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Ports since the remote times are the points of loading and unloading with interface between shore and maritime transport where mainly its necessary to have the equipment for handling the cargo. They have not only become an integral player in the industries activities like just to handling cargo but are playing a role in the logistic activities and supply chain. This new element provide an intense competition among ports according to their location and as well as the marketing strategies to become more attractive.
Within this context, will seek to analyze the features of the changing role of ports looking at the development for the regional and international logistic centres service, with special attention on the port of Singapore, Rotterdam and CMP (Copenhagen Malmo Port) that playing better role in the marketing position.
Ports has a biggest commercial activities are constantly move and the infrastructures change according to the change of development of the industries. The technologies of the system of cargo-handling, as well the change of the labour requirement and culture have been create a radical system of development of the ports. To develop a generic conception of the port models and to find a solution for good and bad causes of its development, it depends on the various forms of port management (Alderton, 20008, p.13)
Maritime cargos can not be operated without considering the dimension of port and the structure itself. Port structure properly change of decade for decade, starting for the original dock berths until the great change of conteintorazation with the equipment drawn for load and unload of any type cargo considering the geographic and functional area of each port (Rowbotham, 2008, p.23). Consequently, ports are the third component of the transport system that give to a crucial interface between the land and the sea. Ports are defined in three terms: port, port authority and terminals, that also are considerate as private, public bodies, governmental organization and companies. The functions is to provide storage facilities for the entrance and exit for the cargos.
The system of terrestrial transport must efficiently be integrated in port operation as well as the railways and waterways in appropriate way to create an efficient interface (Storford, 2009, p.81). In accordance with modern concepts, the ports were developed in different forms as considered ports of first, second, third and fourth generations according of strategies and political situations (Value added). Ports with their dimension and forms have to be considered the challenges of the changes, the technological alterations, leaving of the beginning of programs of successive training (Casaca, 2006, p.203), simultaneously the same idea were share for beneficiation of a long scale of a program of training for the futures of the ports as well as its assistance constant technique (Canamero, 2000, p.65).
To keep a viable port, it is necessary to elaborate a strategically program of marketing to attend and to follow the challenges and objectives of corporation in order to increase its market share. The marketing strategy focus on the marketing mix, tactics, positioning and advantage of competition (Branch, 1998, pp.331). As per the 1999 UNCTAD, there are an example that the merging of the ports of Malmo (Sweden) and Copenhagen (Denmark) is created a great port of fourth generation in the European region provided by construction of tunnel through a bridge that link the two countries by rail and road. The two ports created a join-venture company and provided a good marketing strategy to maintain competitive, serving high levels service and keeping at a minimum handling charges and also convincing their client to continue to use ferry service and feeder links.
Innovation increase the level of competition in the maritime transport area, particularly in the port activities where the Shippers has many available alternatives to rise of hinterland of each port, necessarily for minimize the captive hinterlands. With the increase of competition combined with growth of the private initiatives as tools of marketing for the external point of view to reach since the remote points of origin and destination and for the internal point of view to coordinate commercial and organizational activities for the port (Pando at al, 2005, pp. 67-67). Its is important that marketing in ports has covered to some numbers of activity, as being, market research, promotional tools, marketing strategies and implementations, this is to increase the competition in the ports using the tools- product, price and promotion, those are important elements in fluency in trade and services (Bichou, 2009, p.p 222-223).
Though the promotion among of the marketing tools, is used to communicate between the customers and the port in the direction to be informed and influenced inside the area of negotiation using advertising, direct mailing, organizing reception days, personal selling and representatives (Ma, 2010). Is important that the ports must define its objectives to promote the tools of its businesses according to the CRM.
Port logistics and supply chain
Throughout the years 70 many ports had the same basic form of packing the services for this customers. To have a secure competition is necessary to modify the cargo ââ‚¬"handling system in accordance to the change of technology. Later, already from years 80 started to appear the great changes in the ports activities and the customers had started to request to the ports a great variety of services. These challenges started to create a value-added services as a way capable to built a competitive advantages. Within this context ports have to create conditions to offer different types of services and together with the customers should create a value-added logistics services as an integral part of the supply chain (Value add, p.21). To maintain its viability in materialization of these changes, many things are necessary to be identified in port logistics such the choice of location, port type, size, logistics of port layout, port position flow, logistics equipment, information flow and outsourcing logistics (Ma, 2010).
The commercial success of ports is generated by the advantages of productivity for the handling system in the service cargo. Following the forms of economy of scale and economy of scope, the productivity advantages tells that the most productive ports are those that are well equipped with a great cargo-handling system to load and unload great volumes and significantly reduce unit cost through a good efficiency in management (Value add, p.20).
Ports and logistics systems represent link-node distributions system where nodes locations are positioning for transfer, multimodal interchange, storage and warehousing and eventually value-added logistics (Bichou, 2009, p.225). Logistic appears as a procedure that optimize all the process of delivery cargo through the system of transportation, create an efficient competitiveness in logistic supply system and bring a vital importance in reaching a great value in industries and commerce creating an efficient economic sustainability in each countries. In the countries as the USA and Japan, logistics cost are about 10 per cent of GDP (Value add, p. 22). This represent a great efficiency in trade logistics in the developed countries.
Generally the logistic system appears to reach a good level of service to the customers for a low level cost (Value Add, p.23). The port of Singapore is the example as a regional leader and international logistic hub in Southeast Asia where the logistic industry creates a value-added service as a strategic area that contributed in about 7 per cent of GDP of Singapore in 2000 and used 5,1 per cent of the workforce. The Singapore logistic centre has characterized as a big change into the key economy of the country. Another example of the success of logistic impact that bring a big challenge is in port of Rotterdam that has relatively attract the European Logistics Centres (ELCs) on the economic activities inside of the port area. Before, the logistic centres were not considered internationalized models. It was materialized gradually in a process of internationalization. By geographic position the Netherlands is considered the great international logistic activity so many foreign firms decided to move themselves in that land with the objective to stabilize the ELCs in Netherland. According to the Holland International Distribution Council (2001), 51 per cent of the ELCs are situated in the Netherland. The logistic centres have inside created a great contribute in the growth of the economy in the Netherland of the European market (Value add, p.24-25) .FALTA COMENTARIOS
The ports in the world should continue to emphasize the function of logistic centres to reach the high degree in a global productivity to obtain the value- added logistic (VAL). The logistic centres also combine with industrial activities with specifics clients, specific countries and specific products. The great challenge determine the change of the ports in the world through the logistic companies and shippers agreement. Its can bring a value-added service in logistic centres that is important in supply chain management (SCM) and this trend have a great expectation in continuing in the the future (Value added, p.25). These challenging tools are mainly to consolidate a firm cohesion between the managers in the direction of having in account the great changes and transformations in the port industry.
Ports are in constant change, creating new challenges, leaving (starting) of the new strategically dynamic of the world-wide market that allows great change in the business management. The successful changing in ports now is that are transformed into a regional and international logistic centres according to their geographically location. For target this objective is necessary to provide an efficient cargo handling, storage, warehousing and distribution, creating value added services, attracting customers, creating competitiveness with other ports, but this activity should be followed with the politics of the strategically change of the market.