task of managing change in a planned and managed fashion.

• An area of professional practice where many consultants internationally, profess to specialize in managing change on behalf of clients.

• A body of knowledge, which consists of models, methods and techniques, tools, skills and other forms of knowledge that goes into making up a practice.

Managing change is a continuous process of aligning an organization with its marketplace, by being more efficient and effective than competitors, and continuously collecting feedback from within the organization (L. A. Berger, Sikora& D. R. Berger, 1994).

Change management could also be defined as activities involved in:Defining and installing new values, attitudes, norms and behavior within an organization that support new ways of doing work and overcome resistance to change.Building consensus among customers and stakeholders on specific changes designed to better meet their needs.As well as planning, testing and implementing all aspects of the transition from one organizational structure or business process to another. Http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/bprag/bprgloss.htm

Change management examines external and internal conditions affecting an organization and uses skills, knowledge and strategies to effectively plan and implement change aswell as support continuous improvement following change ("Managing Change," 2003). http://web.mit.edu/hr/oed/learn/change/art_basics.html

Hiatt and Creasey; (2002) state that change management evolved as a result of the convergence of two predominant fields of thought, namely:

• An engineer's approach to improving business performance

• A psychologist's approach to managing the human side of change

Creasey & Haiit; (2003) defines Change management as the process, tools and techniques to manage the people-sideof business change to achieve the required business outcome and to realize that business change effectively within the social infrastructure of the workplace.

Change management incorporates the organizational tools that can be utilized to help individuals make successful personal transitions resulting in the adoption and realization of change. Ultimately, the goal of change is to improve the organization by altering how work is done. Creasey&Haiit; (2003).

The general aim of organizational change is an adaptation to the environment (Barr, Stimpert and Huff, 1992; Child and Smith, 1987; Leana and Barry, 2000) or an improvement in performance (Boeker, 1997; Keck and Tushman, 1993).

The various definitions given above show that, there is no general or a specific definition of change management.

However, one could deduce from the various definitions given above that Change management involves the planning, designing, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of change strategies or process which involve substantive changes to both the individual level and the normal routines of the organization with the primary aim of achieving a specific business objective as well as minimizing the risk of failure of implementing change.

2.2 Forces / Drivers of Change

There are so many forces or drivers that cause a strategic change in an organization. However, below are some of the forces or drivers of change reviewed in this chapter.

Johnson (2010) argued that there are two main forces or drivers of change in an organization namely; Internal forces and external forces.

He cited technology, re-organization, working conditions and philosophy of management as examples of internal forces.

And for external forces of change, he cited customer demands, political factors, technology, globalization, merging and acquisitions, business relationships shifts in economy, competitive pressures and legislative changes as examples.This assertion made by Johnson (2010) was also noted by Gomez-Mejia et al. (2005), Appelbaumet al. (1998) and Nauheimer (2007). All agree that organizational change drivers are both from external and internalforces

However, Tappin (2009) and Tichy (1983) think otherwise. Though they are both of the view that there are four main forces of change Tappin (2009) believes the four main forces of change are globalization, technological changes, knowledge management and cross boundaries collaboration whilst Tichy (1983), is of the view that environment, business relationships, technology and people are the driving forces of change.

Nevertheless, one could argue that even though Tappin (2009) and Tichy (1983) stated that there are four main forces of change, these four forces of change could be linked to Johnson's (2010) argument who cited internal and external forces as the main forces of change.

Globalization and technology as external forces of change were also noted by Tappin (2009).

The explanation given by Tappin (2009) concerning cross boundaries collaboration boils down to the usage of appropriate technology within an organization whiles technology and environment were emphatically cited by Tichy (1983)

One can therefore argue that, the argument made by Johnson (2010) encapsulates the assertions made by Tappin (2009) and Tichy (1983).

Kotter (2005) investigated into managing change and he also supported the assertion that there are two main forces of change namely external forces and internal forces and this assertion was also sustained by Ginsbery and Abrahamson (1991).

He quoted demographic characteristics, technological advancements, market changes, social and political pressures as external forces of change within an organization. According to Kotter, theses forces originate from outside the organization.

For internal forces which Kotter (2005) classified as forces that originate within the organization, he cited human resource problem / prospects and managerial behaviour / decisions as examples.

Similarly,Nickols (2000) was in favour of the idea that there are two main forces of change.An organization chooses to implement a new method or system in a planned and managed or systematic fashion (Nickols, 2000). This is an "anticipative or proactive response" change. Either internal events within the organization or the external environment triggers the shift in change.

An organization is forced to make changes or implement a new system based on the external factors such as laws, societal issues or competitors. This is known as a "knee-jerk or reactive response" change (Nickols, 2000). The organization has little or no control and must change in order to stay competitive and in business.

In view of the above assertions, it can be concluded and argued that broadly, there are two main forces or drivers of change within an organization namely; external and internal forces. An organization must assess these indicators and change in order to stay competitive and enjoy sustainable strategic advantage.

2.3 Types of strategic change

So many authors have written about the types of change within an organization.

However, exploring corporate strategy; Johnson (2010) argued that there are four types of strategic change namely; Adaptation, Reconstruction, Evolution and Revolution.

Adaptation basically relates to a change which can be accommodated within the current paradigm and occur incrementally. It is the most common form of change in organizations.

Reconstruction on the hand is a type of change which may be rapid and could involve a good deal of upheaval in an organization, but which does not fundamentally change the paradigm. It could be a turnaround situation where there is need for major structural changes, or a major cost-cutting programme to deal with a decline in financial performance or changing market conditions.

Evolution is a type of change in strategy which requires paradigm change, but over time. It may be that managers anticipate the need for transformational change. They may then be in a position of planned evolutionary change which is normally achieved with time. Another way in which evolution can be explained is by conceiving organizations as learning systems that continually adjust its strategies as their environment changes.

Furthermore, Handy (1989) had different view on the internal types of change. According to him two types of change could be identified within an organization namely strategic drift and transformational change.

Handy (1989) argued that strategic drift is a gradual change that occurs so subtly that it is not noticed until it is too late. By contrast, transformational change is sudden and radical. It is typically caused by discontinuities (or exogenous shocks) in the business environment. The point where a new trend is initiated is called a strategic inflection point. Inflection points can be subtle or radical.

Again, change has been categorized into two namely; first order and second order changes.The first order changes are evolutionary and incremental. Theseare small changes that alter certain small aspects, looking for an improvement in thepresent situation, but keeping the general working framework (Blumenthal andHaspeslagh;1994, Goodstein and Burke; 1991, Greiner; 1972, Levy; 1986,Mezias and Glynn; 1993, Nadler and Tushman; 1989 &1990).

The second type of changes is strategic, transformational, and revolutionary or second orders ones. They are radicaltransformations where the organization totally changes its essential framework(Blumenthal and Haspeslagh, 1994; Ghoshal and Bartlett, 1996; Goodstein and Burke,1991; Marshak, 1993; Nadler and Tushman, 1989, 1990), looking generally for a newcompetitive advantage (Hutt, Walker and Frankwick, 1995) and affecting the basiccapabilities of the organization (Ruiz and Lorenzo, 1999).

Tucker, 2007 had different view concerning the types of change in an organization. He argued that there are three types of change namely; developmental, transitional and transformational.

Developmental change according to Tucker (2007) occurs when a company makes an improvement on its current business. It occurs if a company decides to improve its processes, methods or performance standards.

Transitional change is more intrusive than developmental change as it replaces existing processes or procedures with something that is completely new to the company. The period when the old process is being dismantled and the new process is being implemented is called the transitional phase.

A corporate reorganization, merging and acquisitions, creation of new products or services, and implementation of new technology are examples of transitional change. Transitional change may not require a significant shift in culture or behavior but it is more challenging to implement than developmental change (Tucker; 2007).

Moreover, transformational change occurs after the transition period. It may involve both developmental and transitional change. It is common for transitional and transformation change to occur in tandem. (Tucker; 2007).

Nevertheless, Dunphy and stace; (1993) hold different opinion about the types of change in an organization. They argued that four types of change could be identified in every organizational setting namely; fine tuning, incremental adjustment, modular transformation and corporate transformation.

Fine tuning as a type of change according to Dunphy and Stace; (1993) is simply making re-alignments to ensure that there is a match between strategy, structure, people and process.

Incremental adjustment on the other hand is a type of change that ensures minor modifications to strategies or structures within an organization. It is bit-by-bit changes to match the changing environment.

However, modular transformation is a type of change that ensures that there are major realignments of one or more departments or divisions. Downsizing and re-engineering are examples.

The corporate transformation which is described as discontinuous or frame-breaking change is a type of change according to Dunphy and Stace; (1993) that ensures major, rapid and revolutionary changes in strategy, structures, people and processes in order to meet radically new or different circumstances. This type of change is sometimes called Upheaval.

In conclusion, it could be deduced from the arguments made above and argued that there are two main types of change namely; Transformational change (major change / Primary change) and Incremental changes (Minor or Secondary changes).

2.4 Steps in change management process

The change management process involves the task of managing change. It is the road map through which management can successfully implement a change to achieve its strategic objectives.

There are several change management processes that organizations follow while implementing a change.

However, exploring corporate strategy; Johnson (2010) outlined the processes below as planned change management steps that ensure successful implementation of change.

Determining the need for change: The first step in the change process involves determining the need for change, analyzing the organization's current position and determining the ideal future state that the managers would like it to attain.

This assertion was noted by Jackson (2008) during her investigation into implementing change management in businesses.She argued that for change to occur in an organization there is the need to assess whether or not a change is needed. Assess the business need for change even when things are going well. According to Jackson, management has to examine the results or performance of the company and compare it to the best practices of competitors. This eventually creates the platform for a change.

Similarly, Grant (2008) supported the argument that identification of the need for change is paramount to every organization before going through any change process.Recognition of the need for change may occur at the top management level or in peripheral parts of theorganization.

(http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId- 8944, articleId-8888.html).

Determining the obstacles to change: The second step in the change process involves determining the obstacles to change. Managers are to analyze the factors that may prevent the company from reaching its ideal future state. Obstacles to change are normally found at the four levels in an organization. These include the corporate, divisional, functional, and individual levels.

Armstrong and Stephen (2008) advocated that in managing change cognizance

should be taken about the fact that most people resist change. This argument was

sustained by Waddell and Sohal; 1998 and Abilla (2011).

Implementing change: Change raises several questions. For instance, who should actually carry out change? Internal managers or external consultants? Generally, there are two main approaches to change - top-down change or bottom-up change.

Evaluating change: The last step in the change process is to evaluate the effects of the changes in strategy and structure on organizational performance. Every company must compare its way operations after implementing change with the way it operated before introducing change. This step was also noted by Park (2009). She argued that the final and most important stage of the change planning process is to determine which measures you will use to monitor and evaluate the project outcomes.To change, you need to evaluate the change, define objectives and approach, then evaluate again (Viita; 2010).Johnson (2010) argues and concludes that, change managers who will like to implement change successfully within any organizational setting must employ the above change process.

Nonetheless, importance of change management in organizations; Grant (2008)

argued that, for change managers to successfully implement change within

an organization, the process below must be strictly adhered to;

Identifying the need for change in organization. The identification of the need for change seems to be the basic step for change process. This step wasnoted by Johnson (2010), Jackson (2008) and the most popular ADKAR model for change process.

Designing specific changes to curb with the requirement of the organization.

Making others understand why change is necessary for the proper functioning

ofthe organization. Jackson (2008) supports this argument that change managers must explain in details the need for change to encourage a personal investment on the part of the workforce for the success of the change. She further argued that, in order to implementthe change, leaders must communicate effectively for everyone to see and understand the big picture (Change) and how the change will benefit them. The people must be involved in decision making process in order to get the meaning of the change about to be initiated. This alone could help in overcoming resistance to change. This assertion was highly advocated for by Akid (2008). Warrilow (2009) also argued in favour of the assertion that some change management in a firm does not achieve results due to lack of clarity and communication and even more fundamentally lack of language and contextual framework to articulate and manage the necessary change process. Barlow (2012) also supported the argument that for people to work efficiently within change environment there should be effective communication to give a clear understandingof the change process and further argued that nobody is going to do a good job if he or she does not know what the change is, how it works and the theory and principles of how to manage it.According to Barlow, change management always stands on shaky ground without a thorough communication and understanding of the change process and established management principles to the people who are going to be affected by the change.

Altering the organizational process like processes, technology andperformance meters to incorporate the changes.

Managing the production and the changes to ensure that customers and

stakeholders continue to be bonded with each other over the long run.

In addition to ensuring success in change management process, CliffsNotes.com (2012) posited steps in planned change.Once managers and an organization commit to planned change, they need to create a logical step-by step approach in order to accomplish the objectives. Planned change requires managers to follow an eight-step process for

successful implementations, which is illustrated in the Figure below;http://media.wiley.com/Lux/36/8836.nfg001.jpg

Recognize the need for change: Recognition of the need for change may occur at the top management level or in peripheral parts of the organization. The change may be due to either internal or external forces.

Develop the goals of the change: Remember that before any action is taken, it is necessary to determine why the change is necessary. Both problems and opportunities must be evaluated. Then it is important to define the needed changes in terms of products, technology, structure, and culture.

Select a change agent: The change agent is the person who takes leadership responsibility to implement planned change. The change agent must be alert to things that need revamping, open to good ideas, and supportive of the implementation of those ideas into actual practice.

Diagnose the current climate: In this step, the change agent sets about gathering data about the climate of the organization in order to help employees prepare for change. Preparing people for change requires direct and forceful feedback about the negatives of the present situation as compared to the desired future state and sensitizing people to the forces of change that exist in their environment.

Select an implementation method: This step requires a decision on the best way to bring about the change. Managers can make themselves more sensitive to pressures for change by using networks of people and organizations with different perspectives and views, visiting other organizations exposed to new ideas, and using external standards of performance, such as competitor's progress.

Develop a plan: This step involves actually putting together the plan, or the "what" information. This phase also determines the when, where, and how of the plan. The plan is like a road map. It notes specific events and activities that must be timed and integrated to produce the change. It also delegates responsibility for each of the goals and objectives.

Implement the plan: After all the questions have been answered, the plan is put into operation. Once a change has begun, initial excitement can dissipate in the face of everyday problems. Managers can maintain the momentum for change by providing resources, developing new competencies and skills, reinforcing new behaviors, and building a support system for those initiating the change.

Follow the plan and evaluate it: During this step, managers must compare the actual results to the goals established in Step 4. It is important to determine whether the goals were met; a complete follow-up and evaluation of the results aids this determination. Change should produce positive results and not be undertaken for its own sake.

It continues to argue that a comprehensive model of planned change includes a set of activities that managers must engage in to manage the change process effectively. Change managers must recognize the need for change, motivate change, create a vision, develop political support, manage the transition, and sustain momentum during the change.

Change Tech Solutions Inc, ZDNet.com.au (2000) proposed six (6) steps to change management.

Step 1: Define change management process and practices.

As it is with other systems management disciplines, one must first craft a plan for handling changes generally covers:

Procedures for handling changes-how change is requested, processed and scheduled for implementation, how it is applied and the criteria for backing changes that cause problems

Roles and responsibilities of the IT support staff- This involves those who receive the change request, who tracks all change requests, who schedules change implementations and what each entity is supposed to do

Measurements for change management-what will be tracked to monitor the efficiency of the change management discipline

Tools to be used - This refers to the logistics and other resources to be used by the people in order to effect the desired change.

Back-out procedures-Actions to be taken if applied changes do not perform as expected or cause problems to other components of the system

Step 2: Receive change requests

Receive all requests for changes, ideally through a single change coordinator. Change requests can be submitted on a change request form that includes the date and time of the request.

Step 3: Plan for implementation of changes

Examine all change requests to determine:

Change request prioritization

Resource requirements for implementing the change

Impact to the system

Back-out procedures

Schedule of implementation

Step 4: Implement and monitor the changes; back out changes if necessary:

This is the stage where the change is applied and the results monitored to know its success or failure. If the desired outcome is not achieved, or if other systems or applications are negatively affected, back out the changes.

Step 5: Evaluate and report on changes implemented

Feedback on all changes is communicated to the change coordinator whether they were successful or not. The change coordinator then takes up the responsibility of examining trends in the application of changes, to see if:

Change implementation planning was sufficient.

Changes to certain resources are more prone to problems.

When a change has been successfully made, it is crucial that the corresponding system information store be updated to reflect them.

Step 6: Modify change management plan if necessary.

This is where the entire change management process is modified to make it more effective. However, one has to consider reexamining the change management discipline if:

Changes are not being applied on time.

Not enough changes are being processed.

Too many changes are being backed out.

Changes are affecting the system availability.

All the changes were not being covered.

Also, another model popularly known as ADKAR Model describes five factors for the change to be realized successfully on an individual level.

The ADKAR (2005) change model proposes that, for an individual to adapt and perform under change environment, change managers ought to apply the processes outlined below:

CreateAwareness why the change is needed

InculcateDesire to co-operate and participate in the change process

Provide and collateKnowledge to guide the change process

DevelopAbility and appropriate skills to drive the change process

FormulateReinforcement strategy and plans to sustain the change process.

Additionally, Kotter (2010) also proposes 8-Step Change Model for successful implementation of change. These steps have been outlined below;

1. Create a sense of urgency

For the change to happen, it needs the whole organization behind it - believing in it:

Identify potential threats and develop potential scenarios showing what could happen in the future

Examine the opportunities that should be exploited

Start discussions, give people convincing reasons to start thinking and talkingabout the change.

Rally support from your customers and outside investors to reinforce your argument

2. Form a change coalition

To help convince people that change needs to happen, find and fuel effective leaders in your organization:

Identify true leaders in your organization

Ask for emotional commitment from these people

Check your team for weaknesses and make sure you have a good mix of people from different areas and levels.

3. Create a vision for change

You need a clear vision so people can understand the purpose of what you're asking

them todo:

Determine the values that are central to the change

Develop a short summary that captures what you see as the future of the organization

Create a strategy to execute the vision

Practice your vision.

4. Communicate the vision

What you do with your vision will determine whether you are successful or not and you'll findmany other run of the day company communications competing against yours:

At every opportunity, talk about your change vision

Address people's concerns - and there will be concerns

Tie your vision to operations- training, reviews, hiring process

Lead by example

5. Remove obstacles

You need to remove obstacles to empower people to execute your vision:

Identify change leaders

Recognize and reward people for making change happen

Identify those resisting change and help them see the need

Remove barriers - human and other

6. Create short-term wins

Success motivates - give your team a taste for success:

Pick a simple project you can implement with help from the die-hard critics

Choose inexpensive projects where you can justify the spend

Reward the people who helped meet the goals.

7. Build on the change

Real change runs deep - keep looking for improvements:

After every win, analyze what went right and what went wrong

Set goals to continue building on what you've achieved

Learn about Kaizen

8. Anchor the changes in corporate culture

Make the change stick!

Talk about progress every chance you get

Tell success stories

Include values when hiring or training staff

As key leaders of the change move on, be sure to replace

According to Kotter (2010), the 8-model change process above could help an organization implement change successfully.

In conclusion and in correlation with the various steps of change processes above, one can argue that there are no established steps or processes to change management. In other words, there is no one fit-for-all change management processes for organizations.

However, one could deduce from the various change management processes above and conclude that every change process must be unique and address issues like;

Recognize the need for change

Determine obstacles or resistance to change

Communicate to minimize resistance to change

Implement and monitor the progress of the change

Evaluation of change process

Modification or corrective measures taken if necessary.

These steps coupled with internal controls and professionalism can go a long way to achieve the strategic objective that goes with change.

The chapter reviewed the following four thematic elements; concept and definitions of change management, forces of strategic change, types of strategic and the steps in change management process.

However, it seems little has been done on the topic change management in Ghana. Change is inevitable and thus there is the need to research or investigate into this topic in order to know how to manage change to achieve strategic objectives as a country, corporate organizations as well as individuals in our changing world.

The ensuing chapter (chapter three) is devoted to the methodology of this study. It touches on methodical issues concerning the research as well as the combination of methods chosen for the study.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

The chapter explains how data was gathered for the study. It touches on the methodical issues concerning the research and the combination of methods which were chosen for the study.

The contents of this chapter are research approach, research design, Data collection, Population and Sampling, quality of research, research site setting, Ethical issues and Data processing and analysis.

3.1 The research approach

Itdetermines which established convention has been chosen for conducting a piece of research. The choice of research approach is based on the research problems and questions of the study.Various approaches can be used for research.

Saunders (2000) proposed three approaches in the study of a research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory.

However, Agyedu et al (1999) posited four approaches in the study of a research namely; assessment, evaluation, descriptive and experimental.

In the case of this study,the evaluation approach was used to analyze the impact of change management on the performance of UBA Ghana. The approach mainlyinvolved quantitative and qualitative approaches. The rationale behindthis choice was to make informed decision about the impact of change management of the bank.

3.2 Research Design

The research design outlined the process in which the research objectives were answered.

Frankfort (1996) defines research design as a logical model of methodological proof that allows a researcher to draw inferences from the data's findings and later defines the domain of generalizability of the same findings.

Davies et al (2003) also argued that research design requires either qualitative or quantitative or both types of data.

Both Qualitative and Quantitative research methods have their own pros and cons. However, to have an in-depth knowledge or reveal different scenarios or meanings from a research, the qualitative data needs to be supplemented with quantitative data and vice versa.

3.3 Data collection

The collection of data wasdone through primary and secondary sources.

The instruments used in gathering information under the primary sources were mainly interviews and questionnaires.

3.3.1 Interviews

To determine in-depth opinions and attitude of management and staff, the instrument interview was employed. The aim was to probe deeply into the answers provided by various respondents and also to cover areas which were notcovered by the questionnaires to help extract further information for the study.

Face-to-face and telephone interviews were employed in soliciting data for the purpose of the study.

3.3.2 Questionnaires

The questionnaires contained both open and close ended questions. They were based on the research questions and have been grouped accordingly.

3.3.3 Secondary data was alsoelicited from existing journals and annual reports. The bank's website was used in soliciting data. The information from these sources has been presented using tables, graphs and charts. Secondary data were useful to compare with what managers and staff said during the interview section. Unlike primary data, secondary data generally provided the source of data that was both permanent and available in a form that may be checked relatively easily by others.

3.4 Data Collection procedures

The researcher took questionnaires to various supervisors and departmental heads of the two main head branches of the bank namely; Head office Accra and Kumasi main branch for the purpose of the study.

The researcher took questionnaires to staff at Kumasi main branch but for those in Head office, Accra, the researcher scanned and mailed the questionnaires to them for answering.

Follow ups were done and calls made to remind staff to answer research questionnaires.

Incentives were also given to staff especially some junior staff to get the questionnaires answered.

In correlation with interview, due to distance, time, work and financial constraints the researcher employed telephone interview for a section of staff in Accra (Head office).

However, for staff at Kumasi main branch, the researcher went to the premises to get the departmental heads and those in supervisory roles as well as junior staff interviewed.

Secondary data was collated by researcher via United bank for Africa Ghana's website, journals and other reports.

3.5.0 Population

The population for the study covered the Head office and Kumasi main branch of UBA Ghana plc. The head office formed part of the population because it is where all decisions take place and this helped researcher in gathering pertinent data relating to the study.

The entire population was65 in number.

3.5.1 Sampling

Purposive sampling technique was used. Two out of the four regions were used for gathering data namely Greater Accra region (head office) and Ashanti region (Kumasi main).

Even though these two regions were selected for the study,a section of the workforce was used in answering questionnaires and during interviews which included the management, the staff of the various departments as well as supervisors.

3.6 Quality of the research

The scientific value of a research report is paramount and encompasses the concepts of validity and reliability.

3.6.1 Validity and Reliability

Warwick and Linninger (1975) point out that there are two basic goals in questionnairedesign.

1. To obtain information relevant to the purposes of the survey.

2. To collect this information with maximal reliability and validity.

The researcher can only be certain that the data gathering instrument being used will measure what it is supposed to and, will do this in a consistent manner by examining the definitions for and methods of establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument.

Validity of a research implies the ability of a particular or combination of methods to measure what it is intended to measure as outlined or stipulated in the research question.

It takes place when the measuring instrument shows substantial evidence that the theoretical framework corresponds to observations (kirk and Miller, 1985; Aaker et al., 1995).

The Reliability of a research instrument concerns the extent to which the instrument yields the same results on repeated trials. Although unreliability is always present to a certain extent, there will generally be a good deal of consistency in the results of a quality instrument gathered at different times. The tendency toward consistency found in repeated measurements is referred to as reliability (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). Rimmel (2003) advances that "reliability refers to the degree of consistency with which different researchers come to the same answer or with which one researcher came to the same answer on different occasions" .Therefore, independent researchers should be able to get consistent results or outcome given the same study procedure and under conducive atmosphere.

3.7 Limitations of the study

This relates to constraints like time, finances and even access to data from primary sources like interviews and questionnaires.

For instance some respondents misplaced their questionnaires hence could not produce them at the time needed by researcher.

Others were also busy consequently could not be interviewed.

Finally, financial and time constraints could not permit the researcher to read and print voluminous document for the study.

3.8Research site setting

United bank for Africa (UBA) plc is the research site setting used for the purpose of the study. United bank for Africa (UBA) plc is a financial institution in Ghana operating in four regions namely; Greater Accra, Ashanti, Western and Volta regions.

UBA commenced in the year 2005 after the merging and acquisition of UBA Nigeria and Standard Trust bank Ghana. The bank can now boast of a total of twenty six (26) branches in Ghana; Eighteen (18) branches in Greater Accra, six (6) in Ashanti, two (2) in western and one (1) in Aflao Volta region.

3.9Ethical Issues

Respondents were assured of utmost confidentiality and anonymity in answering the questionnaires and during interviews.

3.10 Data Processing & Analysis

Both qualitative and quantitative methods of analyses were used in analyzing and interpreting data collated for the study.

The data collated have been summarized and organized in a way that meets the research objectives.

Tables, pie charts as well as figures and ratios have been used in the data processing and analysis.

Summary

Basically, the chapter provides a detailed overview of the methodology employed in executing this thesis. It touches on the methodical issues concerning the research and the combination of methods chosen for the study.

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter presents and discusses the findings of the research as well as the analysis of results using statistical tools.

Questionnaires schedules and responses

1.What led to the merging and acquisition of UBA Nigeria and Standard Trust

bank Ghana?

To establish the footprints of UBA group in Ghana ( )

To enable the then Standard Trust bank of Ghana to compete strongly against other commercial banks in Ghana. ( )

To build a robust capital platform for banking services in Ghana and across Africa. ( )

To improve upon the banking services in Ghana as well as making banking services available to the ordinary Ghanaian ( )

Others specify..................................................................................................

So many factors facilitate the merging and acquisitions of organizations. Recently, banks in Ghana are merging due to the fact that they will like to meet the new capital requirement set by Bank of Ghana which is Ghc 60m.

Nonetheless, all respondents indicated that UBANigeria and Standard Trust bank Ghana merged in order to improve upon the banking services in Ghana as well as making banking servicesavailable to the ordinary Ghanaians.

2. Has UBA (GH) plc improved banking services in Ghana? Yes ( ) No ( )

If No Why and if Yes how?.........................................................................................

Indications

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Cashless account

28

70

Competition

8

20

Customer service

4

10

Total

40

100

Source: field data

All respondents explicitly ticked yes indicating that the bank has improved banking services in Ghana.

70% indicated that commercial banks such as Barclays bank, Standard Chartered bank, Ecobank required high initial deposits for their minimum bank balance which made it difficult for the ordinary Ghanaian to save with these banks. However, with UBA, one could open cashless account which means without initial deposits one could have access to banking services. This and other innovative products from the bank haveaugmented banking services in Ghana.

20% also stated that, the presence of the bank and its numerous branches in the country have stepped up the competition among banks which in a way has improved the banking services in Ghana especially in the area of customer services. The bank started with four branches and now can boast of 24 branches nationwide making banking services available to the ordinary Ghanaians.

The remaining 10% also argued that the bank has improved on the customer services in the banking industry. UBA (GH) plc is noted for customer service in the banking industry.

3. Has the bank benefited from the merging?Yes ( ) No ( )

Explain your answer……………………………………………................................................................

Indications

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Profitability

24

60

Increased capital

13

32.5

Recognition/Awarded

3

7.5

Total

40

100

Source: field data

All respondents indicated that, UBA as a bank has benefited enormously from the merging and acquisition. 60% stated that the profit made by the bank shows how beneficial the merging has been.

32.5% of the respondents also indicated that the capital of the bank has now increased for the running of the bank. The pools of funds from the then Standard Trust and UBA have increased the capital base of the bank. Bottom line, the size of the balance sheet has increased since the change.

The remaining percentage also argued that, the bank has now been accepted by Ghanaians and even recognized during banking awards held in Ghana. The bank has chalked many successes during the national banking awards. UBA (Ghana) was recently awarded the Best Bank in Customer Service which is a testament to the Bank's avowed commitment to provide Customer Centric banking solutions to the Ghanaian public.

4. Challenges associated with change process

What were the challenges encountered during the change process?

Inadequate infrastructure / logistics ( )

Lack of internal staff training ( )

Ineffective communication ( )

The fear of job loss due to change ( )

Poor feedback ( )

Others specify……………………………………………

A and E

E and B

A and B

E and C

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