Abstract: The research on ambidextrous organizational innovation has neglected the roles of human resource practice architecture. Drawing on the ambidexterity perspective, it is very important to establish a human resource practice architecture which contains complementary HR practice configurations. This framework built the chain of relationship among human resource practice architecture, ambidextrous learning and ambidextrous organizational innovation along with the research findings of social capital, organization learning and innovation theory. Besides, the moderation of environment competition in this chain has been discussed and tested. It is tested the hypothesis by using Chinese sample in this paper. The findings reveal that human resource practice architecture makes up of complementary configurations is a key antecedent of ambidextrous organizational innovation through the mediating role of ambidextrous organizational learning. Finally, it is discussed of the conclusion, significance and contribution in this research.
Key words: human resource practice architecture, ambidextrous organizational learning, ambidextrous technology innovation, environment competition
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Faced with the dynamic competition environment and abbreviation of production lifecycle, enterprises should on one side hold on the present resources to make incremental innovation and on the other side deal with the new opportunities and threats to make radical innovation. Therefore, it is the key question for organizations to cultivate these two kinds of innovation capabilities. In the practice, although there is a great level of incremental innovation, the radical innovation has not been improved too much. It sets obstacles in the process of cultivating the lasting competition advantage, which make the organization strapped into the situation of following but creation, incremental change but radical change, so the lead of industry may be spoiled. It is most important to discuss with the cultivation of ambidextrous organizational innovation in practice.
Lawson (2001) researched on the chain of the integration of Human resource management practices and the innovation and performance. Ortiz (2009) discussed that the TQM-based human resource management practices is positively related to the innovation results. Lopez-Cabrales (2009) referred to the human resource management practices are positively related to the innovation mediated by the knowledge. Based on the findings it is very important of human resource management practices for technology innovation. However, it is not clear that which kind of human resource management configuration can improve the ambidextrous organizational learning? And ambidextrous organizational learning can or can not improve the increment and radical technology innovation. To deal with the above research questions, we construct the theory frame and model based on the review of literatures. In further it is verified the hypothesis by the sample of Chinese enterprises.
However, it is believed that the organization has diversity of workforce. So, there are configurations of human resource management practices in this single organization. And it is needed to keep complementary among different configurations. Then the point is to find what is accorded to by diversity and how to achieve complementary.
Even though there are different configurations such as internal and market employment systems outlined by Delery and Doty (1996) and option- and project-based models identified by Malos and Campion (2000). However, there is less empirical evidence to support ideal HR configurations and organizational innovation.
Table 1 exhibited the review of related literature.
Insert Table 1 about here
THEORY AND HYPOTHESES
Human resource architecture Lengnick-Hall (2009) concludes that it became clear to many researchers that organizations rarely have a single HR system that covers all employees. In fact, most organizations have at least two systems which include managerial and hourly systems. The term HR architecture has become widely accepted as a way of describing multiple HR systems within a single organization. Kang(2009) pointed that the whole architecture of human resource management contain configurations, which make the whole system can complementarily make the different kinds of human capital develop according to context to make it suitable for the changed environment. So, ambidextrous human resource practice architecture is defined as the frame which can manage different kinds of human capital architecture complementarily at the same time in a single organizational according to organizational context.
In this paper, the human resource practice architecture includes three configurations (Kang, 2009). Firstly, the development configuration mainly includes recruitment and training. Secondly, the performance and control configuration include of compensation and appraisal. Thirdly, the employee relationship configuration includes employee participation (Wright, 1999).
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It is believed that the potential inconsistence of human resource management system. It is analyzed that these aspects of human resource management system may be not inconsistent but complementary. Before many scholars have discussed that the human resource management system would go to extremes. One extreme is based on commitment, and the other is based on control (Arthur, 1992, 1994; Delery & Koty, 1996; Huselid, 1995; Guthrie, 2001). This is common in the design of human resource management system. It is true that this method would keep the system consistent more easily by employing one extreme in a single system. However, this single system has made the structure to the two extremes. One extreme is to make them being commitment, the other is to keep control. And these two extremes can not be present in the same organization.
It has been refined the concept of fit to represent two distinctive forms - supplementary and complementary (Kang, 2009). Supplementary fit means that practice shares similar or matching characteristics with the others, which provide more of the same phenomenon. Complementary fit means that practices provide what the others wants or needs such that the weaknesses of the latter are offset by the strength of the former.
The effect of practice is measured by the knowledge increment. And if these practices are bundled to increase the original knowledge, which means that it is only larger in quantity but not in quality. If these practices are bundled to increase the new knowledge, which means that it is larger in quality but not in quantity.
Refined interpolation and disciplined extrapolation represent the synergistic combinations of human capital with social capital to amplify human resource knowledge and with organizational capital to complement and transform human resource knowledge into organizational knowledge.
Ambidextrous organizational learning Ambidextrous organizational learning is defined as to make exploring and exploiting learning to achieve diversity advantage from new knowledge and efficient advantage from present knowledge (Kang, 2009). Once, March (1991) proposed two kinds of learning methods of exploiting and exploring. Exploring learning includes searching, varying, taking risk, trying, experimenting, changing, discovering, bring forth and so on. Exploiting learning include refinery, choosing, producing, accruing, innovating and so on. In practice, organization would take use of two methods of knowledge exploring and exploiting to. Exploring learning is always an abrupt and inconsistent process leaving away from the scope of present organization knowledge. This kind of process of knowledge exploring can embody the core value and believes of organization and make the self believe and vision changed. Exploiting learning concentrates on the consistence and harmony to make the products and service continuously purchased in the market.
We started this introduction to the special issue by mentioning the importance of organization ambidexterity for long-term firm performance. We explored four fundamental tensions related to organizational ambidexterity, including differentiation versus integration, individual versus organizational, static versus dynamic, and internal versus external. The seven articles in this special issue contribute to our knowledge on these tensions and open up promising avenues for future research. Such research is vital as firms across industries and geographical settings struggle with the challenges related to sustainable value creation. Research on organizational ambidexterity shows that some individuals, groups, and organizations are successful in the long run, and this research provides important insights into the strategies, structures, and processes that allow them to balance and harmonize seemingly contradictory requirements (Sebastian et al., 2009).
Ambidextrous organizational innovation The ambidextrous technology innovation is defined as to achieve both increment technology innovation and radical technology innovation in the single organization. According to the extent of technology innovation, it includes two dimensions: one is increment technology innovation and the other is radical technology innovation. It is proposed that increment technology innovation is characteristic of contributing to dig up the potential of present technology by changing a little, so it would strengthen advantage of mature companies, especially intensifying present organizational competency. And it is believed that radical innovation is characteristic of contribute to find new market opportunities and new application methods.
The relationship between a firm's technology sourcing mix and firm performance, it is applied with the exploration-exploitation framework of organizational technology resources.
The relative exploration orientation of the firm has a curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship with the organizational performance of the firm. There is a tradeoff between exploration and exploitation and that the optimal balance between exploration and exploitation depends upon environmental conditions. It appears virtually impossible for any single firm to keep abreast of all relevant technological advances exclusively through internal technology sourcing (Ettlie & Sethuraman 2002; Hagedoorn 1993; Powell et al, 1996).
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Human capital theory The theoretical basis of this study is human capital theory and knowledge-based theory. Human capital theory adopts a cost/benefit perspective for the purpose of examining an organization's human management (Schultz 1961; Becker 1964; Tsang, Rumberger & Levine 1991; Wright, 1994). This theory stipulates three tenets. First, investments in employee development in terms of skills and knowledge are justifiable only when future productivity exceeds the cost; second, investments in firm-specific skills but not general knowledge. This theory explains well the relationship between HRM and human capital accumulation.
Knowledge-based theory Resource-based theory stipulates that organizations differ in their unique bundles of resources and capabilities (Penrose 1959; Prahalad & Hamel 1990; Barney 1991). Then, as the theory develop, more and more researchers focus on knowledge resource (Grant, 1995, 1996; Spender, 1996) proposed firstly knowledge is the most important resource in the whole resources of organization. As the development of knowledge based theory, more and more researchers in the sphere of human resource management pay attention to the knowledge management.
It is analyzed from the angle of human resource configuration. We should not simply accept findings from the previous HRM literature and (business) performance and substitute the performance variable with something knowledge-related. To advance the field, we should define the HRM practices relevant for knowledge processes theoretically.
The relationship between human resource practice architecture and ambidextrous organizational learning.
Based on the literature review, Kang (2009) believed that the dynamic capabilities derive from the ambidextrous organizational learning and at the mean time these capabilities also origin from the human resource management configurations. As the human resource management configuration of integration and harmonize in the spatial ambidextrous frame, which make the organization compatibility of ambidextrous.
There are three possible methods to balance the two methods of technology innovation. Firstly, as it concerted to spatial factor, the two methods of technology innovation can be made in separate groups in the organization and combined in the whole organization. Secondly, as it considered to time factor, the organization can focus on a single technology innovation in one period and focus on the other technology innovation in another period. In common, the organization would focus on incremental innovation for long-term consideration and focus on radical innovation in short-term consideration. Thirdly, it is considered to contextual factor (Kang & Snell, 2009). It is believed that spatial ambidexterity and periodical ambidexterity highlight the critical issue of how organizations make a smooth transition or coordination between the two methods. However, contextual ambidexterity facilitates the adaptation of an entire organization, avoiding the coordination problems and costs (Kang & Snell, 2009; Gibson & Birkinshaw, 2004).
Along with the theory of organizational theory, it is believed that the most effective learning methods are the ones which can do both the exploiting learning and exploring learning. Compared with the theory of complex theory of human deeds proposed by Quinn (1988) with the theory of human resource management, it is known that human resource architecture plays the role of promoting both organizational exploiting learning and exploring learning. In further, linked with present findings of organization theory, Gibson et al (2004) proposed ambidextrous context, it is suggested that the human resource architecture takes the effect of promotion on the engendering this climate, which can create a condition of encouraging both knowledge exploiting and exploring and this context do help achieving ambidextrous learning capabilities.
Based on the above analysis, it is proposed of this hypothesis:
Hypothesis 1: The three configurations including development configuration, performance and control configuration and employee relationship configuration of human resource practice architecture are positively to ambidextrous organization learning
The relationship between ambidextrous organizational learning and ambidextrous organizational innovation
Laursen (2001), Subramaniam (2005), Galia(2006) and Jensen(2006) all paid attention to the organizational learning is positively to the organization innovation. In fact, March (1991) had pointed that the adaptability origin from the balance of knowledge exploiting and knowledge exploring which seems contradictable superficially. As organizations with the extreme of knowledge learning may be disadvantageous. In practice, redundant knowledge exploring can not achieve the economy of scale and efficiency of proficiency. However, redundant knowledge exploiting is apt to be inertia and rigidity.
According to the definition of knowledge in the theory, the "knowledge outcome" could be threefold. First, the ultimate outcome of organizational knowledge creation is product and process innovations. Second, a knowledge outcome is an enhanced capacity to act (Sabherwal & Becerra-Fernandez, 2003; Wathne et al. 1996). For example, newly acquired individual knowledge enables improved or new definitions or problems and solutions and more effective task performance. For the team, shared knowledge allows for group decision making and problem solving (Grant, 1996), drawing from shared insights, language, mental models, knowledge about expertise, problem-solving capabilities, and specialized tasks of individual organizational members. Third, the capacity to act, define, and solve problems can be explicit and/or tacit along the continuum (Dyck et al, 2005). For the individual, the outcome of knowledge conversion can be the development of tacit and explicit forms of knowledge. At the level of the team, it can be shared knowledge also ranging from tacit to explicit.
Based on the above explanation, the organizations can balance between increment technology innovation and radical innovation to bring up living in short period by increment technology and lasting development in long period according to strategic choice and resource restrict. Based on the above analysis, it is proposed of this hypothesis:
Hypothesis 2: Ambidextrous organization learning is positively to ambidextrous technology innovation
Hypothesis 3: Ambidextrous organization learning is mediated between human resource practice architecture and ambidextrous technology innovation
The modification of environment competition
Is it common that the organization is faced with different kinds of influence or pressure? From the point of marketing, the appearance of mass customization is respondent for dynamic environment and competition. Dynamistic environment is defined as speedy changing and extremely unstable (Dess et al, 1984).
Organizational environment is defined as speedy changing and extremely unstable (Dess et al, 1984). It goes along with high risks, and some mistakes of decision would bring about serious results and sometimes which may endanger the survival of organization. Environmental competition origin from dynamic changes of technology, demands of customers, demands of products and supplying of material (Jensen et al, 2005).
When corporations at the state of high level ambidextrous environment, the human resource management frame faced with a great deal of contradict information which makes it satisfy all diversified parties at the same time. The human resource practice architecture contains the balance of different intellect capital, they can take use of contradict information and dispose of balance of exploiting learning and exploring learning.
When organization faces with low level ambidextrous environment, which means that it is single factor in the environment which contains dynamism or competition, they require low level of balance in the workforce. In this condition, it would have detrimental effects on ambidextrous learning because they make up complex intellectual capitals with high costs by chasing to discover and balance contradicts. Based on the above analysis, it is proposed of this hypothesis:
Hypothesis 4a: In the high level of environment competition, the three configurations of human resource practice architecture are positively to ambidextrous organization learning
Hypothesis 4b: In the low level of environment competition, the three configurations of human resource practice architecture are negatively to ambidextrous organization learning
Sample and data collection
To test the effectiveness of the human resource management practices in the long period, we deploy the items as noted that they should remind the practices existed the three years before. As the effectiveness of human resource management would be delayed and they would make effect after a long period. The data is collected using the questionnaire in this paper based on the background of China. There are three characters of these enterprises which are surveyed: First, the size of the enterprise should be big enough, so it is possible to establish organizational human resource management policy; Second, the firm age should last a long period, so they would pay attention to organizational innovation; Third, they are converge mainly in several industries: manufacturing industry and the IT industry. The international experts believe that the innovation need a long period and risk a lot in investment, so as to explore technology innovations for enterprise it should be considered of lasting time and background of enterprise (He e al, 2004; Jansen et al, 2006; Lubatkin et al, 2006). The sample is selected in the manufacturing industry and the IT industry, because the technology innovation in two industries is typical and could increase the external validity.
These samples are from several provinces, namely Beijing, Shanxi and so on. If the enterprises are in Beijing, we contract with the top leaders and ask for an agreement. If reaching a consensus, then we call on the enterprise and collect the data. And if those are in Shanxi and other provinces, after contracting with its top leaders by phone or email, we mail the questionnaires to them only if they agree with our collection and conveniently mail an envelope with the address and stamps to maximize the recovery of the questionnaire. For increasing the reliability of data and to avoid the impact of common method variance, we ensure the questionnaires to be anonymity and the verbiage is as straightaway as possible. Besides, responders are informed that this is not "false item", but just to write the true thought. Moreover, we used four questionnaires, each of which is filled by different objective in lager sample measurement. The sub-questionnaire for Organization Learning is filled by CHO (Chief Human Resource Officer), while the sub-questionnaire for technology innovation by CTO (Chief Technology Officer) and the sub-questionnaire for Environmental Dynamism and Environmental Competition by CHO.
Using the tool of SPSS, it is analyzed that the results of Harman Single-Factor Analysis exhibited that the primary factor merely explains 10.194% of the gross character. In other word, the pattern that the questionnaires are filled separately could effectively avoid the common method variance. The survey issued more than 550 questionnaires and withdrew 295 copies. Excluding the incomplete and excluding 49 invalid ones which obviously seems not be answered seriously, the left valid questionnaires was 246, with the effective recovery is 44.7%. Then Table 2 demonstrates the detail information of the sample.
Insert Table 2 about here
It is compared the respondents with the non respondents to check for non response bias. It compared via mean difference, based on their general features industry membership, number of employees, and lasting time. This test showed no significant differences between the group of respondents and the group of non respondents.
The measurement is through a strict process of establishment. For ensuring the reliability and validity of measurement tools, the measuring scales in the domestic and international existing literatures is properly modified and adjusted according to the objective of the survey and survey objectives. In addition, the initial questionnaires are based on review and summary on the literature. Besides, each item of the initial questionnaires is discussed with the experts in the corresponding fields and the top leaders and we do a pre-investigation in these groups. After that, according to the feedback from the pre-responders, we discuss, examine and rectified the expression and content so that the items could be understood easily and reflected the expected connotation. It is followed the traditional "translation and back-translation" procedure. The questionnaire in English was translated to Chinese and then translated back to English by a researcher in the corresponding field who was good at translation. Then, another researcher in this corresponding field translates it into Chinese, afterward which is back to English again. In the last step, the former two researchers and another researcher rectified the difference and finalize a manuscript. Thus, the questionnaire in this paper has relatively content validity.
Ambidextrous innovation Ambidextrous innovation is measured by the sum of all the items of Radical Innovation and Incremental Innovation. The scale of Radical Innovation is from Subramaniam and Youndt (2005) with 3 items (Table 2) of which Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.780, as indicating these variables have a good reliability. The measuring scale of Incremental Innovation is from the same literature. It has 3 items and its Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.773, as indicating this variables has a good reliability. Therefore Ambidextrous innovation includes 6 items of which Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.847, as indicating this variables has a good reliability.
Human resource practice architecture The calculating method is similar as the former using the sum of all the items to represent the human resource practice architecture. The scales of this are originally from Wright et al. (1999). The scale of development systems include the measures of selection and training from Wright (1999)with 8 items of which Cronbach 's Î± coefficient is 0.792, as indicating this variables has a good reliability. The measuring scale of performance and control system include of compensation and appraisal is from the same literature. It has 7 items and its Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.815, as indicating this variables has a good reliability. The measuring scale of employee relationship system include of employee participation is from the same literature. It has 4 items and its Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.787, as indicating this variables has a good reliability. Therefore human resource practice architecture includes three dimensions which include 19 items of which Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.896, as indicating these variables have a good reliability.
Ambidextrous Organizational Learning The scales of Exploring Learning is originally from Atuahene-Gina K.(2003), Chinese scholar Chen(2009) adopt this scale into Chinese empirical study, so we use this mature scale. With 3 items of which the Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.812, as means this variables has a good reliability. The scales about Exploiting Learning are derived from the same literature. The scale has 3 items with the Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.803, as means these variables have a good reliability. Ambidextrous Organizational Learning includes 6 items, with the Cronbach 's Î± coefficient is 0.862, as indicating this variables has a good reliability.
Environment competition The Environmental Competition is from Jansen et alï¼ˆ2006ï¼‰.And it is derived as the formers, with 4 items of which Cronbach `s Î± coefficient is 0.761, as indicating these variables have a good reliability.
As for the Validity, because the domestic scholars have used the measuring scale of the scale of Exploring Learning and Exploiting Learning. Therefore, we use Confirmative Factor Analysis Method of Structure Equations Model (SEM) to test the Structure Validity. However the scale of Radical Innovation and Incremental Innovation and the scale of Environmental Competition are from the foreign study. For the first time using in Chinese context, we should measure the Structure Validity by Exploring Factor Analysis (EFA). Analysis and results show good fit for the validity of these measures.
Table 3 exhibited the mean, S.D. and the correlation coefficient.
Insert Table 3 about here
Our conception model is Mediated Moderation Model. Although Baron and Kenny have mentioned this conception before, they did not discuss how could this complicated model be tested and analyzed. If we act as the traditional manner that the Mediation is tested first and then the moderation is tested, we would have the results that Ambidextrous Environment has the Mediated Moderation effect on the Ambidexterity Leadership and Ambidextrous Organizational Learning. But in term of the whole model, it will have the Mediated Moderation effect on Ambidexterity Leadership and Ambidextrous innovation and this Mediated Moderation effect will be influenced by the former one. Thus, for analyzing this Mediated Moderation effect perfectly, It is referred to a specified method to solve this problem. Firstly, we should make the regression of the dependent variable with the independent variables, the moderation variables and interaction. And to analyze whether the interaction is significant; secondly, to regress the mediating variables with the independent variables, Moderating variables and interaction. And to estimate whether the interaction is significant; finally, to regress the dependent variable with the independent variables, Moderating Variables, and their interaction, the mediating variable as well. And estimate whether the interaction is significant. If we find that the interaction become insignificant form the former significant, it could illuminate that Moderating effect of the Moderation Variables is incurred by mediation variables.
Because this paper has only one dependent variable and there are the Mediation and Moderation Effect. Although the Moderation Effect could be tested in the Structure Equations Model, the requirement of the sample number is high. Meanwhile there is the mature method in regression model to test Mediation and Moderation Effect. Hereby, we use the regression model and the result using the software SPPS is as the Table 4.
Insert Table 4 about here
From Table 4, In the three configurations, employee relationship configuration of human resource practice architecture is positive related with Ambidextrous Organizational Learning, as supported partially the Hypothesis 1.According to the method and the procedure of the Mediation and Moderation Effect, we regress the Ambidextrous innovation with the human resource practice architecture, Ambidextrous Environment and their multiply. It is demonstrated that the multiply between the human resource practice architecture and the environment competition is significantly positively associated with Ambidextrous innovation, as fits the requirement of the first step. Secondly, we regress Ambidextrous Organizational Learning with the human resource practice architecture, Environment competition and their multiply. It is displayed that the multiply between the human resource practice architecture and the Environment competition is significantly positively associated with Ambidextrous Organizational Learning, as fits the requirement of the second step. Finally, we regress Ambidextrous innovation with human resource practice architecture, Environment competition, and their multiply, Ambidextrous Organizational Learning as well. It is found that Ambidextrous Organizational Learning is significantly positive related with the Ambidextrous innovation, as supports the Hypothesis 2. The significance of the multiply of employee relationship configuration of human resource practice architecture and Environment competition decrease. It is confirmed that Ambidextrous Organizational Learning plays partly the mediation role between the three configurations of human resource practice architecture and ambidextrous innovation, as supported the Hypothesis 3. For the sake of getting the two-dimension interaction legibly, the moderation effect is drawn.
In the high-class Environment competition, the configurations of human resource practice architecture are in favor of increasing the Ambidextrous Organizational Learning and Ambidextrous innovation, as support the Hypothesis 4a. In the low-class Environment competition, the configurations of human resource practice architecture are not in favor of increasing the Ambidextrous Organizational Learning and Ambidextrous innovation, as support the Hypothesis 4b.
DISSCUTION AND CONSQUENCE
The human resource practice architecture has configurations. The effects of configurations improve the organizational flexibility, especially for dealing with conflict .For instance, the organizations face with the conflict between the short-term survival and the long-term development, the conflict between exploring and exploiting the knowledge and the conflict between the efficiency and the innovation. These conflicts serve as the subjects continuously broken through in the study of Management. The traditional study on the paradox and conflict is single angle. In other words, it takes the pattern that time or space is speared. In a specified period or ground the problem is solved, and then turn to the next, such as in order to achieve the breakthrough innovation, plenty of enterprises establish a department which is independent from the original ones. The totally distinguished motivation pattern and organizational culture from the original organization is carried out in this new department. This is a typical example for the space separation to handle the conflict between the efficiency and the innovation. In recent years, the scholars begin to pay attention on ambidextrous angle of view. They discuss whether the paradox could be solved favorably.
It is analyzed that the conflict between exploring and exploiting the knowledge which the enterprise often encounters. It is conducted in this paper that Ambidextrous learning is effective to treat this conflict. How could cultivate the ability of Ambidextrous learning and how important does it mean for the organization. These questions are the purpose of our paper. After reviewing the literature, we take the view of human resource practice architecture. Configurations of human resource architecture could promote ambidextrous learning. And configurations of human resource practice architecture have positive impact on Ambidextrous innovation. We use the data of the Chinese enterprises to test the former hypotheses successfully. We found that configurations of human resource architecture could promote ambidextrous promotes Ambidextrous innovation through Ambidextrous learning. To be brief, ambidextrous learning partly plays the mediation role between configurations of human resource architecture and Ambidextrous innovation. It is concluded that configurations of human resource architecture may influent Ambidextrous innovation through other the mediation. In the high competition external environment, configurations of human resource architecture could increase ambidextrous learning; but in the low competition external environment, configurations of human resource architecture decreases ambidextrous learning.
The results in this paper have theory and practice significance for the study on, configurations of human resource architecture, organization learning and technology innovation. First, the scholars focus on the cause of the organization learning from the multi-angle, such as the social capital, organization structure, organization culture ect.. But the study on ambidextrous is relatively limited. The previous literatures on Ambidextrous learning have paid less attention on the significance of the configurations of human resource architecture on the organization learning. On the view of ambidextrous, this paper analyzes, this paper not only theoretically discusses the influence that configurations of human resource architecture have on Ambidextrous learning, but also use the Chinese data to verify the hypothesis. Second, we prove the impact which configurations of human resource architecture have on Ambidextrous innovation, as explore a new view on the further study on their relationship. Using contingency theory, we find the interesting results. In the external environment with different ambidextrous level, Ambidextrous leadership has different influence on Ambidextrous innovation, as indicates that the influence of Ambidextrous leadership on Ambidextrous innovation has the contingent and suitable characters. That makes the conclusion more instructive and constructive.
There are several meanings in this paper. First, for attaining Exploring Learning and Exploiting Learning simultaneity, the configurations of human resource architecture should strive to cultivate their ability for balancing the conflict and collide and learn to rein two kinds or more kinds of human resource capital, as requires the configurations of human resource architecture to increase the cognitive and behavior complexity; Second, for attaining Radical Innovation and Incremental Innovation, configurations of human resource architecture use development configuration, performance and control configuration and employee relationship configuration to promote ambidextrous learning and achieve the requirement for Radical Innovation and Incremental Innovation; Third, it is not in any condition of environment competition configurations of human resource practice architecture has positive effect on ambidextrous learning. When the information requirement of the environment is complicated and full of conflict, and if the requirement of the external environment is single, configurations of human resource practice architecture turns against ambidextrous learning.
Although the findings in this paper are meaningful for the study on human resource practice architecture, organization learning and technology innovation, there are also some shortages. Owing to the difficulty of collecting the data, the data in this paper was collected in the same period. The variables` relationship approved by this cross-section study insufficiently confirmed to be the casual relationship. A longitudinal study should be used to analyze the relationship between the variables. Second, the collection sample is center on the North province. The further study could select the sample in the South area so as to increase the external validity. Third, in this paper we study the impact that ambidextrous leadership has on ambidextrous learning and Ambidextrous innovation. But we do not probe how configurations of human resource practice architecture develop. The causes resulted in human resource practice architecture will be studied in the future.