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Culture is integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning or set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution,(oxforddictionaries.com/definition/culture)
Organizational culture is the collective behaviour of people that are part of an organization, it is also formed by the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, and symbols, it includes beliefs and habits. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. Organizational culture affect the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders. Indian organizational culture is influenced by socio-cultural practice and slightly flexible . (oxforddictionaries.com/definition/culture.)
For this assignment two leaders that I have chosen and are approved my tutor are:
Leader 1: Anil Ambani( India). Leader 2- Christopher D. Corrigan (Australia)
2. Personal, ethnic, organizational and societal cultural values of each leader
Anil Dhirubhai Ambani was born in 1959. He is an Indian who inherits Indian culture. He is an industrialist and chairman of Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Ambani family is the richest families in India and one of the richest in the world, their wealth inherited from Dhirubhai Ambani, the founder. He is a member of the Board of Overseers at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is also the member of the Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur; Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He is a member of the Central Advisory Committee, Central Electricity Regulatory Commission.
Chris Corrigan was born in 1946 in Australia and belongs to western culture. He joined stockbroker Ord Minnett as an analyst in 1968 and moved to as investment manager in 1970. He was appointed managing director in 1979. Corrigan formed a partnership with Peter Scanlon, a former Elders Limited executive. He is one of the most successful business leaders in Australia.
3. Describe the leadership behavior, styles, traits and respective theories for each leader?
Anil Ambani is very hardworking and dedicated leader and because of this he. was given 'The Entrepreneur of the Decade Award' by the Bombay Management Association, October 2002, Awarded the First Wharton Indian Alumni Award by the Wharton India Economic Forum (WIEF) in recognition of his contribution to the establishment of Reliance as a global leader in many of its business areas, December 2001. He was given the 'Businessman of the Year 1997' award by India's leading business magazine Business India,( Indian Business news,2002) There is one stage when Abani was accused of illegal scam and fraud but he fought a legal battle and all his top level management stood firm in their statement and he won the case.
Chris is very determined, hardworking and ethical leader who believes in himself. At one stage Virgin airlines was almost on the verge of failing and Chris was appointed to restructure the company and bring it back to successful company. He restructured the company and even went the extent of sacking some of the top employees to save the business and he was able to do it on time to stop the company from closing down.
4. Personal , ethnic, organizational and societal goals of Chris Corrigan and Anil Ambani
There are several attributes that are universally believed to encourage good leadership: All these are in both leaders Ambani and Chris. Both are demonstrating trustworthiness, a sense of justice and honesty, having foresight and planning ahead, encouraging, motivating, and building confidence, being positive and dynamic, being communicative, informed, a coordinator, a team player and with great passion for work.
Goal -Anil Ambani's Personal Lifestyle suggests that he is a very active person and loves to work and maintain the empire build by his father and make his business one of the most powerful in economic terms both in India and world
Goals- Chris Corrigan says" I'd always had a childhood ambition to go into the investment capital business, and spent twenty-odd years in it. But the thought of spending the second half of my career in the same business was boring, so I looked around for other opportunities."(Business Quotes by Famous Businessman, Chris Corrigan
5.Attributes of societal and organizational cultures affected the kinds of leaders behavior and organizational practice that have been accepted and made effective by each leader?
Leadership is mostly about behavior, especially towards others. People who strive for these things generally come to be regarded and respected as a leader by their people. Some of these behaviors are demonstrated by both leaders. Firstly integrity which is the most important requirement because without it everything else is for nothing. Second is having an effective appreciation and approach towards corporate responsibility so that the need to make profit is balanced with wider social and environmental responsibilities. Third is being very grown-up so that leader can never get emotionally negative with people . Fourth is no shouting or angry even if leader feels very upset or angry. Fifth leading by example such as always be seen to be working harder and more determinedly than anyone else. And helping people when they need it. Finally being fair and firm and treating everyone equally and on merit. Being firm and clear in dealing with bad behavior.
Chris Corrigan for example shows cooperate social responsibility by saying "You have to have the ability to see what the business environment might be like a long way out, not just over the coming months. You need to be able to both set a broad direction, and also to take particular decisions " (Matthew Stevens ,2007).Furthermore Chris was always acting primarily with shareholder interests in mind. He always had a fairly upright attitude to business, and would not do anything that he considered improper. As a consequence, he occasionally pursued issues during his career that other people might have avoided,(Chris Corrigan , 2009).
Anil Ambani is a great leader having several leadership qualities. He provided vision to various companies of his group. He is not afraid to take calculated risks. He recently topped Business Sheet's "world's biggest loser" list of business leaders who lost money in the late 2000s recession losing $32.5 billion in 2008, which brought him out of the top ten list to number 34 in 2009,( Gayatri, R Shah, 2010). However, this loss did not stop him from progress. He is a great leader and under his leadership, the entire group grow like anything. For example Reliance Capital is also planning to launch a Local Bank network in India according to RBI guidelines. He has also played a major role in Film industry by promoting Reliance Big Entertainment. Thus, overall, Anil Ambani is a great leader.
9. Management of change
Theory: Kotter (1995) state each stage of change acknowledges a key principle relating to people's response and approach to change, in which people see, feel and then change.
Situation: Ambani wanted to buy sole rights in selling entertainment industry. He faced a lot of opposition from Indian rivals.
Discussion: He used his effective communication abilities and explained to Indian government and film industry where the film industry was at that moment and made them understand where it would be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there. He gained support because he developed achievable measurable goals.
Evidence: As a leader he used his manipulative power finally he was able to take control of entertainment world and made it truly global and signed joint venture with American business tycoon Steven Spielberg.
Self: Ambani gained the status of first businessmen to make the company multiplex and major financial gain for his company and Organization This change made the company multiplex and gave major financial gain for his company and workers who remained loyal to him as he was known as wealthiest businessmen in India.
Followers: workers remained loyal to him as he was known as wealthiest businessmen in India.
Situation: Chris Corrigan managed change successfully when in early 2000 his company Virgin Airlines suffered economic loss. Chris Corrigan, isn't used to failure.
Discussion: He communicated his ideas and feelings for the organization and spoke truthfully about what he thought about the policies of the organization. He blamed the board's strategy for the loss and spoke publicly for the first time of his intention to take over the company and assume full control. (Broadcast: 03/02/2005, Reporter: Emma Alberic)
Evidence: Chris brought about a lot of changes such as lowest fares, special tours and flashy advertising . This attracted the support of customers at all levels to choose Virgin airlines a very promising and exciting business.
Self: Chris gained respect and fame because he saved his organization from bankruptcy. Chris gained world class leadership status.
Organization: It was beneficial to the workers of the organization as they remained in employment and developed love and respect for their leader.
Followers: Everyone including his competitors accepted this change as it was needed to save the company from bankruptcy. Followers were inspired because they remained in employment.
10. Cultural Aspects of Achieving Change
Planning and analysis
Need for change
Anil Ambani is credited with having pioneered many financial changes in the Indian capital markets. For example, he led India's first ventures into overseas capital markets with international public offerings of global depositary receipts, convertibles and bonds. He directed Reliance in its efforts to raise, since 1991, around US$2 billion from overseas financial markets; with a 100-year Yankee bond issue in January 1997 being the high point, after which people regarded him as a financial wizard He along with his brother, Mukesh Ambani, has steered the Reliance Group to its current status as India's leading textiles, petroleum, petrochemicals, power, and telecom company.
Chris Corrigan is an experienced catalyst and leadership consultant who specializes in hosting programs for large groups, communities and organizations in solving complex problem and helps them to accept change. He works extensively in Australia and New Zealand, organizing workshops and uses both verbal and nonverbal communication skills effectively and that is why he is always successful in his projects. .
His clients are diverse, ranging from big companies to indigenous communities, churches, not-for-profits and government bodies. Where makes them understand the values of ethical leadership in sustaining good relationships which contribute towards the success of a business.
Need for change
His work focuses on understanding context and creating action that is logical with change models which recognize the complexity and nature of living. For example caring for the environment makes companies gain clients and respect for the business..(www.chriscorrigan.com)
Both Ambani and Corrigan have shown situational style of leadership. Understanding which aspects of leadership are universal, and which aspects are culturally determined is important when dealing with business leaders internationally. It also helps me understand how to be more effective as leader, whether globally or locally. Imposing your views on others is likely to be rejected anywhere in the world. Olden ways of organizing and leading are not producing the result we desire. Real change in business and society calls for a new kind of leadership in all of us, no matter our role. It requires a new way of sharing ideas and information.