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South Asia is composed by eight countries these are: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives and Nepal. The extension of the eight countries is 4,480,000 km² and the population: 1.591.694.334 inhabitants (est. 2010) the 75% of South Asia's population they produced the highest amount of rice and exotic spices.
South Asia represents the half of the world poverty and their religions are Hinduism, Islam and in some of its countries Buddhism are the most dominant religions.
India is one of the most important countries that belong to South Asia because is a very pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society (80% Hindu, and 14% Muslim) also its economical growth is approximately 7% annually And is one of the most attractive markets for outsourcing in products and services from other countries due to the high population and the low wages paid in that country and most of the population can speak English.
India's diversity is one if the most important strengths that help them to become what they are right now, also to the development and opening to new economies and new markets.
One if the main problems in the Indian culture is the actual caste system or varnas that discriminate most of the population, the system is divided like this:
Due to the high growth and the economical development of Indian culture the industries are taking less importance in the caste system and are looking beyond it to hire more people improving the quality and giving more opportunities to discriminated people.
What do you think are the reasons behind the fast-growth outsourcing industry in India?
I think that India is offering a lot of warranties to the multinational and all kind of enterprise that are interested in outsourcing, also India is being recognized as one of the best places to outsource due to the high capacity of mass production.
But the most important thing is that India is offering in some way lost cost of production that attract multinational but this means that the work force is being discriminated because they are receiving low wages, I some cases they do not receive medical insurance , paid vacation and all the insurances they need.
This is and ambiguity because this kind of things are the one that are helping india's economy and improving life quality conditions but also Indian people is being discriminated because they do not receive fair work conditions.
This happened because multinational know that Indian people need those jobs so they take advantage of their condition and offer them minimum wages and conditions but now the international community is trying to regulate this and help Indian people and increase the life standards.
Publicado por Sebas en 17:19
Africa Is the second largest and second most-populated in the world, has 53 countries very rich in natural resources, also has a wide variety of religions and beliefs. In 1885 in Berlin conference the European powers decided to divide Africa among them , as a result of this division Africa suffer a cultural impact because they were obliged to adapt and accept to new culture.
Since Africa was divided among European powers each colony had its own culture , behaviors beliefs , so that one of the reason for African multiculturalism and the wide variety of religions.
When we talk about African natives that was the hardest part because of the cultural shock they must suffer because they had to change their religions, costumes, the way they lived , think change the hole continent became a colony of different countries also the way the govern their people because the conquerors brought new rules to the people because of those rules and norms they had to adapt. African cultural management was influenced for all the prior things a mentioned and that is why there is a cross-cultural style management.
The African management is quite different to western management for example
Western management tend to be more Culturally Isomorphic instead African management had Different Ethno-cultural groups, in western management the most important is the Nation-State and there are common values and beliefs instead in African management there are Multiple Indigenous Groups as a result myriad values and beliefs.
As conclusion the conquest of Africa influenced them a lot and that is reflected in their culture and costumes and thir management style.
Investors in People (IIP) is an international standard that aims at improving companies' performance by investign in people. In the global business scenario, is this standard useful, relevant and likely to become as important as international quality standards?
I believe that one of the most important things when you are doing something es the self-confidence, and that you believe in what you are doing if is not this way the thing won't go well.
So in those aspects I already mentioned is useful relevant and likely to become as important as international quality standard because if the companies start with that program they will realized that investing in people, their employees will be more prepared for their charges and this is going to be reflected in the productivity and development of the company, also the employees will be grateful with company so they will enjoy working in that company and will their best for the company , also the organizational culture will be strengthen and all the internal process will improve.
If many companies start with this program it will become important in the international community and many other companies will also apply it and that is going to be better for all the employees because they will fell loved by their companies and as a result the jobs they do will be done better representing an improvement for the company and that program will become a tendency and many companies will want to use it.
Explain what Islamic Banking is and its background?
Islamic banking is a system in which the Islamic banks provide a service ruled by some principles of Islamic law (sharia) applied to the economy, this law says that the banks can not charge any cost or receive any payment or acceptance of interest fees for lending , and for loans.
This system started in the late 20th century when a number of Islamic banks were formed and applied these principles to private or semiprivate commercial institutions in the muslim community
What are the key principles of Islamic banking?
The basic rule of the Islamic banking system says that they have to share the loss and the profits and that the usury is prohibited. There are some termsused in Islamic banking like: profit sharing (Mudharabah), safekeeping (Wadiah), joint venture(Musharakah), cost plus (Murabahah), and leasing (Ijarah).
Islamic law forbids institutions from charging interests on loans. How do they make profits when lending money?
For example when a person wants to buy a car they do not ask the bank for the loan because they cannot charge fees for the loan , so the bank boy the car to the reseller and they sell it to the costumer and here is where they make profit, but since this is risky for the bank they try to protect themselves asking for strict collateral that are good or lands registered to the name of the buyer form the start of the transaction this is called murabaha and look like a mortgage
Explain the concept of ethical investments under Islamic law. Who is to determine whether an activity is allowed or not?
Investing in under Islamic law can be done in three ways: Musharaka in this one the bank can join another entity to arrange joint venture. Loss and profit are shared. The second way is called Mudarabha this one is about finance and expertise, the bank provide the money and the client provide the experience management and labour. Profits are shared the client and the bank in a pre-arranged proportion, but the loss is not share it is taken completely for the bank. The third way is about an estimated rate of return in this scheme, the bank estimates the profit of the project then it is asked to finance and provides financing on the understanding that at least that rate is payable to the bank, if the project gets more profit it goes to the client, If the profit is less than the estimate the bank will accept the lower rate and if there is loss the bank will take and share in it.
How does Islamic banking influence the economy in the Middle East?
Taking into account what I have search I think that this is very positive for the economy because more people will be willing to take a loan because they have a lot of insurances and also they do not have to pay high fees and the bank give them many warranties, so this make more dynamic the economy because many people will start their own business or project.
Based on your research and knowledge about this topic, what is the future of Islamic Banking in terms of global expansion and growth?
I think that this is not going to be easy for this tendency because now a days the capitalism is what moves the world, and not many banks will be willing to accept this kind of tendency , but if we see form other perspective from the point of view of the clients will be better , so I think that if the Islamic bank tendency is mix a bit with the capitalism this will be better for everyone.
The European Union is an economic and political block which is composed by 27 member countries, that most of them are located in Europe, that has a population of 495millions , a GDP of â‚¬ 12276.2 bill. (60% by services) actually the candidates to enter are , the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey
This union began with the in 1951 with six countries and the Coal and Steel community then in 1953 continue with the Treaty of Rome and EEC & EAEC, later on in 1993 with the treaty of Maastritch the European Union was formalized and in 2002 the eurozone was settle and also the euro. The most spoke languages in the European unions are English , German, French, Italia and Spanish.
Germany is the third biggest economy has a population of 82 million habitants the GDP of US$ 44.728 per capita, the reunification was October third in 1990.
Since Germany of one of the most solid countries economically speaking is the third migrant destination, du e to this the most common religions are Christianity with 64%,Islamism with4%,Buddhism and Judaism with 0.25% each and others and atheists with 29.6%.
Germans management style is very unique they are known to be very rigorous strict with the thing they believe are right , also are very fair and serious people they are one of the most individualistic culture in Europe , but this does not mean that they are ruinous , also the German companies fight for market share instead of fight for the market domination also the German managers are very committed
There is a current discussion around the existence of the co-determinism principle in Germany. Select, define and explain 3 arguments in favor and 3 against such principle.
The co-determinism is a practice in which the employee of a company has a important role in management even if they are not the executives or managers of the company.
This practice has a lot of good things for example if all the employees have participation or a role in the management of the company they will feel good , because they know that they belong to the company and that their opinions will be taken into account. Other positive aspect for the company is that they have another perspective or point of view because usually the top managers of a company have a perspective and the employees have another perspective and in some case are closer to the clients of the company, so this gives an advantage to the company. Also is less probable that the employees start any revolutions since they have a role in the management of the company
This principle also has some bad things like: since the employees are not the owners of the enterprise they can abuse of this role, and can slow down some process that can help the development of the company.
Maybe it could be different but can happened and is that if the employee can turn against the owner the managers since they are sited in the board of directors, or employee can manipulate the company to only their benefit
Co-determinism can be a problem for future inversions because many people won't will to invest in the company because of the role of the employees , because they won't let stakeholders to receive a lot of utilities, instead of that the utilities will be reinvested
Publicado por Sebas en 17:21
Is one of the most important continents, and in area is the third one after Asia and Africa. This continent has 23 countries, the most important countries are United States, Canada and Mexico even is going through bad political situations due to the cartel war. These countries I have mentioned have a high economical and industrial development and are part of the 20 largest economies in the world.
North America has a population of 528,720,588 habitants and the most spoken languages are Spanish, English, French and others.
United States is the most important country in North America due to its economical and industrial development, is the biggest economy of the world, and it is the principal producer and consumer of products. It has a population of 309,179,000 of habitants and it capital is Washington D.C.
United States has the 5% of the world population but consumes the 30% of the world resources they fully represent the concept consumerism, and they also create the 30% percent of the world waste. They are the principal emitter of CO2 and ironically they have not approved or sign the Kyoto protocol.
Their way of live has change a lot from the past thirty year, now all they consume they waste has double up, they daily produce 4.5 pounds of waste , because now they spend more time shopping than with their families, and this is because they are constantly attached by advertisement more or less they are targeted with 3,000 advertisement a day.
If everybody will consume as they consume human kind would need like three to five planets, and the problem is that we only have one.
List and explain 3 strategies used by HP in order to develop and sustain a strong organizational culture - "The HP Way".
The first strategy is the management by objectives (MOB system) this consists in give all employees objectives to long term and short term, and each employee will be free to realized them in the way they want , so this give them independence, and make them feel that the company believe in them
The second strategy is called the "open door" because they allow the employee direct access to the highest managers of the company, this mean that the employee always have the opportunity to speak to them if they have any problem or suggestion for the company.
A third strategy HP use was the telling of stories with this help to clarify and also to communicate the values and attitudes of the company, also these stories have an important symbolic function.
By 2001, Carly Fiorina was facing a huge dillemma in terms of organisational culture. "Should Fiorina try to revitalize the HP way or attempt to replace it with a "better" culture than the one established by Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett in the 1940's?. Explain your answer.
As the document says some of the strategies proposed by fiorina were good , but she tried to change a lot the organizational culture , and the family owner were not agree with this because the strongly believe in the HP's way , hiring people that really worth, and for work all their life in the company.
Australian history began with aborigines that migrated there at least 40,000 years ago from Southeast Asia.
Then some years late in1770 the British conquered Australian and in 1778 established a penal colony in port Jackson, that now is Sydney and about 161.000 convicts were translated there.
Some settlers and former prisoners from England and other places established six colonies: New South Wales (1786), Tasmania (then Van Diemen's Land) (1825), Western Australia (1829), South Australia (1834), Victoria (1851), and Queensland (1859), all these colonies were transformed in a state and in 1901 federated into the commonwealth of Australia.
Now a days Australia is known as a melting pot because it relaxed the immigration laws in 1960 and 1970, 40% of the immigrants come from Asia, that is why Australia is a multicultural place.
Australia has been always influenced by European countries such as England so that is why management style is quite similar, Australia practice a decentralized management, managers are flexible also collaborative and participative so that is why the like to work in teams and are seen as "one of the boys", they believe in humanistic values, their individualistic management approach produce creativity and also have a high tolerance to risk, the Australian companies generally has a flat structure , all the people in the organization have an important role to play.
Australians like direct communication that is why they like open debates , and also challenging someone's ideas is well see, for them business and networking relationships are very important .
When removed from their families, the children were prepared for "a better life", how that true or false when is considering different perspectives.
All this plot was prepared for the Australian government , because they believe that aborigines were useless , not prepared people and were a disgrace for the society, but what Australian government really wanted was prepared and improve their skills the aborigines to be servants or to work for Australian society so in this way the aborigines would be more useful and increase productivity for the society instead on being with their community, so they established some rule to do that
In the aborigines perspective, what the government wanted was not a better life, instead was the contrary because they enjoy their life with their community through the hole country because they were like nomads., the less they wanted was to harm or hurt Australian society, but the government did not understand that so they tried to dominate the useless aborigines.
Its shown on the movie that the girl did not want to leave the community and she was not agree with the government , so she escaped from the government , but they send an inspector to find them, but the girl no matter what was decided to go to her family even if she can lose her life in the chance
Latin America in one of the biggest countries, it has an area of 21,069,501 km² almost 3.9% of the hole world. In 2009, its population was likely more than 568 million and its GDP of 4.26 trillion dollars. For 2010 Latin American expects and economic growth of 4%.
Through all the Latin America history they have always trade raw material, like coal, iron, gold silver and other countries or continents like Europe, after the 1980s Latin America change from a close economy to a open economy and to foreign direct investment
After this Latin America has sign some treaties, like ALCA, MERCOSUR, ANDEUAN COMMUNITY, NAFTA.
Latin American culture is quite different form the other continents and is characterized for many aspects or values like the warmth of personal relationships they are a grateful culture, very familiar so the family and their friends are a priority also prefer Face-to-face contact, they are always looking for positive relations, company's welfare.
Latin America represents a big opportunity for the MNE's due to all the natural resources of the continent, like oil, water, coal, wood and many other, so investing in Latin America is becoming a global trend, now a days there are leading firms located in the biggest countries like Brazil, Mexico and Argentina.
Even though Latin American countries are considered to have a similar culture, across 12 countries there are many difference in some values like ambitious, clean, intellectual , logical, opened-minded , pleasure and world at peace and this is because Latin American countries once were European colonies like brazil was a portages colony Colombia was a colony of Spain and so on, so that influenced a lot the culture of each country.
It is good for Latin America to sign a treaty with the European Union?
Actually this is one of the most important international negotiation for some of the Latin American treats like MECOSUR , ANDEAN COMMUNITY. Due to the European crisis, they are looking to sing treaties , and this now represent a great opportunity to Latin America , because now they can seat and wait for European proposal and this is really good because the European market represents a great opportunity for Latin America, most of the commerce of Latin America are raw material but now with those treaties they can try to improve their commerce selling and producing finished goods, creating competitive advantage and that would help to the growth of the economy of all Latin America.
For example in the Colombian case, the Colombian enterprise of coffee can start thinking in positionate or create or promote some brand of coffee taking advantage of the fame it has, or they can add some value to the Colombian or Brazilian coffee so in this way the economical development will be higher and that would beneficiate the hole continent. But we know that Latin American countries have a lot of raw material like flowers, bananas , coal, oil so it is a huge opportunity for them to sign any treaty also for foreign direct investment that also help the dynamics of the economy and are a big source of employment.