The Abstract Conceptions Of Organisational Roles Commerce Essay

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All talk about organizations relies on abstract conceptions, using words and their meanings, to make sense systematically of our experience and observations of people doing things together. A great deal of organizational life can be described and, more importantly, sometimes even understood, predicted, and influenced, with abstract ideas about structure and culture.

While there is no universal agreement or consistency in definitions of structural and cultural aspects of community organizations, grassroots organizers have some common usage and understandings.

Structural features of organization are formal, inflexible (except under special conditions and procedures), created and maintained by documentation, and contingency centred: they set responsibilities, formal rights, and rewards or punishments on which individual behaviour or group action is contingent. The structure is adopted "officially," by explicit decision, on the basis of known rules and procedures. It determines how the organization is supposed to operate and for what purposes.

P1 (03.01.01) Compare and contrast different organizational structures and culture while explaining types of organization associated structure:

Structure: The basic "artifact" of organizational structure is written documentation constitutions and bylaws. Usually these documents begin with the broad goals and purposes of the organization, reflecting the core values and interests of the membership, constituency, or clientele.

Structural documentation may also spell out the organization's main resource base. For instance, many organizations ordinarily define their "classes" of membership in their constitutions or bylaws, sometimes even specifying the amount of annual dues for each. Similarly, the documentation defines formal offices or positions in the organization. But this isn't the same as labour division, that is, as specifying who does what actual work. The documentation may also limit tax-exemption alternatives.

Culture: Cultural aspects of organizations are generally thought of as those that evolve in conversation and are in flux, constantly changing. In most instances organizational culture de-fines what things mean, whether they're valued as good or bad, right or wrong, and how things are to be done when answers can't be fixed by formal structure, policy, or procedure. Within larger structural goals, it's the culture that carries organizational objectives. While the broad purposes of grassroots organizing are to bring together low- and moderate-income families for their political, economic, and social interests, goals that are laid out in basic documents, it's our more specific and immediate objectives for organizing membership drives, campaigns on issues, and program development that bring those goals to life. The objectives themselves are mostly within the culture of the organization.

P2 (03.01.02) Analyse the relationships between an organization's structure and culture and the effects on business performance:

One way to get a better practical understanding of structure and culture in community organizations is to look at grassroots organizing committees, the forerunners of many neighbourhood associations and congregational organizations. Organizing committees are the keystones in new organizations. The O.C. isn't just the chronological mainspring of events that lead to an organization; it also shapes and often permanently sets the incipient organization's structure and culture. In fact, the failure of novice organizers and developers to recognize the impact of structure and culture some relies almost exclusively on personal relationships and exhortation accounts for a long list of organizational problems.

P3 (03.01.03) Analyse the factors which influence individual behaviour at work:

The workforce became more motivated and satisfied job wise, as the human relations approach recognised the importance of informal organisations. They emphasised the needs of wider social needs of individuals and gave recognition to social organisations. The importance of groups and values was emphasised which influenced their individual behaviour at work. All of this led to continued attention being paid to matters such as job satisfaction, group dynamics, participation, leadership and motivation.

However, certain criticisms of the human relations approach were that it was not scientific enough and it ignored the role of the organisation itself in how society operates and so another theory was introduced, called The System's theory.

Katz and Kahn introduced the System's theory in the 1960's. The systems approach tries to reconcile the theories of Webber and Fayol with that of Hertzberg. It focuses on the interrelationships of structure and behaviour within the organisation.

Katz and Kahn, 1960, Webber and Fayol, 1916

P4 (03.02.01) Analyse how organizational theory underpins principles and practices of organising and of management:

Two organisations that I am going to compare are ''Irwin Mitchell Solicitors'' and ''Signfab''. Irwin Mitchell Solicitors is a formal, geographical organisation as it has branches across the UK and is run through a partnership, whilst Signfab is a small local, informal organisation which is run by a sole trader. There are many different approaches to management that could be taken by an organisation, one would be the Theory X and Theory Y approach brought about by McGregor. The main principle of Theory X is based on direction and control through a centralised system of the organisation and the exercise of authority, whilst Theory Y bases itself on the integration of individual and organisational goals. These Theories influence a range of managerial behaviours and strategies. Managers of Theory X take an authoritative approach and those of Theory Y use a more democratic one. Signfab seems to take a Theory Y approach to its management. In Theory Y management they would check people's attitudes and skills rather than their references; they would also have frequent informal contacts with their employees rather than consulting them through trade unions. Also the pay scheme for Theory Y is mainly based on a salary and profit related pay, whilst Theory X uses piece rate pay and a personal performance related pay. If you look at the theories that Fayol and Mintzberg took to management we can compare them to what managers currently take in modern day organisations. In the organisation Signfab I would say that they seem to use Mintzberg's managerial roles. Mintzberg says that there are 10 different roles of managers. Those are interpersonal, which consists of a figurehead, leader and liaison other side informational, which consists of monitor, disseminator and a spokesperson.

And lastly decisional roles these involve entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and a negotiator. On an average day Signfab the owner of Signfab would take on almost all of these managerial roles. He would become a figurehead, leader, monitor, spokesperson, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.

He uses all of these roles because he takes on the jobs of selling products to consumers, sorting out the finance for daily, weekly, monthly running of the business, he briefs his employees on new tasks they have to do and daily jobs that need finishing. He also has to ensure the equipment is safe and working properly for them to use, he takes care of the advertising and takes orders for items to be made and places orders for new stock that they need and then he also gets involved in the making of the products himself on a daily basis.

McGragor, 1957

P5 (03.02.02) Compare the different approaches to management and theories of organization used by two organizations:

There is also the Chaos theory; this is where the organisations need to be able to move with the turbulent world that we live in today. When the unexpected happens they need to have a plan of what to do so that things are not to badly disrupt and their organisation may still function properly. A key concept of the Chaos theory is that tiny small changes in the input of the organisation and environment result in overwhelming differences in the output. According to Needham et al (1999 p201) "clearly the emphasis for the modern organisation should be on thriving on chaos. This requires forward-thinking and adaptive structures".

In the organisation Irwin Mitchell Solicitors the managers had a more empowering approach to their management. If you take the theories of Henri Fayol you can see that his theories have a more hierarchical structure to management. Managers have 5 main functions in Fayol's theory; they consist of - planning, co-ordinating, organising, control and command. The planning function means that they had to decide what needs doing and then make a plan of action. The co-ordinating meant that they were harmonising all the activities and effort of the organisation in order to make possible its working and success. The organising meant that they provided material/human resources and building the structure in order to carry out the activities of the organisation. The controlling was checking that everything was occurring in accordance with their plans, instructions and established principles.

Finally the commanding meant that they were maintaining the activity among personnel, getting the best return from all employees in the interest of the whole organisation. Irwin Mitchell's had a very strict set of procedures and plans for what needed to be done in time for the end of the financial year.

Their managers were all very co-ordinated in that each department was in some way connected to the one next to it and they quite often had meetings to see how they could get their teams to work more efficiently between them.

There was a very big sense of control over the workers in that your manager checked everything you did. The managers were also very commanding as they hardly ever did the work you did they were more into dictating what needed to be done and then expecting it to get done without their assistance. There was a very long chain of command style structure, as you reported to and any problems to your team leader, who then reported it to her/the department manager, who in turn reported it to the site manager who then reported to the directors of the Sheffield branch. The managers had a lot of authority and unity of command in this organisation. Their approach was very structured and hierarchical, in that the higher up the scalar chain you were the more authority, power and command you had.

Fayol, H. (1917)

P6 (03.03.01) Discuss different leadership style and the effectiveness of these leadership approaches:

As the development level changes the leaders style should change. The leader uses leadership skills that are appropriate to the development level, as the level enhances or the task or goal changes then the leadership style should change.  There is no best leadership as task and goals changes from task to task, so to fit the best leader to the best development stage.

The four basic leadership styles are (Meier, 2007)

Directing (high directive behaviour and low supportive behaviour)

Coaching (high directive behaviour and high supportive behaviour)

Supporting (high supportive behaviour and low directive behaviour)

Delegating (low supportive behaviour and low directive behaviour)

Directive is a behaviour that focuses on how to do the task.  This includes telling and showing people what to do and how to do it. This directive approach is vital for developing competences with others.

Supportive is a behaviour focuses on people's plan and attitudes and feeling towards the task. Praising, listening and encouraging others are good examples of supportive behaviour.

Four Development Levels (Meier, 2007)

Level 1 (low competence and high commitment)

Level 2 (low to some competence and low commitment)

Level 3 (moderate to high competence and variable commitment)

Level 4 (high competence and high commitment)

Follower's knowledge and skills that they bring to the task or goal is known as competence. Knowledge and skills can however be developed over time with appropriate support.

Individuals or followers motivation and self confidence or a combination of both is an example of commitment on a goal or task. Followers have their own abilities to perform a task or their goal. Commitment is considered low when confidence or motivation is low.

Leadership

'Leadership is inherent in the relations among individuals, not the individuals themselves' (Guirdham, 2002).

Leaders must interact with the followers and gain the trust of the individuals or the followers not the other way round. If the leader lost the support of individual or the followers the task or business will collapse and that leads to the business failing. 

Management of people

'Treat people with politeness, respect and dignity and in doing so create a strong role model for others to follow' (Lee, 2005)

To gain or form a relationship with your followers you must treat them with respect. Treating your followers with respect will lead to your followers believing in you and you will become a role model to the followers.

Effective Managers

'Managers who want to improve should review both their effectiveness and their efficiency. Effectiveness is doing the right thing. Effectiveness is more important than efficiency because one must be doing the right kind of work' (Mullins, 2005)

Effectiveness is about doing the right things and this relates to the organisations goals and outputs. A manager or leader must pay attention to the input requirements of the job and be effective by paying attention to the outputs of the job. If the manager is being effective then only does he know if he is being efficient.

Meier (2007), Guirdham (2002), Lee (2005), Mullins (2005)

P7 (03.03.02) Explain the different motivational theories and their application within the workplace:

There are various theories of motivation for managers to use, and it tends to be extremely difficult to choose just one or two ways that motivate all of your employees. However these theories can be separated into two main groups which are the Content Theory of motivation and the Process Theory of motivation. "Content theories place emphasis on the nature of needs and what motivates.....Process theories emphasise on the actual process of motivation" (Mullins 2005) Judging from the definitions its clear they are basically summed up in a nut shell however to truly understand in more depth we must go over the 4 dominant Content theories which include:

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs model

Alderfer's modified need hierarchy model

Hertzberg's two factor theories

McClelland's achievement motivation theory

Maslow devised a theory which divided people's needs into a five stage hierarchy, these were:

Physiological needs: the basic of all the needs which included the satisfaction of being able to eat, sleep and even be able to have oxygen to breathe,

Safety needs: these include physical safety i.e. somewhere to live, economic security and freedom from threats/harm, also being in a predictable environment.

Love/Social needs: These involve an acceptance within a group/sense of belonging and identification with a successful team.

Esteem needs: These involve self esteem and recognition, also the respect shown from others and the status you have come under these needs.

Self-Actualisation: Maslow sees these needs as challenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity, "humans become everything that one is capable of becoming."

Alderfer's need hierarchy model is a very similar model to that of Maslow's, however it has been condensed down into only three levels instead of five. These three levels of needs consist of: (ERG)

Existence needs - This group of needs focuses on the basic requirements for survival and safety, i.e. food, shelter and clothing etc.

Relatedness needs - This group of needs centre upon the will to establish and maintain relationships within the environment.

Growth needs - These needs are met by personal development. A person's career or profession provides significant satisfaction of these needs.

Hertzberg's Theory of motivation consisted of two factors which were 'Hygiene factors' and 'motivators'. These were again closely linked to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs as the 'Hygiene factors' reflected the lower level needs, and the 'motivators' focused on the higher levels. Hertzberg showed that it was a two-step process in order to motivate your employees providing the 'hygiene factors were met first and then followed by the 'motivators'. An important point Herzberg highlighted was that 'hygiene factors' did NOT motivate, but if they were not up to scratch or at a poor level then the employee would get even more de-motivated regardless.

It basically brought motivation to a zero state and so the 'motivators' did all the motivating. In order to motivate workers, managers must focus on these 'Motivators' but not overlook the 'Hygiene factors' as these are just as important.

The last section of the content theories is McClelland's achievement motivation theory. His theory investigates the relationship between hunger needs and from successive research McClelland identified four arousal-based and socially developed motives:

Achievement Motive

Power Motive

Affiliative Motive

Avoidance Motive

The first three motives roughly correspond to Maslow's esteem and self actualisation needs, however the strength of these motives varied between individuals. It also seemed to vary between different occupations. Managers for example appeared to be higher in achievement motivation. If you applied this theory into the workplace it shows individuals with high motivation see financial rewards as more of a feedback on their performance rather than a motivating incentive; for those with low achievement motivation, financial rewards may provide an incentive for performance.

In comparison with content theories, the process theories identify the relationships amongst variables which make up motivation and what's required to influence behaviour, decisions and actions. Many of the process theories cannot be linked to a single writer/theorist, but the major approaches and leading writers include the following four sections:

Expectancy models - Vroom, Porter & Lawler

Equity theory - Adams

Goal theory - Locke

Attribution theory - Heider, Kelly

Mullins, (2005)

P8 (03.03.03) Asses the relationship between motivational theory and practice of management:

To illustrate adequate application of motivational theories, I contrast two leaders of the retail industry, Tesco PLC (UK) and Wal-Mart Stores (US).

Both are dominant leaders in their own countries and highly successful, however the approaches they use to motivate their employees differ from one another. While Wal-Mart focuses on cost reduction as a factor of profit maximisation, Tesco believes motivating employees as an asset to get their profit maximisation and market share growth. The outcome of these practices show Tesco having a very good reputation amongst the public and with it's employees especially, with over 83% being very satisfied as they offer development programmes, apprenticeship schemes and privilege card schemes (TescoCorporate.com). This has led Tesco to be the largest employer in the UK and in 2004 received the 'Employer of the year award'. In contrast, Wal-Mart is highly criticized for its procedures and business strategies, which in 2006 resulted in an estimated average of 1100 lawsuits against the company. As a result, an average of 40% employee turnover each year is not unexpected and adds to the awkward reputation of the American retailer (www.Walmartfacts.com).

Applying the theories of Maslow and Herzberg to these retailing giants shows the sheer contrast of between them more clearly;

In relation to Maslow's first physiological need Tesco provides a flexible working package and offer adequate pay (higher than that of the minimum wage). However Wal-Mart only pays an average $8.23 an hour for annual wages of $13,861. The 2001 poverty line for a family of three was $14,630. Also, Wal-Mart staff are expected to work around the clock when asked without getting paid extra for the overtime put in. (Wakeupwalmart.com)

The next level of needs are the safety needs which have great concerns with the future. Tesco has a great track record of retaining staff with 84.4% kept on, exceeding their target of 80%. This could be down to holiday/sick pay, pension schemes and health benefits offered, not forgetting the positive approach Tesco takes on unionization. Wal-Mart on the other hand, displays a hostile view on union policies (www.pbs.org).

The third level of the hierarchy are the 'Love/Social needs', to satisfy these needs in the work place it is vital to create a sense of belonging and community. Sports events/teams, charity activities and celebrations are just a few ways of attending to these needs, and within a large organisation these features help employees to feel involved. An integrated atmosphere, small hierarchies and close relationships among employees add to a warm atmosphere of belonging at Tesco (Tescocorporate.com).

To add to this, Tesco encourages participation among employees by offering prizes ranging from discount vouchers to holidays. Tesco and Wal-Mart both make use of uniforms so that it helps establish a group feeling. However, at Wal-Mart high hierarchies and a 'non-personal relationship' procedure, make it difficult to satisfy these social needs (Walmartfacts.com).

The next level is the 'esteem needs', which can be satisfied by the employer if they successfully identify and match the employee's skills and ability to do a job. Managers can help further by showing recognition to workers that their work is appreciated by using an 'Employee of the week/month' award which both Tesco and Wal-Mart use. On the contrast, Wal-Mart do not offer equal opportunities especially concerning female employees, especially less than 30 years of age. In fact, less than one third of management positions in the whole of the Wal-Mart organisation are taken by females, furthermore on average they earn 7-15% less than male colleagues (Walmartfacts.com).

The final need located at the top of the hierarchy is the 'self-actualisation needs'. This is where the individual is ready to innovate and challenge ideas, plus also learn and create at high level. To fulfil these needs the employee must receive one or more of the following; training, a challenging assignment/task, job enhancement and power enrichment. Tesco provide their employees with various opportunities to develop with training schemes for all, regardless of their position/experience. In relation, this year Tesco has a 84.1% internal retention rate (exceeding their targets of 80%) and encourages employee input and inventiveness. (TescoCorporate.com)

"We believe in 'growing our own' talent: in the last three years we have appointed 27 Directors, 200 Store Managers and 8,000 Department Managers from within Tesco." - TescoCorporate.com.

In comparison, Wal-Mart focuses their career development schemes for its higher ranked workers and stop minorities from enhancing further. In a sense, this creates a social barrier and class system which would have been found back in the early 1960's/70's.

In relation to Herzberg's theory it is clear to say Wal-Mart's motivational intentions are destined to fail miserably, because the stress on motivating employees by solely relying on a sense of belonging is clearly not enough, as long as basic hygiene factors are not met.

Tesco however, seem to be fully aware of this concept and the benefits of application, since correct execution of hygiene factors for their employees allow a strong basis to build upon.

Walmartfacts.com, TescoCorporate.com

P9 (03.04.01) Describe the nature of groups and group behaviour within organizations:

A group can be defined in terms of perceptions, motivation, organization, interdependencies, and interactions. A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

 According to Marvin Shaw, "A group is two or more persons who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person."

 Another definition of group is, "an organized system of two or more individuals who are interrelated so that the system performs some function, has a standard set of role relationships among its members, and has a set of norms that regulate the function of the group and each of its members."

Groups are formed to satisfy both organizational and individual needs. They form in organizations because managers expect people working together in groups will be better able to complete and coordinate organizational tasks. Organizations of all types are forming teams to improve some aspect of the work, such as productivity or quality.

 Individuals join groups to satisfy a need. An employee may join a work group to get or keep a job. Individuals may form an informal group or join an existing one for many reasons: attraction to people in the group, to its activities, or to its goals. Some people join groups just for companionship, or to be identified as members of the group. In any case, people join groups for personal need satisfaction. In other words, they expect that they will something in return for their membership in the group.

 Understanding why groups form is important in studying individual behaviour in groups. Suppose some people join a bridge group primarily for social contact. If a more competitive player substitutes for a regular player one evening, she or he joins the group (temporarily) with the goal of playing rigorous, competitive bridge.

The substitute may be annoyed when the game slows down or stops altogether because the other players are absorbed in a discussion. The regular members, on the other hand, may be irritated when the substitute interrupts the discussion or criticizes his or her partner for faulty technique. To resolve the resulting conflict, one must understand the different reasons why each person joined the group. The inconsistencies in behaviour arise because each member is trying to satisfy a different need. To settle the dispute, the regulars and the substitute may have to be more tolerant of each other's behaviour, at least for the rest of the evening. Even if that occurs, however, the substitute player may not be invited back the next time a regular member cannot attend. Thus, understanding why people join groups sheds light on apparent inconsistencies in behaviour and the tensions likely to result from them. Managers are better equipped to manage certain kinds of conflict that arise in groups in organizations when they understand why groups form.

Marvin Shaw (2005)

P10 (03.04.02) Investigate the factors that lead to effective teamwork and the influence that threatens success:

In the management literature, the term team is often used interchangeably with the term group; however, we would like to make a distinction. Earlier we defined a group as two or more individuals who have come together to perform a function; they represent individual efforts coordinated within an existing system. In contrast, although a team is also a group, in a team the members are mutually accountable for the product or service they produce or provide.

Team Composition

When building groups and teams, an important component of performance is composition. Teams can be homogeneous (e.g., members have similar experiences, values, norms, expertise, or even ethnicity) or heterogeneous (e.g., members have differences in experiences or values). Interestingly, research presents conflicting findings regarding the relationship between diversity and performance. Some research suggests that diverse groups outperform homogeneous groups, and other research shows the homogeneous groups are better performers. P. Christopher Earley and Elaine Mosakowski interviewed and observed five teams in the Pacific Rim, working for a multinational clothing producer.

They found that both homogeneous and highly heterogeneous teams outperform moderately heterogeneous teams over time, suggesting that modestly diverse groups are the most problematic.

 Team Development

Groups and teams are essentially collections of individuals whose interactions are structured to fulfill functions, whether these be independent or mutually accountable. A successful group or team has a good understanding of its functions and an appropriate structure for achieving them.

How do groups and teams come to possess these important characteristics? Some groups achieve them through natural evolution. Other groups get a helping hand by participating in team-development activities.

Team development is defined as "an inward look by the team at its own performance, behavior, and culture for the purposes of deleting dysfunctional behaviors and strengthening functional ones." Team-development activities teach team members valuable skills related to working and getting along with others. These skills become the foundation for team effectiveness. All team-development activities share some important functions: diagnosis, change, and development.

Diagnosis:

 Team development always includes activities that focus on identifying functional and dysfunctional aspects of the group's interactions. Typically, the roles and rules for group interaction are examined and their appropriateness openly questioned. Often group members are asked to complete diagnostic questionnaires. The questionnaire might ask, for instance, how clear are the group's goals? How much consensus is there around the group's goals? The results of the questionnaire are then fed back to the group and used to stimulate awareness and discussion of problems concerning any of the five dimensions (group objectives, role differentiation, role clarity, membership and communication) of effective group interaction.

P. Christopher Earley and Elaine Mosakowsk (2005)

P11 (03.04.03) Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning in the selected organizations:

Irwin Mitchell Solicitors Structure:

There are four different areas of the UK where this organisation exists. I have focused on the Sheffield one, as that is where I was. However, they all the other sites were run in the same way that the Sheffield branch was. To look at the structure, there was a group of four to six directors for each location. Then there at Sheffield there was two sites each having their own overall/building manager. The building had about 4-5 floors where each floor had about 4 teams of workers, each floor had a supervisor who was in charge of all the departments/teams on that floor and then each department/team had a department/team leader who had typically 8 people in their team. The personnel department was located in one of the Sheffield branches and each location had their own IT technicians.

So we can see from the diagram of their structure that they are a geographical organisation operating on a combined line and staff organisation structure. There is a presence of task culture at the bottom where it is in teams and yet power culture at the top where the directors of the company make all the decisions and are seen to be very high-status and powerful. The employees of this organisation are grouped by function, this means that they are divided into sectors according to what they do, for example a sales, an accounts and a quality control department. This is good because specialists are able to work in an area with like-minded people and each part of the organisation is then pursuing their own primary function, making contributions to the overall well being of the organisation.

However, it can be bad to organise things like this because it means individuals can not move easily between departments, the organisation gets bigger and the communication channels become distorted between levels of people and also the different departments may pull in opposite directions, causing the company to focus too much on one specific area.

They are also grouped by the type of customer in some areas/cases, as they offer a service which is designed differently for depending on the customers circumstances and each different product like accidental injury area, a divorce section are in their own little divisions. This type of grouping shows clearly that each department can concentrate on its own needs, also the customer will fell more inclined to go to your company as you deal with different problems in different areas and more specifically and its easier to check on the performance of their individual product/service. Although having them grouped in this way may mean that each division will compete with each other for the companies resources, this type of structure is costly to set up and more accounting and administrative services are needed. The structure above is a very formal structure; this means that the structure is based on the employees' official roles. It also has a fairly narrow span of control.

A span of control according to Needham et al (1999 p236) is "The span of control of an individual is the number of people he or she manages of supervises directly". If an organisation has a narrow span of control this can be good because it enables close supervision and fast communications. However, it also means that the organisation might be too 'tall' meaning there is too many levels of management, this usually makes it very costly to run and also means that supervisors get too involved in their subordinates work. A wider span of control would show a much greater amount of trust in the subordinates and also mean having fewer managers; this still allows a hierarchy yet it gives fewer levels.

Signfab's Structure:

Signfab is a local sign makers which consists of the owner and two employees, they all partake in the general making of the signs but the owner/manager takes on all the accounts, advertising, purchasing, payroll and general running of the company. From the structure above you can see that this is a much less complicated structure, with a lot fewer employees. There is hardly any span of control as it only consists of the owner and two employees. This is however a good thing because it means they have direct contact and communications with their boss/manager. It is a very flat structure with only two levels. A matrix structure/organisation consists of a combination of functional departments that are specialised and in a permanent location with ones that integrate activities of different functional departments such as a project team, product, programme and system basis. So you can see that the matrix organisation is shown through a grid with a two-way flow of responsibility and authority. Organisations that chose the matrix structure are opting for this because it means that they don't have to choose one type of grouping over another. I would say that the above structure is a matrix organisation, as it is not grouped in any specific way.

There are signs of power culture as all the authority lies with the owner and he makes all the decisions very quickly. So in this structure the owner has a lot of power and authority over his/her employees/subordinates as he/she is the owner and there is no one else higher than him to constrict his reign of power. Whilst in the solicitors structure there is a great deal of restriction in the amount of power they are allowed to have over their subordinates as there is always someone higher up the structure than them that has power over them and what they can and cannot do.

The Signfab organisation is centralised as you can see that it is easy to implement policies for the organisation, the organisation on a whole is very co-ordinated, the subordinates are independent but not to a great extent, the decision making is very efficient as there is not compromise of authority when making them and they have a greater use of specialisation in what they do as an organisation. Whilst Irwin Mitchell Solicitors is more decentralised as their administrative services are close to the services they provide so that they can be more effective, opportunities for training in management arise very frequently, the staff are very encouraged by this and therefore morale is very high. Also the decisions can be made closer to the operational level of work.

Irwin Mitchell Solicitors (2010), Signfab (2010), Needham et al (1999)

M1 (01.1): Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions:

Irwin Mitchell's structure and culture are related to the organisations performance as their structure is a very tall structure and this means that they are fewer customers responsive as the communications between the managers and the employees are more complicated and not as good as they would be in a flatter structure. If their structure were more flat the managers would be nearer to the consumers and be in a better position to see and adapt to what their needs are. This is what Hertzberg suggests in the Human Relations approach. That the employees should not be treated as another part of the machinery their values and relationships should be seen and heard, this improves the morale of the workforce as they are at last being acknowledged. This acknowledgement of the workers and their values brought about an increase in their motivation and so the performance of the organisation would increase too. Irwin Mitchell solicitors take in to account the human relations approach to some extent as the workers values, relationships and suggestions are taken into account. This is seen by the fact that they hold functions at Christmas time for the employees to attend where they are rewarded for their hard work throughout the year.

M3 (01.2): Present and communicate appropriate findings:

There is also more delegation in a flat structure as there is usually less managers and they would not necessarily be able to carry out all the work that double their amount of managers would have and therefore delegate some of this work to their subordinates, this improves the employees morale and is a good way of motivating them in to working harder so that the businesses performance will also increase. As Irwin Mitchell Solicitors has a tall structure their employees are less motivated and the morale is not always very good within the teams, meaning that the organisations performance is not as good as it could be. They do operate a Kaizen culture though, this is where the employees can suggest things that they think would help or improve the organisation. These are usually small things and are implemented gradually so that the performance of the firm will to improve gradually. This type of culture improves the employees moral, motivation to the company as they are rewarded for their efforts/suggestions if they succeed.

D1 (01.1): Use critical reflection to evaluate on work and justify valid conclusions/ D2 (01.2): Take responsibility for managing and organizing activities / D3 (01.3): Demonstrate convergent/lateral/creative thinking:

The Purpose of management is to set collective goals for the organisation and communicate to members of the organisation. They make sure these goals are met organisational structures and systems are designed to make members 'pull' together and so that resources are utilised efficiently and effectively.

They also create and sustain a corporate identity and culture; they look after the interests of the organisation's stakeholders too. Managers need to control what goes on in their department, they also need to make sure that everything is co-ordinated otherwise things won't happen properly and problems will start to occur. They are very commanding in order to get jobs done properly and on time and also to show that they are the ones with the authority, i.e. the one who is in charge, what I say goes.

Management are given many different types of authority so that they can then implement what they have to do in their role as a manager.

They have power, which is the ability to do something or get others to do it. Their authority gives them the right to do something or get others to do it. Along with these comes responsibility, which is where the liability of a person is called into account for the way authority has been exercised. Finally there are also able to delegate, this means that they give a subordinate authority over a defined area of which is within their own scope of authority, they hand over work to someone else but and not rid of the responsibility and work fully.

Managers have a number of roles; they consist of interpersonal, informational and decisional. A man called Henry Mintzberg in 1973 identified these roles.

An interpersonal role is one that shows leadership, and consists of figurehead, leader and liaison. The interpersonal role has a very important factor known as 'coaching'. According to Needham et al (1999 p214) "Coaching is an ongoing process in which one person works closely with another to develop skills and abilities". An interpersonal manager would need to be a good coach I order to be effective.

They build one-to-one relationships with the people they work with in order to build up loyalty and support and at the same time they unleash their full potential.

The informational role is an administrating role and consists of monitoring, disseminator and spokesman. Managers in this role are supposed to be able to process information with confidence. They are also supported by information technology in this role, they need to be able to adapt to the changes that happen to rapidly in this environment.

The decisional role is a kind of fixing role and involves entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. The managers in this type of role have to make decisions; this means they need to choose courses of action from a set of different alternatives available. There are two main type of decisions, programmed and non-programmed. Herbert Simon (1957, cited in Needham et al 1999 p214) says that Programmed decisions "are straight forward, repetitive and routine, so that they can be dealt with by a formal pattern" and that Non-programmed decisions "are novel, unstructured and consequential. There is no cut-and-dried method for handling situations that have not arisen before".

Over the years the way people thought about management and the way they implemented different strategies has changed vastly. To start with back in the early 1900's there was a scientific approach to management brought about by a man called F W Taylor. Each work process was to be analysed and then by a scientific method it was possible to find the best way for people to do their task or job. Taylor's thought was that in the same way that there is one special machine that was best for doing one certain job, there is one specific way by which people should undertake their jobs. They would get what was described as a fair days pay for a fair days pay. If workers were to take up Taylor's methods of working their wages would increase due to it being a more efficient and productive way of working and thus they would become more motivated.

However, when actually implemented there became strong criticisms and reactions to his scientific management methods as workers actually found the work boring and weren't interested, as it required very little skill from them. The workers saw this as disempowerment of them and didn't like it. So although this was one of the very first approaches to management Drucker (1976, cited in Management and Organisational Behaviour, 1999 p52) says "Taylor's greatest impact may still be ahead.

The need to study Taylor anew and apply him may be the greatest in the developed countries" suggesting that we may still need to use this theory in present day organisations.

Moving on into the 1920's brought Webber and Fayol with their classical administration/bureaucracy approach to management.

This type of management brought sets of official positions, with rules for experts and rules for officials. It showed clear hierarchical authority structure. Impersonal actions by managers in dealing with clients and other workers were seen in order to get rational judgements and a good performance of duties.

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