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The AIDS Support Organization is a non-profit organisation, and it tries to help and treat the patients who are AIDS infection. This writing is on analysis the case of the AIDS Support Organization of Uganda to find the issue of the organization, and then the organization can be improved by the organizational change. The organisation will face the issues and challenges, when they want to develop. Organizational change can help the organization to change the internal and external environment, so that it can bring opportunity and challenge for the development of organization. This writing will find out the way of changes to improve the TASO Treatment Model in this organisation, and at the same time, they don't lose the spirit of service-delivery catered to the individual client within the special situations. For TASO, it is a big challenge that the organization can continue to grow under the unchanged funds and competitive market.
Summary of TASO's history and growth
TASO was founded in the year of 1987 by AIDS patients and their families. At the beginning of the organisation, its aims were to encourage the AIDS patients, to find themselves, and to create their confidences. They hoped that the AIDS infections were not discriminated against. With the developing of TASO, an increasing numbers of volunteers joined in this organisation, and TASO got more government and non-government organisations to support, such as World Food Program (WFP), World Health Organisation (WHO), and the Ministry of Health (MOH). In the year of 1991, the organisation changed its management model, it became official. It provided a clinic for the poverty people and the middle income family. From the year of 2004, the organization began to provide a series of treatment for their clients. Therefore, TASO started to grow and become a non-profit organization. With the growing of this organization, the number of clients is increase. TASO made a treatment model, so that they can offer better services to clients. In 2001, Alex G. Coutinho joined into TASO as a director.
PEST factors impact TASO
TASO was found in Uganda. Before the year of 1986, Uganda government was in turbulent and unsafe circumstances, so that the policy of this country is imperfection and wars killed many people. A part of capital of TASO is dependence on the economy of Uganda. In addition, TASO coordinate with the Ministry of Health of Uganda to complete its treatment model. Some employees come from different countries, so that they have different culture. In addition, some clients are in different demography and they have different culture. It is a challenge for TASO how to satisfy all the employees and clients. In the treatment model, TASO need to have professional physician and nurse to complete antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. In addition, TASO need to hire people who have management skills. Some volunteers don't have any professional knowledge, they just know HIV.
The reason to promote TASO changes
TASO is a non-profit organization, so that it cannot get profit. Its capitals come from the world health organization, government, and some corporations which do act of charity. In Uganda, there is not only one organization to support AIDS, so that TASCO has the competitors. However, the findings are limited, so that the organization cannot have the stable capital to support their services and treatment. ART and ARV are very expensive, so TASO need more funds to support this program.
Most of employees are volunteers and their employees are mobility, so that human resources manager cannot manage their staff well. Some clients want to have the regular life and they can work as usual and the limited facilities of organization, so that TASO needs to provide them home visit services by filed officers and community nurse. Because these clients don't live together, it makes home visit to become long-distance visit. Field officers just can visit 5 or 6 clients in a day. In addition, more clients come from rural area and it has rough terrain and frequent motorbike accidents, so that it makes their journeys treacherous and exhausting. In addition, all the clients had to work, so they cannot wait field officers at home. Field officers felt very tired and they didn't get appreciated by clients. It leads that home visitors lose motivation for their working. In this part of TASO Treatment Model, human resources play an important role. If the employees don't have the motivation for their working, the home-visit stage is failure.
TASO needs to face challenges on how to manage employees and finance. The aim of organizational change is to make the employees, the organization, and the managers suit the environment.
Changes improve the efficiency of the TASO Treatment Model
At first, TASO want to do as "first in first out", but it is difficult to implement because of lack of finance and human resources. With the increasing number of clients, TASO need to recruit more employees, because home visit stages have not enough field officers to visit clients. TASO can use planned change to improve the efficiency of the TASO Treatment Model. In this type of change, the organization needs to review all the systems and structures, and then make a plan of change. This plan will combine every part of key things and then implement step by step. In addition, it has lower basis of management, manager can easy to control the changing.
The planned change "deliberate actions designed to move an organization or part of one from one state to another". (B. Senior, 2010:41)
TASO need to make a detailed plan for the change, it is easy to control and manage. It can include some aspects, such as organizational culture and leadership. The planned change is a slow way to improve the organization, but it has lower risk in the management.
Culture and change
Culture can be as a first step of planned change. Culture can represent the values of organization and attitudes of employees. Therefore, TASO need to map organizational culture. Organizational culture is "the particular set of values, beliefs, customs and systems which are unique to that organization." (B. Burnes, 1996: 111)
According to the cultural web of Johnson et al. (2008), there are six basic elements which are stories, symbols, power structures, organizational structures, control system, and rituals and routines. . TASO can be based on these six basic elements to create a cultural web, so that organizational culture can be analyzed through looking into each element of the culture. In addition, cultural web helps managers form a whole picture of the organizational culture. Therefore, managers can easy to change the organizational culture. The following part describe changing in the different elements with examples,
In the stories element, TASO need to tell clients and employees the past and current events of the organization, such as how many clients get good treatment in the TASO, so that they can know the organization clearly and they can have the confidence with the organization.
In the rituals and routines element, TASO need to make sure the expectancy of the clients and their employees. For their staffs of home-visit stages, they expect that they can have safe journey. TASO can change the structure of home visit to decrease the long-journey, so that the employees can be safe.
Leadership and change
"Leadership is a key to managing organizations in periods of change and crisis and is thus important to all of us working within organizations."
(Colin A. Carnall, 1999: 129)
Leader can know whether the organization needs to change and what changes can improve the development of organization. After Coutinho was a director of TASO in 2001, he found out the lack of organization. Therefore, he began to streamline administrative structure, and make TASO programs more professional. TASO need to have more leaders like him, so that they can lead their employees to take the organization forward. During the organizational change, TASO need to develop the leadership among staffs of the organization. More staffs who joined into the home-visit felt tired and unhappy, so that the TASO Treatment Model cannot complete as plans. Therefore, the organization needs to have leaders to motivate the abilities of followers.
Different change situation and different organizational life cycle need different leadership style hence the leadership can be developed and trained. Furthermore, in the Hersey and Blanchard's theory (B. Senior, 2010: 240), leaders need to have the ability to find out the issues of organizations, and have knowledge and skill which are necessary.
According to the Dunphy and Stace change matrix (B. Senior, 2010: 262), they identify four types of change: fine-tuning, incremental adjustment, modular transformation and corporate transformation.
TASO need to refine the TASO Treatment Model, and they need wide participation of staffs to support change. Therefore, the organization needs participative evolution as the style of change management.
Analyze the way of sustainable development of the organization
There are an increasing number of similar organizations with TASO and the unchanged funds and high ART expenditures, so that TASO is worrying about the future development of organization. TASO can organize some volunteers to teach and introduce knowledge about HIV/ AID in the schools, corporations, and some public markets. TASO also can find a movie company to make a Charity video of HIV/ AID, so that more people will know HIV/ AID and more people can join in their organization. They can teach people how to prevent HIV/ AID, and how to protect self. Therefore, the organization can save the time and human resources to teach knowledge of AID for the clients and their families. Field officers and counselors can visit more clients on a given day, so that more clients can get treatment.
In addition, TASO can coordinate with other similar non-government organizations and government organizations, and they can make an agreement. When the organization cannot receive patients more, other organization can receive these patients and they can provide the same service with TASO. Therefore, it can decrease the number of clients who are missing the treatment.
If TASO want to continue to treat an increasing number of clients under the unchanged funds and high competition, TASO need to manage human resources. To manage human resources is the important part for TASO. In the TASO Treatment Model, most staffs felt tired and they felt unsatisfied with their work, so that they have negative attitude towards work. Therefore, TASO need to motivate staffs to decrease the negative attitude.
The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) of Uganda is a non-profit organization for the AIDS. However, as the developing of the organization, TASO face some issues of finance and human resources, so that they need to change the organization. A organization needs to change, it means some situation support the organizational change and it will face some basis and risk.