Talking In Terms Of Competence Commerce Essay

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Today organizations are all talking in terms of competence. Gone are the days when people used to talk in terms of skill sets, which would make their organizations competitive. There have been shifts in the focus of the organizations. Now they believe in excelling and not competing. It's better to build a core competency that will see them through crisis. And what other way than to develop the people, for human resource is the most valuable resource any organization has.

Organizations of the future will have to rely more on their competent employees than any other resource. It's major factor that determines the success of an organization. Competencies are the inner tools for motivating employees, directing systems and processes and guiding the business towards common goals that allow the organizations to increase its value. Competencies provide a common language and method that can integrate all the major HR functions and services like Recruitment, Training, performance management, Remuneration, Performance appraisal, Career and succession planning and integrated Human resource management system.

Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for organizational applications such as:

• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization

• Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles

• Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization

• Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles

• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques

Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual's behavior.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

THE ROOTS OF COMPETENCY APPROACH:

Michael Crozier shocked the management community by defining the organization as imperfect social compromises .Far from being scientific constructs he depicted a complex organization as a reflection of its actual degree of competency.

Despite a growing interest of competency among mangers and human resource professionals in recent years, the modern competency movement in industrial-organizational psychology actually dates from the mid1950's and early 1970's.

In that regard, John Flanagan's work (1954) and Dave McClelland's studies (1970) might be cited as two landmark efforts that originally invented the concept of competency. Concept maps were invented by Joseph Novak in the 1960s for use as a teaching tool. Later in 1986 William Trochim developed the concept map into a strategic planning tool for use in the design of organizational components. Trochim's technique differs significantly from Novak's original school of thought. While Novak's maps are generated for an individual, Trochim's are generated by a group.

HISTORY OF COMPETENCIES:

John Flanagan (1954)

A seminal article published by John Flanagan in 1954 established Critical Incidents Technique as a precursor to the key methodology used in rigorous competency studies. Based on studies of US Air Force pilot performance, Flanagan concluded that "the principle objective of job analysis procedures should be the determination of critical requirements. These requirements include those which have been demonstrated to have made the difference between success and failure in carrying out an important part of the job assigned in a significant number of instances". From here, critical incidents technique was originally discovered.

Critical incidents itself can be defined as a set of procedures for systematically identifying behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individuals or organizations in specific situations.

Flanagan's work, while not strictly about competencies, was important because it laid the foundation for a new approach to examining what people do. In a later form, the critical incidents technique would resurface to focus around significant behavioral events that distinguish between exemplary and fully-successful performers.

It is Flanagan's critical incidents technique that sixteen years later inspires David McClelland to discover and develop the term of "competency".

Benjamin Bloom (USA)

In mid fifties BENJAMIN laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives by defining KSA, s needed to be developed in education. The educational objectives developed by them were grouped under the cognitive domain.

David McClelland (Harvard Psychologist)

He pioneered the Competency Movement across the world and made it a global concept. His classic books on Talent and Society, Achievement motive, The Achieving Society, Motivating economic achievement and power the inner experience brought out several new dimensions of the competency. These competencies exposed by Mc .Cleland dealt with effective domain in Bloom's terminology.

COMPETENCY

Any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task, activity or role successfully can be considered as competency. Competency may take Knowledge, Attitude, Skill, Other characteristics of an individual including, Motives, Values, Traits, Self Concept

It can be compared with an iceberg as shown in the figure below:

MEANING AND CONCEPT OF COMPETENCY MAPPING

It is a process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a give job or role or a set tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent's task or activities and identifying the competencies (Technical, managerial, Behavioral, conceptual knowledge and Attitude and skills etc) needed to perform the same successfully.

Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual's competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual's current career plan.

Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role

Competency profiling It is the process of identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and judgment required for effective performance in a particular occupation or profession. Competency profiling is business/company specific.

STEPS IN COMPETENCY MAPPING:

The Steps involved in competency mapping with an end result of job evaluation include the following:

1: Identify departments for competency profiling:

2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels:

3: Obtain the job descriptions:

4: Preparation of semi structured interview:

5: Recording of interview details:

6: Preparation of a list of Skills:.

7: Indicate proficiency levels:

8: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with immediate superiors and other heads of the concerned department:

9: Preparation of competency dictionary:

10: Mapping of competencies

COMPETENCY MODEL:

The roots of competency modeling date as far back as the early 1900's but these models have become widely popular these days. A competency model is an organizing framework that lists the competencies required for effective performance in a specific job, job family (e.g., group of related jobs), organization, function, or process. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce performance.

The competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of formats. No one approach is inherently best; organizational needs will determine the optimal framework. A common approach is to identify several competencies that are essential for all employees and then identify several additional categories of competencies that apply only to specific subgroups. Some competency models are organized according to the type of competency, such as leadership, personal effectiveness, or technical capacity. Other models may employ a framework based on job level, with a basic set of competencies for a given job family and additional competencies added cumulatively for each higher job level within the job family

Skills + Knowledge + Ability

=

Competency

=

Observable Behavior

=

Effective Outcomes [Performance on Job]

=

Strategic Success Modeling - A Competency Model

TRADITIONAL JOB ANALYSIS VS. COMPETENCY APPROACH

Job Analysis leads to long lists of tasks and the skills / knowledge required to perform each of those data generation from subject matter experts; job incumbents effective Performance.

Competency model leads to a distilled set of underlying personal characteristics data generation from outstanding performers in addition to subject matter experts and other job incumbent's outstanding performance.

The approach allows executives and managers to make a distinction between a person's ability to do specific tasks at the minimum acceptable level and the ability to do the whole job in an outstanding fashion

USE OF COMPETENCY MAPPING

Competency mapping serves a number of purposes. It is done for the following functions:

Gap Analysis

Role Clarity

Selection, Potential Identification, Growth Plans.

Succession Planning.

Restructuring

Inventory of competencies for future planning

Competency based recruitment

Competency based interviews reduce the risk of making a costly hiring mistake and increase the likelihood of identifying and selecting the right person for the right job

Competency based Performance Appraisal

Competencies Enable

Establishment of clear high performance standards.

Collection and proper analysis of factual data against the set standards.

Conduct of objective feedback meetings.

Direction with regard to specific areas of improvement

Competency based training

Competency based appraisal process leading to effective identification of training needs.

Opportunity to identify/ develop specific training programmers - Focused training investment.

Focused Training enabling improvement in specific technical and managerial competencies.

Competency based Development

1.) Contribute to the understanding of what development really mean, giving the individual the tools to take responsibility for their own development.

2.) Give the line managers a tool to empower them to develop people..

AREA OF IMPLEMENTATION

ROLE OF COMPETENCY IN IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS AND SUCCESSION PLANNING.

The effectiveness of the training function is heavily dependent upon effectiveness of processes used to identifying training needs. This is the first critical step on the road to competence development and performance enhancement.

An inadequacy at this stage cascades to all the subsequent training processes.

TRANINING LEADING TO SUCCESSION PLANNING:

DEFINITION:

As a general definition, "Succession Planning" is the process of preparing to hand over control. Specifically, business succession planning is the process of preparing to hand over control of the business to others in a way that is the least disruptive to the business's operations and value.

Succession planning is traditionally defined as "a means of identifying critical management positions, starting at the level of manager and supervisor and extending up to the highest position in the organization.

Succession planning and management is a deliberate and systematic effort by an organization to ensure the continued long-term effective performance of an organization, division, department or work group by:

Identifying, developing, retaining and replacing talented individuals in positions over time.

Retaining and developing intellectual and knowledge capital for the future

Encouraging individual learning, growth and advancement

SUCCESSION PLANNING is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. The succession planning process, develop the knowledge, skills, and abilities of superior employees and prepare them for advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles.

COMPETENCY BASED SUCCESSION PLANNING AT MMTC.

Through the succession planning process, MMTC try to retain superior employees because they appreciate the time, attention, and development that the organization is investing in them. To effectively do succession planning in the organization, one must identify the skills, knowledge and abilities of employees at various levels. After identifying it is mapped by the process called Competency Mapping. In this process the gaps are determined between the existing and required performance of the employees. After identifying the gaps the superior employees are identified. These are the ones who are further trained for higher job positions.

INTRODUCTION OF MMTC LIMITED:

ABOUT THE COMPANY:

Established in 1963, MMTC, one of the two highest foreign exchange earners for India, is a leading international trading company with a turnover of over US$ 5 billion. It is the largest international trading company of India and the first Public Sector Enterprise to be accorded the status of "FIVE STAR EXPORT HOUSE" by Govt. of India for long standing contribution to exports. MMTC is the largest non-oil importer in India. MMTC's diverse trade activities encompass Third Country Trade, Joint Ventures, and Link Deals - all modern day tools of international trading. It is vast international trade network, which includes a wholly owned international subsidiary in Singapore, spans almost in all countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania and Americas, giving MMTC global market coverage.

CORPORATE MISSION:

As the largest trading company of India and a major trading company of Asia, MMTC aims at improving its position further by achieving sustainable and viable growth rate through excellence in all its activities, generating optimum profits through total satisfaction of shareholders, customers, suppliers, employees and society..

CORPORATE OBJECTIVES:

1.) To be a leading International Trading House in India operating in the competitive global trading environment, with focus on "bulk" as core competency and to improve returns on capital employed.

2.) To retain the position of single largest trader in the country for product lines like minerals, metals and precious metals.

3.) To promote development of trade-related infrastructure.

4.) To support services to the medium and small scale sectors.

5.) To render high quality of services to all categories of customers with professionalism and efficiency.

6.) To streamline system within the company for settlement of commercial disputes.

BUSINESS OF MMTC:

India's leading exporter of Minerals:

MMTC is major global player in the minerals trade and is the single largest exporter of minerals from India. With its comprehensive infrastructural expertise to handle minerals, the company provides full logistic support from procurement, quality control to guaranteed timely deliveries of minerals from different ports, through a wide network of regional and port offices in India, as well as international subsidiary.

MMTC has won the top export award from Chemicals and Allied Products Export Promotion Council (CAPEXIL) as the largest exporter of minerals from India for the sixteenth year in a row.

One of the world's largest buyers of Fertilizers:

As a leading player in fertilizers and fertilizer raw material, MMTC has become a major fertilizer marketing company in India, through planned forward integration of its import activities with the direct marketing of Urea, DAP, MOP Sulphur, Rock Phosphate, SSP and other farming and agricultural inputs.

The single largest bullion trader in the Indian subcontinent:

MMTC is the largest importer of gold and silver in the Indian sub continent, handling about 100 MT of gold and 500 MT of silver annually. MMTC has opened a retail jewellery showroom at Maker Bhawan in Mumbai. MMTC supplies branded hallmarked gold and studded jewellery. MMTC has also opened a DUTY FREE jewellery store in the Departure Lounge at Sahara International Airport, Mumbai, India. An assay and hallmarking unit has been set up at New Delhi for testing the purity of gold and gold articles in accordance with the internationally accepted fire assay method. Besides organizing major jeweler exhibitions abroad, exclusively, MMTC is keen to set up manufacturing & joint ventures for modern jeweler in association with leading names in the international jeweler trade as well as marketing.

The biggest importer of non ferrous metals and industrial raw material to India:

MMTC is India's largest seller of imported non-ferrous metals viz. copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, tin and nickel. It also sells imported minor metals like magnesium, antimony, silicon and mercury, as also industrial raw materials like asbestos and also steel and its products. Major institutional customers of MMTC in India are accredited with ISO-9002 status. MMTC sources its metals from empanelled suppliers including producers and traders throughout the world.

MMTC is a proud winner of gold trophy for exports of Engineering and Metallurgical product in non-SSI Sector.

Growing interest in Agro Products world wide:

MMTC is amongst the leading Indian exporters and importers of agro products. The company's bulk exports include commodities such as rice, wheat, wheat flour, soy meal, pulses, sugar, processed foods and plantation products like tea, coffee, jute etc.

MMTC also undertakes extensive operations in oilseed extraction, from the procurement of seeds to the production of de-oiled cakes for export, as well as the production of edible oil for domestic consumption. It also imports edible oils. MMTC has won the gold trophy from FIEO for highest exports in agriculture & plantation product in non-SSI Sector.

General Trading:

MMTC also handles items like textiles, Mulberry raw silk, building materials, marine products, chemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, processed foods, hydro carbons, coal and coke.

An Integrated global trader with bulk handling capabilities:

Its comprehensive infrastructure for bulk cargo handling, with well developed arrangements for rail and road transportation, warehousing, port and shipping, operations, gives MMTC complete control over trade logistics, both for exports and imports.

The company's countrywide domestic network is spread over 75 regional, sub-regional, port and field offices, warehouses and procurement centers.

Social and welfare activities:

MMTC's social and welfare activities promote welfare of the employees through various schemes like sports activities, liberal loan facilities like house building advance, conveyance loan, house hold loan, marriage advance, etc. MMTC also provides subsidized canteen facilities, medical treatment, and residential accommodation in some of the major cities for its employees. MMTC also takes care of employees' families through merit scholarship, tuition fee reimbursement, etc.

MMTC is committed towards environmental upkeepment through a forestation in the mining areas, development of tribal areas and infrastructure development through rail links, port facilities, etc.

HR POLICIES AT MMTC

MMTC focuses on fashioning HR policies towards providing more non-monetary incentives stemming from job satisfaction, diverse learning opportunities and wider exposure to ever-changing global business environment. MMTC Ltd., which is a global trading organization and one of Asia's leading trading companies, has been the first corporate in the public sector to realize the vital role which online trading has come to occupy in today's global business.

HR mantra in MMTC is to provide more and more job enrichment opportunities to all so as to ensure that employees remain motivated to realize their full potential for organizational goals and self-development. Opportunities are also provided to all to enrich their knowledge base and technical skills through in-house training programs and through trainings/seminars organized by reputed outside agencies. Human resource development in MMTC, therefore, is a continuous exercise compatible with the change in business patterns and technological innovations in an era of diversification and search for new business opportunities. Notwithstanding the culture of a public sector organization, we in MMTC realize that our most important asset is the employee. We design our HR policies to meet the above objective. Following are some of the HR policies followed in MMTC.

In an IT driven culture, computer literacy is imparted to all employees

Non-graduate employees are encouraged through various incentive schemes to become graduates. Likewise, post-graduate qualifications are encouraged through incentives for promotion to higher levels.

Graduate employees are encouraged to obtain professional qualifications through corporate sponsorships.

Through job rotation employees are constantly motivated to acquire knowledge and operational skills in different areas of company's operations. This exercise obviously prepares employees for managing higher positions more competently.

As an incentive to better performers, merit based promotions are considered.

Regular training programs for upgrading employee skills, knowledge and attitudes, in areas like IT, ERP, e-commerce, international trading practices, general management techniques etc. are organized in an effort to keep employee morale and commitment high.

Specialization is encouraged in higher management positions through specialized management development programs arranged within India and outside India. LME training, hedging in metals, global bullion pricing, third country trading, offshore trading, and counter-trade mechanism are some of such specialized trainings.

General management training programs for all categories of managers are periodically organized through reputed institutions like IIM, ASCI, IIFT and MDI etc.

Periodical training programs are also organized for the development of SC/ST/OBC employees and women employees.

In short, corporate philosophy at MMTC towards HR is to ensure continuous development of human resource for fast changing global business through individual freedom and flexibility.

MMTC --- MAJOR DEPARTMENTS:

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

HR mantra in MMTC is to provide more and more job enrichment opportunities to all so as to ensure that employees remain motivated to realize their full potential for organizational goals and self-development. Opportunities are also provided to all to enrich their knowledge base and technical skills through in-house training programmes and through trainings/seminars organized by reputed outside agencies. Human resource development in MMTC, therefore, is a continuous exercise compatible with the change in business patterns and technological innovations in an era of diversification and search for new business opportunities

Department structure

Deputy General Manager → Manager → Deputy Manager

Functions

The human resource department at MMTC LIMITED chiefly conducts the training and development program for employees. Its chief functions are:

Developmental Activities.

Looking for avenues for developing and imparting training to employees.

Being at par with the Commodity Dept. in matters related to latest matters.

Actively involved in approaching BBA and MBA colleges for taking students as Interns as a part of CSR.

Proactive in nature to understand the requirements of various Departments.

Calling external Trainers to train the employees on various.

To undertake various HR initiatives in Accordance with an Annual Business Plan.

To organize Training inputs for officers/Staff of MMTC.

To prepare Annual Business Plan for the various HR activities.

To prepare Annual Training Calendar.

To implement the Annual Business Plan.

To undertake Training Need Analysis.

To organize Training in Accordance with Annual Training Calendar

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

The personnel department is one of the most important departments of MMTC LIMITED. It handles multivariate tasks like recruitment, corporate social responsibility, industrial relation, promotions etc

Department structure

Deputy General Manager → Senior Manager → Manager → Deputy Manager

Functions

Managing the terminal benefits, welfare and creating viable policies in tune with the company Goals.

Managing the process of separation of employees and ensuring their terminal benefits are settled and paid to them in time.

Ensuring Healthy implementation of all welfare schemes for the benefit of employees.

Reviewing the made plans.

Recruitment, SC/ST matters.

Recruitment at all levels in MMTC.

Recruitment at senior levels in NINL.

Maintenance of SC/ST/OBC reservations details.

Appointment of Consultants.

Organizational discipline.

Framing of Memorandum, Charge Sheets show Cause Notice.

Issuance of Penalty letters and maintaining discipline within the organization with the help of appropriate rules in nullifying the acts of misconduct.

ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT:

The administration department at MMTC is the largest .It has various other sub-divisions.

Department structure

Deputy General Manager → Manager

The names of the subdivisions of various departments are as follows:

1.) Care Taking Cell

2.) Purchase and supply of Stationary Departments

3.) Printing of Stationary Items

3.) Maintenance of office equipments

4.) Security

5.) Medical

6.) Record Room

ESTATE DEPARTMENT

MMTC has real estate all over India .e.g.: Core1, Jhandewalan etc.

MMTC has one corporate office, twelve regional offices.

Department structure

Deputy General Manager → Manager → Deputy Manager

OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT

RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT

Competency mapping has been done by many organizations. The process becomes challenging in the absence of job descriptions .As MMTC doesn't have job descriptions so the major emphasis was to frame the job descriptions and then map competencies accordingly. Hence following objectives were taken-

OBJECTIVE:

Understand the concept of competency mapping in today's business environment and its relevance at MMTC

To develop job descriptions for the various functions (designation wise) to gain deeper understanding of the requirements at different position.

Establish proficiency levels required for each competency identified for a particular position.

Develop a competency dictionary.

To develop a competency model as applicable for the various managerial position at MMTC.

COMPETENCY MAPPING AT MMTC LIMITED

CONCEPT OF COMPETENCY IN MMTC

Competency is a very new concept in MMTC .There was no job descriptions and specifications in the company. So this project acts as a foundation for the company in its venture into competency based practices.

JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND JOB SPECIFICATIONS

What is a job?

A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct.

What is a job description?

Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis.

Components of job description:

Job

Job title

Job summary

Duties and responsibility

Working hours

Work orientation

Job specifications

Why job descriptions?

Job descriptions are used especially for advertising to fill an open position, determining compensation and as a basis for performance reviews.

How to frame job descriptions?

Job descriptions are framed by conducting job analysis.

Job analysis:

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.

The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.

Purpose of Job Analysis

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.

Determining training needs

Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:

training content

assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training

Equipment to be used in delivering the training.

Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)

Compensation

Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

skill levels

compensable job factors

work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)

responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)

required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection

Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:

job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;

appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;

minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;

interview questions;

selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);

applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;

orientation materials for applicants/new hires

Performance review

Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:

goals and objectives

performance standards

evaluation criteria

length of probationary periods

duties to be evaluated

A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.

The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.

What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?

Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:

Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.

Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.

Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.

Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.

Requirements The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA' s) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA' s than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.

JOB ANALYSIS AT MMTC:

Purpose

The purpose of job analysis at MMTC was to frame job descriptions for the following positions of four departments namely-HR, Estate, Personnel and Administration..

DGM

Senior Manager

Manager

Deputy manager

Steps

1.) Interview with the employees

2.) A pilot study at the DGM level

3.) Framing of job evaluation form

4.) Conducting the study

5.) Framing of job descriptions

1.) Interview:

A face to face interview of the DGM 's of the HUMAN RESOURCE, ADMINISTRATION ,ESTATE AND PERSONNEL department was taken to gain an insight into the working of the departments and to also know about the responsibility and duties of the DGM' s.

2.) Pilot study:

On the basis of the interview a job description evaluation form was prepared .The form was filled by the DGM's. The feedback on the form was not able to give the relevant information. It had a number of shortcomings and more over the lengthy nature of the form made it monotonous. It failed to give the desired response.

3.) Framing of job evaluation form:

So a modified form was prepared which was easy and simple in nature

4.) Conducting the final study:

Then the study was conducted for the following job positions at human resource, administration, personnel and estate:-Deputy General Manager, Senior Manager, Manager and Deputy Manager.

STEPS FOR CONDUCTING COMPETENCY MAPPING AT MMTC Limited

The Steps involved in competency mapping with an end result of job evaluation include the following:

Step 1 : Identify departments for competency profiling:

Here we have to decide and select the departments within the organization which we would like to include into our study. It is to be noted that departments should be chosen based on their criticality and importance to the organization .At MMTC LIMITED there are number departments. For this project four departments have been considered namely being human resource department, personnel department, administration department and estate department.

Step 2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels:

Study the organization hierarchy across each of the selected departments. For MMTC LIMITED hierarchy. For the purpose of the study here we have selected Junior Management (Deputy Manager and Manager) and Middle Management (Sr. Manager and Deputy General Manager.)

Step 3: Obtain the job descriptions:

For the two levels at every department we obtained each role's job description and in cases where they were not available we conducted a detailed interview to derive a job description.

Step 4: Preparation of semi structured interview:

As one of the tools for collecting information we prepared a list of questions that

would make up a semi structured interview. These questions were put forth

employees at the two levels.

Step 5: Recording of interview details:

The candidate's answers and opinions were recorded in as much detail as possible for further reference during the project.

Step 6: Preparation of a list of Skills:

As per the interview and the details that were generated from the candidate, were used to generate a list of skills observed for the job. Thereon a list of identified competencies was drawn for each interviewed candidate.

Step 7: Indicate proficiency levels:

Taking one competency level at a time different proficiency levels were indicated. For the project five levels of proficiency were defined for every competency. Each proficiency level was defined in term of behavioral indicators.

Step 8: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with immediate superiors and other heads of the concerned department:

Competency definitions were confirmed with respective Head Of Department's and the required proficiency levels of each competency that is ideal for each role was obtained from them. Missing competencies were located

Step9: Preparation of competency dictionary:

A competency dictionary defining competencies and corresponding proficiency levels for each level across all departments was prepared.

Step 10: Mapping of competencies:

Mapping of competencies of selected employees against the competency dictionary as per their employee level and department was done. Here an employee's actual proficiency level of a particular competency was mapped against the target proficiency level.

COMPETENCY DICTIONARY

1.) BUSINESS AWARENESS:

Definition: Understanding and utilizing economic, financial, and industry data to accurately diagnose business strengths and weaknesses, identifying key issues, and developing strategies and plans.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Able to continually identify and explore business opportunities.

Financial acumen.(accurate knowledge about the financial resources.)

Knowledge of company products.

Overview of business.

Understanding the Industry

BUDGET MANAGEMENT:

Definition: Understanding of the available resources and utilizing them in the best possible manner by remaining within the amount allotted to do a particular task.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Has the basic understanding of expenditures and revenues of the department.

Ability to assess the necessary expenditures.

Capable of framing budgets.

Ability to utilize the amount allotted to the department as planned.

Ability of utilize the limited resources in an optimum manner.

CHANGE ORIENTATION:

Definition: The ability to manage and accept changes.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Demonstrates capacity to identify changes.

Involves employee in initiating and implementing changes.

Reshapes the team to deal with challenges created by changes.

Generates innovations and creative ideas which assist in progressing. The change process.

Ability to support innovation and creativity by encouraging staff to accept and resolve changes.

4.) COMMUNICATION:

Definition: Clearly conveying information and ideas through a variety of media to individuals or groups in a manner that engages the audience and helps them understand and retain the message.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Listening and Interpretation, establishing rapport, understanding needs.

Speak confidently, gives clear direct and specific message.

Is able to provide information in desired manner. Is able to communicate ideas.

Is able to read, write, speak and follow instructions in order to perform his role.

Understands the reasons behind other people's thoughts and concerns. Uses this understanding to predict and prepare for others'reactions.

COORDINATION:

Definition: The process of facilitating the flow of work for a purpose or procedure and the ability to monitor or regulate those procedures and activities.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Builds effectively team within a function/ country.

Encourages and supports colleagues to achieve goals.

Develops information-sharing networks

Creates team effectiveness using people skills.

Able to facilitate the flow of work for a process.

CONTROLLING:

Definition: Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set and applied.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Ability to exercise powers.

Keep a check on the working system.

Ability to allocate decision making authority or task responsibility to others

Ability to exercise control without compelling employees thus avoiding employee dissent.

Ability to convince others on a particular course of action.

DECISION MAKING:

Definition: The capacity to make sound and practical decisions which deal effectively with the issues and are based on thorough analysis and diagnosis.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Knowledge of and ability to use effective approaches for choosing a course of action or developing appropriate solutions.

Is capable of understanding of various scenarios for effective decision decision making.

Takes proactive decisions and calculate risk involved. Is committed to decisions.

Is able to give opinions when collective decisions are required.

Takes decisions mutually based on the facts. Accepts delegated authority and acts with span of control.

8.) DEVELOPING OTHERS:

Definition: To plan and support the development of others through a competency based system.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

The desire and capacity to foster and development of members of his or her team.

Is able to make an objective assessment of individual's performance

Assess employee training needs against set goals.

Implement development programs to support staffs in achieving performance goals.

Has the knowledge of development procedures.

INITIATIVE:

Definition: The capacity to take action independently and to assume responsibility for one's action.

LEVELS:

LEVELS 1

LEVELS 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Takes initiative to try out new ideas at his work place to improve process.

Challenges the status quo and suggest new ways to improve the current system.

Voice ideas on business issues without prompting, adopts changes in work place.

Able to take prompt action to accomplish objectives.

Continuously suggests innovative changes and can translate the innovative ideas into concrete changes.

10.) INTERPERSONAL SKILLS:

Definition: Develop effective relationships with others.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Ability to develop and maintain effective relationships with others in order to encourage and support communication and teamwork.

Open and honest in his communication.

Can establish a rapport wide range .Coaches and support team.

Shares expertise in achieving team goals. Can bring people in achieving team and resolving conflict arising within.

Cooperates with the team, get along with the people.

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT:

Definition: It is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Knows what information is needed and whom to approach.

Uses a wide variety of networks to collect information on key issues.

Use existing information and resources to its maximum advantage.

Develop systems to organize and improve the quality of information and data collection.

Collect the right information for the right time.

LEADERSHIP:

Definition: Leadership is an interpersonal influence directed towards the achievement of a goal or goals.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Recognizes conflicts and acts accordingly. Senses the need to assign duties to people and delegating.

Clear about who should be given which tasks?

Coaches people when required and open to give advice when asked.

Assigns responsibility to different people according to their capability and sets deadlines for the same.

Takes advantage of most opportunities, could do more to leverage them through others.

Foresee the conflicts and tries to minimize the same before it arises, thus takes necessary steps.

MOTIVATION:

Definition: Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Encourages the employees whenever required.

Creates and maintains a positive environment.

Finds out what motivates employees and tries to provide it.

To guide.

Keeps employee well informed.

PLANNING AND ORGANIZING:

Definition: Establishing courses of action for self and others to ensure that work is completed efficiently.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Diaries appointments and keeps to them on time. Can prioritize tasks and recognize the difference between urgent and important tasks.

Meets deadlines, delivers work on time without sacrificing quality.

Is a positive influence on the use of time in-group meetings - helps maintain focus.

Able to assist other team members where necessary to formulate objectives.

Accountable for preparation and delivery of plans for an activity or project undertaken by a work group or team.

Is effective in planning the best balance of resources including human, financial and technological to meet goals.

Ability of arrange and assign work to use resources efficiently.

PROBLEM SOLVING:

Definition: Processes problems into solutions and new opportunities.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Ability to identify problems.

Determine possible solutions.

Work actively to resolve the issues.

Ability to handle outcomes arising out of the solutions suggested and implemented

Identifies and educates others to focus on causes, not symptoms, of problems and works co operatively to seek solutions.

RETENTION:

Definition: Employee retention is a process in which the employees are encouraged to remain with the organization for the maximum period of time or until the completion of the project.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Has a basic understanding of employee turnover.

Able to understand reasons for employee turnover.

Ability to develop plans to reduce attrition.

Takes actions and implements plans to check attritions

Create a feeling of recognition among the employees.

RECORD KEEPING:

Definition: Ability to handle documents

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Has a basic understanding of various kinds of records.

Ability to make entries.

Can interact with various departments and prepare records accordingly.

Ability to interpret the records and take decisions accordingly

Capable of keeping up to date records.

STRATEGIC ORIENTATION:

Definition: It is an inclination to formulate strategies with long term objectives..

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Takes a long term and visionary view of the direction to be followed in the future.

Identifies gaps and seeks to overcome them.

Sets targets, monitors efficiency and effectiveness.

Decides on optimum work approach.

Takes on challenging but achievable goals.

SELECTION:

Definition: selection is a process to choosing the best among st available alternatives. It is finding right person for the right job.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Has a basic knowledge of selection procedures

Ability to recognize skills and talents around.

Ability to screen candidates and conduct interview.

Ability to select the right candidate for the organization.

Can interact with various universities and suggest recruitment trips.

20.) TEAM MANAGEMENT:

Definition: Actively participating as a member of a team to move the team toward the completion of goals.

LEVELS:

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

Participates willingly with the team by doing his/her share of the teams'work. Works well within the team environment to establish constructive ideas or solutions that meet organizational objective.

Takes in charge of managing the whole business and completing it at the right time.

Takes action outside daily work routine to build commitment to the team as a focus. Models teamwork in own behavior.

Uses strategies to promote team effectiveness across the business such as providing information to other areas of the organization to help make decisions collaboratively and sharing resources to solve mutual problems.

Communicates information about the business to management and employees. Actively organizes activities aimed at building team spirit

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

RESEARCH TOOL AND QUESTIONNAIRE

Forms were prepared after consultation with the guide. Several forms were studied on internet. It was prepared after gaining a clear understanding of the competency concepts.

ACTION PLAN FOR DATA COLLECTION

Steps to be followed:

Job evaluation

Job analysis

Framing of job description

Identifying the competencies and framing competency level.

Forming a competency dictionary

Mapping of executive competencies of departments namely HR, Personnel, Estate and Administration

Finding competencies gap

Identifying training needs

Acting as a channel for business development

RESEARCH FINDINGS

The important findings of this study are

Identification of competency levels of employees.

Discovery of competency gaps.

Identification of training needs.

A step towards succession planning by identifying their KPA's and rating their performance.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

In the present chapter investigator would like to give a summary and conclusions of the obtained results

. After a thorough study of the topic following objectives were framed:

1.) To develop job descriptions for the various functions (designation wise)

2.) To identify the KPA'S (Key Performance Areas) of the desired levels

In four departments

3.) Develop a competency dictionary

4.) Establish proficiency levels required for each competency identified for a particular position.

5.) To develop a competency model as applicable for the various managerial positions at MMTC

6.) To prepare the employees for succession plan by improving their KPA's through proper training.

For framing job descriptions and specifications data was obtained from employees with the help of carefully structured forms. After obtaining the data from the sample of employees, the data was carefully analyzed and job descriptions and specifications were framed.

After framing the job description and specification a competency framework was developed for each job position under study .There were 10 competencies for each job position. Out of these 10 competencies 5 were the general competencies that was common to all the four departments (Human Resource Development, Estate, Personnel and Administration) and 5 were the functional competencies which was department specific. A five point scale was developed to rate the competencies and determine the levels.

It was found that training is required in all the four departments at every level. The details about the people who require training is given in the following chart.

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