One of the issues that human resource has been focus on is job insecurity, every employee in any organisation for example in retail industry, they are aware that their job sometime can be uncertain and may soon come to an end unexpected. Many research and study has highlighted that job insecurity is relate to threaten employee of losing the job. The concept that job insecurity produce different outcome that effect individual employee. In China for instance job insecurity believes to be the factor that leads to job stress.
Various research about job insecurity has illustrate consistence evidence to many countries, industries, firms that job insecurity is directly relate to negative employee attitudes, health and behaviour. (Sverke,M; Hellgren,J & Naswall,K 2008).
For example, performance effects include reduced effort; poor safety compliance by employees reduced organizational citizenship, and increased deviant behaviour. (Cary L. Cooper, 2001),
The theory that has direct connection to this topic came from well known study of human resource management academic Greenhalgh. His theory argue that the employee negative behaviour will occur when their job insecurity increase for example when an employee realised that in one month time he will be dismiss because of his underperformance. The employee then starts to turn up to work late or unlikely to participate in any activity. This example is the first outcome that hypothesized to have an impact on stress.
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Research also drawn another interesting issue that the company that better in manage their own people or provide job secure to employee are perform better that the company which make their employee unsecure. In china for example IT company call Xin Hua found that their company has been making a big loss during 2004-2005 partly because of poor human resource management. On the other Lenovo, the successful Chinese computer making company has posed a better than expected financial performance in recent year. This can be said that the fact the company support their staff well
The reasons of job stress has been study in depth by academic, in some way we can identified the aspect that influence job stress this include:
The kinds of work are running too long and heavy tasks need to be done. Staffs need to put too much effort on job. Besides that, there are many tasks which do not relevant to staffsââ‚¬â„¢ skill and pay too much attention on the tasks. In textile industry for example, employee need to be specialise in what they can do best in order to making cloth faster this is a good example that lead to the stress as we can understand that by repeating the same task overtime, even though it increase the performance but by repeating it for a very long time. This would lead to boredom in job, eventually the level of production would decline
The workplaces are unhealthy and unsafe such as air pollution and unsafe physical issues. Restaurant for example, has to deal with this issue seriously as it could have direct impact to employee and customer. One of the requirements that every restaurant must have before start the business has always related health and safety issue for employee to make sure that every process will run accordingly to regulation.
People do not listen to general staff such as not listening to specific contribution, poor communication among staffs. In some countries for example France, many people are nationalism which means that they rather prefer to communicate with native rather than foreigner. This could lead to big problem in communication of staff in an organization that employs various nationalities in France
There are not too many supporting from your colleagues and co-workers, lacking of the expectations each other. This is also a crucial issue, newcomer that just join the company need some guideline that they can use to work in the organisation. This means that without a good support from colleague, newcomer will become very stress as they do not what do they need to do in an organization for example, think of the first day in college where you have just arrive everything is very new , new class, new teacher and new environment. After the first hour of induction you ask to do an assignment that need to be handle, without good outline for assignment the student will fell very stress and find it hard to finish assignment.
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Worrying about promotion such as less chance to be promoted a higher position. The promotion issue in south East Asian for example Thailand, generally people believe that they can be promoted only if they know the right people. Connection was seen as the crucial factor for promotion rather than the performance in work place.
Another research recently done by university of Michigan has crucial information that supports the question of job stress. The study revealed that when manger threats their employee of losing the job, the stress of employee after knowing the news has effect worker health. According to Sarah Burgard the sociologist in University of Michigan has analysed data that has been collected in 1986, 1989 and 2005 from 1700 adults. All this information related to the concept of job insecurity, losing a job and get job again. Through intensive interview, they are able to find the connection of job insecurity that has connection with poor health.
The process starts by question participant regarding their job and the chance that they might lose the job. After the couple of years the same group of participant were asking question again but this time the question is related to over health of them.
Data then has been analysed, it shows that their time when job insecurity is occur to participant has a negative impact on overall health of worker, the research show that nearly 18percent of people feel insecure about their job
Burgard,S also commented that show has found that the persistent job insecurity has an immense impact on health of employee than those who actually losing their job.
2.2 Theory framework effect job insecurity
Methodology Factors that would have impact on worker behaviour can be considered as essential part that this paper will look at. It may be crucial also to draw some theory framework to apply for interview for example Maslow hierarchical. The theory, which try to expand the motivation of people working in an organisation, this mean that if we assume Maslow is right, as a result if worker not achieve certain level in his theory, worker would become de-motivate and could cause job stress that lead to health problem.
Maslow argue that in order to satisfy worker, supervisor must make sure that the bottom line of pyramid has to be satisfy in order to move up until it reach the highest point of pyramid. As we can see from his frame work that the bottom line is call Physiological need consist of basic need such as food, water and sleep. Then safety need, which include security of employment m health and safety of property. In the middle part is known as Love and Belonging need such as friendship and family. The second factor is self-esteem need include confident, achievement that respect or recognised by other. And finally the top of pyramid calls self-actualization.
It is important to note that, ever though it is good indicator to identify problem of employee. There are some drawback that need to be consider when apply this framework for example, according to Maslow he believe that once employee achieve up to another level, he or she need to keep going and not going down. In reality the fact that each people have different objective in his or her life, it is very difficult to justify. For instance, once might argue that after they achieve to self-esteem need of being respect, they may as well want to improve their physiological need in the bottom of pyramid as well.
Herzberg motivation theory related to the idea of attitudes and its connection with mental health. Herzberg argues that individual worker do not be unhappy and dissatisfaction because of problem such as low level of minimum wage or safety of work place and its condition. On the other hand, employee seeks to achieve their satisfaction through having achiever higher-level of psychological need such as getting recognized, have higher responsibility for work. As a result this framework has connection with the framework done by Maslow theory on hierarchal need
The study was conducted in American through intensive interview with 203 participants, The American accountant firm in Pittsburgh were chosen because the job is growing to be an important in business world at that time. Participant was asked set of question about how they felt about their job was it good or bad. In addition they also need to provide reasons and brief description of the situation. This also include there feeling either positive or negative feeling
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Two-factor theory distinguishes between:
Motivators factor consider factor such as challenging work, recognition, responsibility which give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition and achievement
Hygiene factors factor consist of, job security, salary and benefit which do not give positive satisfaction, although by not achieve this factor it would lead to dissatisfy of the job.
This mean those, hygiene factors are needed to make sure that if an employee is dissatisfied they need to do something to satisfy
On the other hand Motivation factors are needed in order to keep motivate an employee to higher performance,
Unlike Maslow, who do not really described how to motivate and employee Hertzberg draws a clear distinction between two concepts, in addition, he also presented considerable an important evidence to confirm the motivation-hygiene theory.
In conclusion, all the literature review that we has been doing so far highlight a very important issue in job insecurity the first two of literature give a great idea of what has been done already so far about the topic, it can be argue that job insecurity has a very important role in determine the performance of employee by increase the job insecurity, worker start to de-motivate themselves. It also affects overall health of employee. In the second part that we highlight two main important theory that we might adapt it for the interview shows that job insecurity play and important part in developing people for example from Maslow job security was seen as the second level in the frame work which shows that, if the job insecurity is occur and employee cannot move on to other step to reach his or her own goal, they would not be motivate. All the information we have gather so far provided a better understanding of topic, next we would look at methodology that has been choose for this purpose of research
For the purpose of this research, it may be necessary to conduct an interview as well as focus group because this will all for more detail in investigation of what cause job stress that lead to health problem
In order to understand issue behind job stress there are certain aspects that need to be examined; Chinese worker, Job stress
3.1 Focus group of Chinese worker
In order to relate the topic to more detail, it may be necessary to reduce the scope of everyone to single set of group. In this case we selected Chinese work force in UK for interview. In this workshop of interview, we would ask participant to answer particular question regarding job insecurity. Before the start of focus groups it is important to look at the culture, which seem to be rather complex issue involve many theory frameworks as mention above. Interview for Chinese people will need to be highly constructed interview. This may include carefully design question that have to consider sensitive. Choosing appropriate place for an interview.
3.2 Uses of Motivation frameworks
Apart from interview, this research will apply some theory framework to, the question style and environment will have similarity that two theory framework has done for example the question will be divided into two sets of question one will concern about motivation factor and the other will focus on Hygiene factors. This is seem as an important to identify where job insecurity play a more important part.
Data and Information
There are various data that need to analyse both can be quantitative and qualitative. All this data need to be obtaining through interview in order to find the core of the problem.
Objective in his or her life, it is very difficult to justify. For instance, once might argue that after they achieve to self-esteem need of being respect, they may as well want to improve their physiological need in the bottom of pyramid as well.
The quantitative data for this research purpose will be gathering through national statistic. This can include the number of Chinese employee and other number that can be use to combine and analyse
The qualitative data, which required is the interview, which will explore us to other area of job stress. As previously mention one of the problems of collecting data through interview is that the data that we receive can be bias as it come from personal opinion however, this paper will use focus group as well as professional design research question to increase the reliability of resource.
General background on the subject of job stress have some limitation, It can be argue that the topic is very new as, it can hardly find any information that has been done which mean that all the result would be un-predictable. In addition, the concept of job-stress and underlying problem will gather through an interview only. This is however, a complex data that hard to justify.
Porter, M (1998), The Competitive Advantage of Nations (2nd edn), Palgrave Macmillan.
Heckscher,C (2007), The Firm as a Collaborative Community: Reconstructing Trust in the Knowledge Economy, OUP Oxford.
Sverke,M; Hellgren,J & Naswall,K (2008), The Individual in the Changing Working Life, Cambridge University Press.
Cary L. Cooper (2001), The New World of Work: Challenges and Opportunities, Wiley Blackwell.
Greenhalgh, T (2006), What Seems to be the Trouble?: Stories in Illness and Healthcare, Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.
Burgard ,S (2006), Job insecurity and health in the United States, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.
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