For organization need, we have to identify and know what the objective of training program, so that we can achieve the objective. After that, environment is also one of the organization needs. It is because, environment also influence the structural nature of the organization itself.
We found SESCO problems facing the organization in which the employee attitudes of many workers do not want to involve themselves in training. This has made it become a habit in the organization. In fact, the organization was not keen to make the training, as many processes that been done.
For this level, data collected to determine and identify the work activity whereby it include the skill, knowledge and ability that require to success the training program. In task analysis, we found a problem where SESCO staff believes that the task given during the training will improve to make them work. In addition, they also think that after they completed the training program, they will be given a task that many.
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At this level of need analysis, it is will determine what kinds of training they need to achieving the goal. For this analysis, we can do through questionnaire or interview and observation. SESCO having this analysis to identify who needs the training and what kinds of training that they need. So that they can identify who needs the training and what kind of need that they have to take.
In SESCO organization, they also face problems in analyzing the person. For example, they have a problem that many people do not want to participate in the training program because they felt that their salaries have remained unchanged whether the program was not wanted.
It is important to state clearly just, what the results of that training will be. A clear statement of objectives will provide a sound basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the training has been successful.
SESCO need to develop the training objective that provides an understanding of the concepts and techniques that will help SESCO supervisors and managers create more dynamic, loyal, and energized workplace. It also including the ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with the employees. SESCO should set a clear and understanding objective to ensure that appropriate learning experiences will provide to them.
In the aspect of performance, the supervisors and managers of SESCO is expected to dynamic and be able to transparent in term of information when they dealing with the employees. In the aspect of condition, the supervisors and managers were be expected to be able to communicate well and transparent in term of information to the employees during their day-to-day management. In the aspect of criteria, the supervisors and managers expected for increasing the employee's level of motivation to learn, which in turn maximizing their learning of transfers to the job performance.
Once the supervisors and managers have completed the training program, they may apply the skills to their day-to-day work activities, and then they can meet their successful job performance in improving the organization effectiveness and efficiency. The supervisors and managers will improve their job performance after participate the training program based on training objectives.
Strategic training and development initiatives are learning-related actions that a company should take to help it achieve its business strategy. Employees learn best when they understand the objective of training program. They are most likely to learn when the training linked to their current job experience and tasks. How often and how well a company is training program used affected by the degree to which managers, and specialized development supervisor are involved in the process. (Noe, 2008)
Effective program design includes developing course parameters, objectives, a lesson plan overview and a detailed lesson plan. In order to have an effective teaching and learning strategy, SESCO needs to choose the trainer or vendor whether from inside or outside. The trainers should expertise in the topic and experience in training. It may involve having managers and supervisors earn a certificate that verifies they have the skills needed to be effective trainers. The trainers should be observed and should receive coaching and feedback from more experienced trainers. The trainers should have the training competencies and subject matter expertise. Trainees view the managers serving as trainers as highly credible sources and believe the training is more applicable to their jobs than if outside trainers were used. (Noe, 2008)
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On the other hand, to be success in training, it requires staying up-to-date on current research and training practices. The purpose of the course was to prepare managers to conduct effective performance appraisal and feedback sessions with their subordinates. The detailed lesson plan translates the content and sequence of training activities into a guide that used by the trainer to help deliver the training. In order to translate the program objective into the development of a lesson plan is recommended, interpersonal skills training session is needed. It increases in level of motivation loyalty and one focus on the job, which give a great positive impact on employees' performance. Performance more likely occurs in such situation.
Although SESCO using different methods, the purpose of the training is to help the employees learn to perform well in their job. It consider about managers' willing to provide information to trainees about how they can more effectively use knowledge, skill or behavior learned in training on the job and opportunities for trainees to use training content in their job. SESCO can serve the managers as trainers if the company recognizes them or if the training experience linked to their personal development plans. It is important to develop a sense of trust between the employers and employees.
Training curriculum is the most crucial part in training program. There are several training program conducted in Sesco. Most of the training program use on the job training. After interviewed the Sesco's we know that there are some attitude problem among Sesco's employee. Some of them do not want to take responsibility. They gave so many excuses to avoid from sent to training program. After did several survey we know that the employees motivation level very low. This is because there is only training on administration, information technology, mechanical and safety courses. The employees were lack of motivation level because of the organization culture that gives less importance on employee's motivation level.
Indeed of that, we have design a training program for the supervisors and managers of Sesco. We chose supervisors and managers as a target group because they are the one led the employees in organization. They able to do training transfer after the training program. Leaders should motivate employees so that employees would dedicate to do their work.
This training program entitled motivating staff. In this particular training program, trainees will learn how to motivate employee to work more efficiently. Indirectly this training program would help to increase employees' performance. The duration for this training program is one day that will be held on 2nd December 2010. There are several training equipments and material will be using in this training program such as handouts and exercise, transparencies, posters, prepared flip chart, slides, audiotapes and videotapes. This would help trainee to learn better.
The trainers are lecturers from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak who are Dr. Sopian Bujang and Mdm Mai Sumiyati Ishak. Both of them have potential to train employees. Dr.Sopian have Ph.d in Human Resource Management, M.A in Industrial and organizational psychology and B.HSc. Psychology (Hons). Meanwhile Mdm Mai Sumiyati Ishak has M.Sc in Industral psychology and B.HSc. in Psychology (Hons). They really qualified to train employees from Sesco. They have more knowledge on motivation that can be transferred to the trainees. The tentative program is as stated in appendix.
To conduct this training, we need to have known which method we need have to prepare before do the training program. This is because, to have perfect method that can ensure the effectiveness of the training. According Werner and DeSimone (2009), they are three training method which are on-the job training, classroom and self-paced. This training program it is for manager and supervisor. The objective of this program is to provide an understanding of the concepts and techniques that will help SESCO supervisors and managers create more dynamic, loyal and energized workplace.
On this training, we choose classroom method. According to Werner and DeSimone (2009), on the classroom method have five primary categories of classroom training include lecturer, discussion, audiovisual media, experiential methods and computer-based training (classroom based). Sense we are going to conduct in house program, we are do the training program it in our office or company. This is because our training program not effectiveness and need to change style of training concept. The new environment of training program can change if the company can give lecturer at offsite, which are doing the training program at hotel for one day only. This method can give spirit to them to join this training program. In other meaning, the meeting or seminar room will work as the classroom where all the training activity will be held. The reasons why we need to using classroom or lecturer approach are first is, classroom setting permits the use of a variety of training techniques, such as video or DVD, lecturer, discussion, role playing and simulation. Second is, the environment can be designed or controlled to minimize distraction and create a climate conducive to learning. Third is classroom setting can accommodate larger numbers of trainees than the typical on-job-setting (Werner and DeSimone, 2009). To help the trainer easy to give lecturer to trainees it is to make the trainees understanding what they learn, the overhead projectors and transparencies will be used. By used projector, the trainees can do presentation becomes more effective and interesting.
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Second method that we would like to use in training program is experiential method. Experiential techniques can be dividing to four category which is case studies, business games, role playing and behavioral modeling. The case study can method can help trainees learn analytical and problem solving skill by presenting a story (called case) about people in an organization who are facing a problem or decision. For example, we can choose any case in journal in college book and courses in a management, public administration, low, sociology, and similar subject. This is because we have a task to give trainee to do pair work to think and try to analyze what are current issues in an organization. Although, case vary in detail and trainees should given enough information to analyze a situation and recommend, their own solution. In solving a problem, trainees are generally required, to use rational problem solving process include restating important facts, drawing inferences from the facts, stating the problem, developing alternative solution and then stating the consequences of each determining and supporting a course of action (Werner and DeSimone, 2009). From this learning, the manager and supervisor can learn how to facing the problem if have any problem in organization by do it some research used book of journal.
Managing Location and Resources
To give training to our company selected trainees, our company has to analyze each aspect of training resources. The trainers should find appropriate location and time for the training program. All these things are very crucial in designing a training program.
Sesco more prefer to conduct training in their trainer centers. This is one of the reason for employees not to to participate in training program. Training in same place can make them bored. Therefore, we have suggested the training program to conduct at outside of the organization. We will conduct the training program in a hotel at Kuching which have all the facilities' to conduct the program. Moreover, supervisors and managers themselves would be energized to participate in the training program. The financial aspect for training need to plan well in order to help the company to prepare what be needed in the training. The training program will be conduct only for one day. This is because, can help the company to save the budget, time and energy. Even though the duration of training is quite short, we expect the manager and supervisor to learn new skill and knowledge.
Therefore, we have allocated RM 2400 for the training program. The training budget in our company includes the cost of training materials, trainers, food, locations, and so on. We have identified budget item, cost of budget items, negotiate and revise the budget. The table is as stated in appendix.
Pre- Course Administration
Based on the training programs conducted by SESCO, there are some negative feedbacks obtained that have been observed by the managerial board from the trainees employees who are selected to undergo these courses under training program handled by the training centre of competency and career development.
Overall, even though the training programs conducted seem to be carried out smoothly but it does not mean that the outcomes of them are positively influencing the employees.
Firstly, the managerial board are unable to know whether these training programs are succeed in expanding the knowledge of the employees as there are no physical measurement could be used to rate the successfulness of these programs. The employees may not use the new knowledge that they have learnt during the duration of the training programs been carried out whereby they still depend on their old skills, knowledge and abilities in the workplace.
Secondly, the attitude of the employees towards these training programs is quite biased as some of them have been working with SESCO for a long time. However, suddenly face a demand for them to undergo training programs so that they would be updated and are having equivalent skills with the new employees whom also undergo training programs though they are different as the types of training programs are determined by their status as senior employees or the new ones.
Thirdly, the fear of facing new challenges and tasks by the senior employees made them hesitated to undergo training programs. They are troubled to be assigned with new and additional tasks as they had been doing the same task for many years and it is a quite sudden to have new tasks whereby their old routines have been interrupted by these tasks. They are afraid to take risks as they have to face failure even after they have undergone for training programs. Hence these changes make the training programs are also a failure in a sense.
Apart from that, the language barrier is also preventing the effectiveness of these training programs. Some of the employees are not doing well in understanding English which difficult them to comprehend the lectures conducted by the trainers. Not only the company has to give the employees training programs for productivity quality but they also have to consider about the employees' problem of communicating in English.
Deliver Course (training approach and methods to be used)
In order to deliver course to the SESCO, we have arranged a training program for the supervisors and managers. Training objectives and methods should be identified earlier before the training is conducted in order to make an effective training program.
The training objective is motivating staff. Our trainers will give exposure to the supervisors and managers of the SESCO about the motivation. Our trainers will give an explanation about what are motivation means, motivational theories, and setting the goals.
As SESCO's employees have some attitude problem among them, we decided to give this training program for supervisors and managers because they are the one can supervise the employees in the organization. Besides that, the employees always gave so many excuses to avoid from being send to any training programs. Seems the employees lack of motivation, this training program would help the supervisors and managers to motivate their employees.
There are several ways in how to motivating the employees of the SESCO. First, supervisors and managers should starts with motivating themselves. For example, if they are doing a good job of taking care of themselves and their job, they will have much clearer perspective on how to motivate their employees on doing their jobs. This is because; a great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding their motivations. In this case, time with family, recognition, a job well done, service, and learning can be considered as a way to motivates people in doing their job.
Next is, always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employees. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization besides identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. Whatever steps they take to motivate their employees, they must ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and these goals were aligned with goals of their organization.
The other way is the supervisors and managers of the SESCO should consider of each employee's life stages. This is because, employees that nearing to the end of their careers were most probably would not focused on the next promotion than those who are just starting to climb the corporate ladder. Younger employees may also be less accustomed than older ones to waiting patiently in a job they do not find it interesting.
Besides that, the employees should be given an opportunity to achieve their career goals. The supervisors and managers of the SESCO company maybe can conduct some researches on improving employees career development. Giving employees opportunities to build the skills can help them to get ahead in their careers and build loyalty with the organization. It is very important for the employees to keep learning new skills on the job. People changing jobs more often than they used to and companies no longer promising long-term employment, younger employees in particular realize that continuing to learn is the way to stay employable. Therefore, learning is one of the effective ways to motivate the employees. However, without the help from supervisors or managers, it is hard for the employees to motivate themselves.
Understanding what motivates the employees is also very important for the supervisors and managers of the SESCO. This is because; the key to supporting the motivation of employees is understands what motivates each of them. Each person motivated by different things. Besides, whatever steps the supervisors and managers of the SESCO take to support the motivation of their employees, they should first include finding out what is that really motivates each of their employees. They can find this out by asking their employees, listening to them and observing them. The other perspective that the supervisors and managers of the SESCO should know is recognize that supporting employees' motivation is a process, not a task. This is because, organizations change is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employees can strongly motivating themselves.
Besides that, the supervisors and managers of the SESCO should support their employees' motivation by using organizational systems such as policies and procedures without count on good intentions. They should not just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with their employees to help motivate them because the nature of these relationships can change greatly, for example, during times of stress. Instead, SESCO use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate their employees.
Post-Course Administration (For both positions)
After the training program completed, the trainer has to confirm trainees' attendance by taking their attendance. Trainer has to give list of the attendees to the training administrator and administrator after the course. This is important because it reflect the trainees' participation in that training program. It is also important to send copies of the course critique to the administrator, so that the training program can be improved.
Then, amend training records is one of the vital process in training. Records have to keep accurate and updated. The person or training administrator will do this particular task. This is important in doing referring later on. Records should be amended as soon as the administrator receives the list of attendees from the trainer. Trainees need to fill critiques forms and give back to the administrator. Course reviews needs to be analyzed in order to understand trainees' opinion toward the course. The analysis and critique forms have to keep in file so that it is easier to do referring and improvement on the training program.
Apart from that, complete finance is the most crucial part in post administration process to be acknowledged. Administrator should make sure receive complete payment from the organization and make invoices for the particular payment.
Evaluate the Training
After we conduct the training, the training evaluation is important in order to determine whether the training goal is achieving or not. If the goals is achieved it mean the program training is successful. As we know evaluate is the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine whether training is effective (Noe, 2008). After the supervisor and manager going for the training, we need to evaluate them whether their skills, knowledge, and ability is enhance.
There are two methods that we can use to evaluate the training program. First, after the training, we will make an interviews section with the supervisor and manager. We will ask the question about the training that he or she tend. Through the interviews section, it can help us determine whether he or she really achieve the objective of the training program or not.
The second method to evaluate training program is through questionnaire. Before the training start, we will ask him or her to answer the question first in order to know which level they are. Then, after the training, we will give the questionnaire again to know whether their level is increase or decrease. If their level is decrease it means the training program is not effective and this is because he or she cannot follow the training had given.
On the other hand, Kirkpatrick's four-level framework of evaluate criteria is important for categorizing training outcomes. There are four level as well level one is refer to reactions, level two is for learning, level three is for behavior, and level four is for results. Before training, both level one and level two criteria are collected before supervisor and manager return their job (Noe, 2008). Furthermore, we will focus on their satisfaction on how to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behavior in the training program.
Then, level three and level four criteria will be used to determine transfer training. In this level, mostly we will focus on the improvement on the behavior and result of he or she achieved (Noe, 2008). So, the outcomes of the training are important in order to know whether these training programs are effective. If the evaluate is positive, the supervisor and manager able to engage with the training and the can apply to their workplace.
As a conclusion, in order to design the training program, some processes need to organize. First, we need to analyze the need analysis of the training and then state the training objective. After that, we should establish the curriculum of the training, and then the formulating strategies of the training should be organized. Before we deliver the training, we need to find the training method and manage the location, resources, and the budget of training also. Finally, we should know whether the training is effective. Then we need to ask the feedback of the training, so the last process is we need to evaluate the training program.
Other than that, this training program will help the organization solved from their problems. In order to make the employees work effectively and efficiently, the supervisor and manager need to become the role model to the employees. In this training program, the supervisor and manager will tend the training to improve their skills, knowledge, and ability whereby they can apply it to help the organization increase their outcomes.
Raymond A. Noe (2008). Employee Training & Development, Fourth Edition. Boston: McGraw Hill
Jon M. Werner, Randy L. Desimone (2009). Human Resource Development 5th Edition. United States:Western Gengage Learning
Training and learning development (2010). Retrieved Sept 23, 2010, from http://www.businessballs.com/traindev.htm