Rising Use Of Social Network Commerce Essay

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The purpose of the research is to assessing the impact of the rising use of social network among employee which may affect organizational performance. This study is conducted to find out whether social network present positive or negative consequences to the organizational performance. Besides having advantages, there can also be disadvantages because past researchers, have found that social networking not only gives good effects but also bad effect according to Pettenati, M.C. and M. Ranieri (2006) and Brandtzag, P.B. and J. Heim (2007).

The first impact on the social networking towards the organizational performance is from the global perspectives. According to Arrington (2006), the usage of social networking is like phenomenon that spread from one country to another country. In addition, past research assessing whole (or bounded) networks has found links between network positions and individual performance (Cummings, 2004).

Furthermore, like several emerging technologies, social networking sites, and their use in the workplace, have been controversial issues. Some argue that the use of social networking sites in the workplace leads to better employee productivity through effects on intermediate variables, such as higher morale (Bennett, Owers, Pitt, 2008). Others argue that the biggest concern about the use of social networking sites in the workplace is the loss of labor productivity due to time wasted at work. It was obvious that productivity of employees was dropped due to addictive and excessive browsing and uploading photos which were not related to the workplace (as cited in Aguenza, Al-Kassem & Ahmad Puad Mat Som, 2012).

It means that, social networking sites may leads to a positive or negative impact to the organization performance, all the consequences is depend on how they use the social networking at the workplace either the usage is for the work related intention or only for their social purpose.

Furthermore, from the Malaysian view, the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) said that, civil servants and staff of government- linked companies (GLCs) surfing social networking or engaging in personal matters during working hours may be categorized as having committed corruption (as cited in Citizen Infonet 1st in Malaysia, 2013). Besides that, according to Sutinah, the culprits could face disciplinary action if they are actively engaging in other personal tasks during work hours and it could be considered contravening the employment contract (as cited in Citizen Infonet 1st in Malaysia, 2013).

However, according to president of Cuepacs Datuk Omar Osman, he said that social networking is one of the good way to encourage people to be more tech-savvy and updated on current affairs, however civil servants must dedicate their work hours to organization, department or agency. Other than that, he also proposed that an organization should underline what type of websites, if surfed by a civil servant during working hours, that could be considered straying from their job specifications. Besides that, the organization also should give a clear guidelines to the entire employees in term of what actions can be penalised, and also for the disciplinary committee to determine what is within the job scope and what is no t (as cited in Citizen Infonet 1st in Malaysia, 2013).

On the other hand, at Parkson from the management view the use of social networking gives a bad impact towards this organization performance whereby there a lot of time that have been wasted for this social networking. Most of their time, they spend to checking their Facebook accounts, update status on Facebook and online gossip with their friends. Some of their job are been delayed and cannot finish it on that time. That is the reason why all firms not allows social networking site use in the workplace. In fact, 23 percent of firms do not allow their employees to use social networking sites (Brodkin, 2008). So, in order for them to be focus on their job the organizational have to blocked all the access to the social networking from been viewed by the staffs.

1.2 Background of the Company

Parkson Corporation Sdn Bhd is the retailing arm of Lion Group. The Lion Group was established in the 1930's and today, has offices in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, USA and Mexico. The Lion Group has diversified into several others sectors such as motor (Suzuki), tyre (Silverstone), computer division (Likom), and retail and service (Parkson).

Parkson Corporation Sdn Bhd was established in 1987 and the one of the largest retail chains in Malaysia. As a trendy family store, Parkson Corporation Sdn Bhd has operated 32 departmental stores across the nation and the Parkson Retail Group also has several ventures in China and Vietnam.

Vision Statement

Parkson vision is "to be the best retailer Malaysia can be proud".

Mission Statement

The mission is to be "The Best Place to Work and The Best Place to Shop".

In order to achieve the mission, Parkson provides their employees with conducive working environment by giving them a safe and happy place to work, effective leadership, two-way communication between staff and superior, attractive pay and giving benefits compatible to skills and performance, as well as giving their employees with continuous learning opportunities (training and development).

In addition, the type of business that Parkson is involved in is a retail business. This kind of business involves the process of selling merchandise to end customers. Furthermore, Parkson Corporation Sdn Bhd offers their customers the latest in global trends and fashion with many affiliations with both local and international suppliers.

Parkson Service Standards

Parkson Corporation Sdn Bhd has developed a Service Standard that is called the "P Experience". The P Experience is the steps that staff and promoters have to follow in order to create a pleasant shopping experience for customers and at the same time to achieve their mission "The Best Place to Work and The Best Place to Shop". Here are the steps of P Experience;

Table 1.0: Parkson Service Standards

1. Ready for Services

Promoters have to be ready in terms of grooming, housekeeping and staff readiness.

Housekeeping needs to be done at the respective counter to ensure cleanliness and all equipment must be checked to be in good condition.

At 10.00 a.m sharp, staff must be standing at their department and to greet customer for the 1st minutes.

2. Customer Approach

Staff is responsible to be alert of the customer's presence and be aware of the surroundings.

Staff also needs to be ready to offer assistance to customer throughout the day without customer having to ask.

3. First Impression

This includes maintaining good eye contact, to smile and to greet when customers approach.

They should always look professional to create a good first impression.

4. Expand That Sale

Before closing the sale, staff has to try to expand the sale such as recommending other products that would compliment customer's initial purchase.

The mechanism to expand the sale as includes Parkson Gift Voucher (PGV), Parkson Discount Voucher (PDV), Parkson Promotion Voucher (PPV), Purchase With Purchase (PWP) and Bonus link Redemption and etc.

6. Post Sales Service

Service that offers to all customers that having shopping at Parkson;

Clothes alteration service

Call-a-cab service

Porter service

Escort service

Home Delivery (purchase of RM1,000.00 and above within a radius of 10 km)

Coin exchange scheme for parking

Umbrella and rain coat service

Gift wrapping


Return of exchange and refund

Warranty and guarantee

Wheel chair service

1.3 Product Lines of the Company

Parkson Corporation Sdn Bhd stores comprises of two departments which are softline department and hardline department.

Softline Department consists of;

Ladies / Basic

Examples of the brand name are Voir Group, Biem, Applemints, Polo Ladies, Triumph, Diesel, Wacoal, Audrey and Lilian.

Children / Baby

Examples of the brand names are Baby Kiko, Anakku, Adidas, Polo Kids, Kiki Lala, Cartoon Planet, and Cheetah Junior.


Examples of the brand names are Alain Delon, Pierre Cardin, Bonia, Snails, Arrow, Kent, Nicole, Renoma and Crocodile.


Examples of the brand name are Adidas, Ogival, Forest, Puma, Ambross and Muller.

Cosmetics and Accessories

Examples of the brand names are SK II, Lancome, Shiseido, Kose, Maybelline, and Silky girl.

Hardline Department consists of;


Examples of the brands name are Vision, Tefal, Pyrate, and Zebra.

Home Furnishing

Example of the brand name is Akemi.

Hardware and Electrical

Examples of the brand names are Panasonic, Tefal, Hanabishi, Philips, Morgan, UMS, Pensonic, and Mistral.

Toys and Stationary

Examples of the brand names are Barbie, Disney, Paper Mate, Stabillo, and Nerf.


1.4 Research Problem

Based on my observations at Parkson, even their employees are not allowed from opening social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter but they still can browse any blogs on topics such as recipes blogs, artist's gossip (e.g. Beautifulnara.com), for songs downloads and so on.

However, with the advent of smart phones, it is even more difficult, if not impossible, for companies to block access to social networking sites. Blackberry, for example, are often give a chance for employees to check their email on the go, or to check their Twitter and Facebook accounts. Moreover, nowadays Celcom, Maxis and Digi prepaid are offering internet service where they can subscribe to internet services through mobile phones.

Although staff Parksons are strictly prohibited to use the phone at selling department and the employees already notice the rules regarding the hand phone usage, but based on my view, sometimes the staff are used their phone in quite. They use their phone to go online and have access with social network. This kind of behavior may lead to disciplinary problem to the organization. That means the rules and regulations subject to the hand phone usage are not effective because there still have the employee who is failure to comply with. That is the reason why all firms not allows social networking site use in the workplace. In fact, 23 percent of firms do not allow their employees to use social networking sites (Brodkin, 2008).

Therefore, if the employees are continuously surfing social networking during working hours, this will lead to a waste of time and makes the productivity of employees decreased. It is supported by Peacock (2008), he said "employers worry that staff are wasting time on websites during the day, weakening productivity and increasing security risks to the company by sharing data externally.

Other than that, at Parkson the employer also ever face the issue regarding to the post online. The situation happens when the staffs quarrel with each other, and sometimes having put in their status to show the anger. So when the public read the status, it may lead to a negative perception towards the company. According to Wilson (2009), there are five principal risks that organization has with regards to social networking: perceived loss in staff productivity, data leakage from staff gossiping freely in an open environment, damage to a business's reputation, scam practiced by cyber crooks, and the open access to organization's information due to outdated passwords.

Like several emerging technologies, social networking sites, and their use in the workplace, have been controversial issues. Some argue that the use of social networking sites in the workplace leads to better employee productivity through effects on intermediate variables, such as higher morale (Bennett, Owers, Pitt, 2008). Others argue that the biggest concern about the use of social networking sites in the workplace is the loss of labor productivity due to time wasted at work (Bennett, Owers, Pitt, 2008).

1.4.1 Research Questions

Is there any relationship between innovative behavior and organizational performance?

Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance?

Is there any relationship between employer-employee relationship and organizational performance?

1.5 Research Objectives

The primary purpose of this study is to;

To determine the relationship between innovative behavior and organizational performance.

To determine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance.

To determine the relationship between employer-employee relationship and organizational performance.

1.6 Scope of Study

The scope of study only focuses in assessing social networking impact on organizational performance. There are several impacts that can influence the organizational performance, however for the purpose of this study; it only focuses on three impacts which are innovative behavior, job satisfaction and employer-employee relationship. The study only focuses on employees which have worked at Parkson Kota Bharu Trade Center.

1.7 Significance of Study

First of all, the significance of this study will be to the organization which Parkson Kota Bharu Trade Center. From the study, employer will know the impacts of social networking that influence their organizational performance.

This study will also give significance to the researcher where researcher will gain more valuable information and knowledge in social networking in term of positive and negative impacts, as the researcher is the one who read the Journals, articles, online research and other related references.

Other than that, this study will be valuable information for other student to conduct research or assignment.

1.8 Definition of Terms

1.8.1 Organizational Performance

Organizational performance is an analysis of a company's performance as compared to goals and objectives. Within corporate organizations, there are three primary outcomes analyzed: financial performance, market performance and shareholder value performance (in some cases, production capacity performance may be analyzed) (as cited in Business Dictionary.com).

1.8.2 Innovative Behavior

In particular, innovative behavior is defined by Kleysen and Street (2001) as:

All individual actions directed at the generation, introduction and/or application of beneficial novelty at any organizational level. Such beneficial novelty might include the development of new product ideas or technologies, changes in administrative procedures aimed at improving work relations or the application of new ideas or technologies to work processes intended to significantly enhance their efficiency and effectiveness.

1.8.3 Job Satisfaction

How people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs (Spector, 1997). Job satisfaction can be defined as how people evaluate the different features of their job and how they feel positively and negatively about their jobs (Locke, 1976).

1.8.4 Employer-Employee Relationship

Employer - employee relationship is the relationship between employer and employee, employee and their colleagues, employee and management within the organization. It depends on employer and employee itself how to build the connection between them.



2.0 Introduction

In this chapter will clarify highlight theories from past researchers regarding this study which is termed as the literature review. It is also based on findings that are collected through journals, articles and also websites.

2.1 What is Social Networking?

The growth of online social networking web sites such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and Blogger reflects the age-old social need of humans to communicate and connect with one another. Being social is fundamental to the nature of human beings. We want to use whatever channels we have to communicate, whether it is smoke signals or the net (Daley, 2010).

The Oxford English Dictionary Online (2010), defines social networking as the use or establishment of social networks or connections; (now esp.) the use of Web sites which enable users to interact with one another, find and contact people with common interest, etc.. Besides that, (Rouse, 2006) state that social networking have been use as a medium to make a connections through individuals in order to expand the number of one's business or social contacts.

According to the Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007), online social networking refer to web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connection and those made by others within the system. In addition, social networking sites has started as early as 1997 with "sixdegrees,com" and they grew on. Notable among them are six degrees, Live Journal, Friendster, Linkedin, Hi5, MySpace, Orkut, Facebook, Yahoo!360 And Twitter (Cassidy, 2006). Based on the six degrees of separation concept (the idea that any two people on the planet could make contact through a chain of no more than five intermediaries), social networking establishes interconnected Internet communities (sometimes known as personal networks) that help people make contacts that would be good for them to know, but that they would be unlikely to have met otherwise (Rouse, 2006).

Table 2.0: Prominent Example of Social Networking Sites


A social networking service where users create personal profiles, add others users as friends and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their own profile. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by common characteristics (e.g. workplace).


A microblogging* service enabling its users to send and read publicly visible messages called tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the user's profile page. Users may subscribe to other users' tweets.


A business-related social networking site mainly used for professional networking. Users maintain a list of contact details of people with whom they have some level of relationship, called connections. This list of connections can then be used to build up a contact network, follow different companies and find jobs, people and business opportunities.


An online community of users' personal profiles. These typically include photographs, information about personal interests and blogs*. Users send one another messages and socialize within the MySpace community.

*A blog is a type of website or part of a website usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary and descriptions of events (blogging). The content of a microblog is simply smaller in size. (Broughton, Higgins, Ben & Annette, 2010).

2.2 Organizational Performance

Nardi et al., 2002 stress that social networks play an important role in the workplace, it is also state that professional networking has become crucial to businesses which rely on project and team related work. When social networking entered the public domain, many recognized it an opportunity to further enhance work-based communication practices.

Earlier studies also support the view that enhancing communication and networking practices through technology can increase productivity. Ancona and Caldwell (1988) argue that relying on outsiders for resources or information can produce valuable resources that are related to high team performance. So, if an employee's use the social networking site in the right way that can give positive effect to the organizational performance. For instance, employees use the social networking as a medium to share information and have discussion among employees. As well as they use social networking site for work related purpose.

Furthermore, the benefits that social networking can have for companies is not a recent development (Ancona and Caldwell, 1988; Pickering and King, 1995). However, with the recent astronomical popularity of Facebook, My Space and in particular LinkedIn, people are beginning to see the strategic benefits that it can offer companies (Boyd and Ellison, 2007; Nardi et al., 2002). One of the major benefits is the ease with which it is possible to communicate, collaborate and share information through weak contacts or "ties".

In addition, a European study commissioned by AT&T found that 65 percent of employees believed that using social networking sites in the workplace helped them be more productive (AT&T, 2008). According to North (2010) examined the use of social networking sites in the workplace by prospective and current employees. He found that although some participants find social networking site use to have negative aspects, they believe that its use at work is worthwhile it because socializing online while at work makes them happier and, therefore, more productive.

Besides that, G.B.M, E.C., & Kees, (2011) mentions that positive social relations could lead to access to instrumental and expressive resources, which might accordingly lead to increased performance. However, not only positive social relations but also a network characterized by structural diversity might lead to increased performance (Cummings, 2004).

However, Dale (2008) suggests that, the main concern of employers is that employees are merely wasting time in the use of non-work related websites, combined with the related security and organizational image concerns. That is because if employees use the social networking for non-related work and wasting time by post online for the social purpose that might affect employee productivity and organizational performance. Other than that, it also gives potential problem for employers in order to protect company reputation and image.

2.3 Innovative Behavior

In general, innovation is defined as any "idea, practice, or material artifact" that was adopted by an individual, group, or organization for the purpose of change (Zaltman, Duncan, & Holbek, 1984). Workplace innovation is known by several names including individual innovation (Bunce & West, 1995), and innovative behavior (Janssen, 2004; Kleysen & Street, 2001). In particular, innovative behavior is defined by Kleysen and Street (2001) as:

All individual actions directed at the generation, introduction and/or application of beneficial novelty at any organizational level. Such beneficial novelty might include the development of new product ideas or technologies, changes in administrative procedures aimed at improving work relations or the application of new ideas or technologies to work processes intended to significantly enhance their efficiency and effectiveness.

Social networking sites, therefore, are essential for empowering individuals to successfully explore, develop, and adopt new ideas (Moqbel, 2012). In addition, innovative behavior is an essential factor in achieving high performance. Employees with better access to supporting resources tend to be more innovative, and their qualities are valuable, rare, and hard for competitors to imitate which, in turn, leads to competitive advantage of the firm (Moqbel, 2012). Past researcher has found a positive link between innovation and organizational performance (Battor & Battor, 2010).

According to Kimball & Rheingold (2003) they state that groups of people can use online social networks to think together in new ways. When the affinity or common goal shared by the group is strong enough, mastery of group communication media leads people to invent things together in new ways. Furthermore, the right kind of online social network can first of all identify when that kind of opportunity is possible, and second, it can bring the right people together with the right tools to facilitate the communication necessary to make this productive knowledge-transfer happen (Kimball & Rheingold, 2003).

Besides that, in social networking the staff can share the knowledge and information, so that it would create an idea for improving the company. According to the past researcher Wilson (2009), information can easily found through the Internet. Social networking websites can be one of the fastest ways to obtain information. Wilson also said that "organizations are actively leveraging the power of social networks to find new business opportunity, new groups of like-minded individuals and companies, and new sources of industry specific wisdom, advice and expertise".

Furthermore, according to (Bennett, Pitt, & Owers, 2008) what makes social networking unique is that the control of online content shifts from the site owner to the contributor of material to the sites. In other words, organizations that have implemented social networking have experienced a shift culture from 'information gathering' to 'information participation'. So here we can conclude that, sharing information is one of the behaviors that could lead to the innovative culture.

2.4 Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction refers to the extent to which employees have "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" (Moqbel, 2012). Another definition of job satisfaction refers to employees' affective reactions to their jobs (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). According to English Dictionary, job satisfaction refers to the extent to which a person's hopes, desires, and expectations about the employment he is engaged in are fulfilled.

Moreover, according to Moqbel (2012) operationalization of job satisfaction consists of several dimensions including overall satisfaction about the job; one's specific satisfaction about job security, peers and co-workers, pay and other compensations, opportunities for personal growth, and relationship with one's supervisor; and one's self-motivation for doing the job.

Furthermore, in their study Schyns and Croon (2006) focus on job satisfaction as an outcome of social structure. They defined social structure as "a combination of positive relationships between the employee and colleagues as well as supervisors" (Schyns and Croon, 2006, p.603) and consider the contacts that employees have as possible sources of support. Results showed that social structure is positively related to job satisfaction and had an impact on different facets of job satisfaction. G.B.M, E.C., & Kees, (2011) confirm that social networks can contribute to job satisfaction; however, they emphasize that "different contents and structures of a network promote satisfaction with different aspects of one's job, especially with job rewards and relationships at work". Moreover, we therefore expect that when the friendship relations of professionals exist within the same organization, they will be more satisfied, at least with the social aspects of work (G.B.M, E.C., & Kees, 2011).

According to (G.B.M, E.C., & Kees, 2011) high job satisfaction could lead to better personal and organizational outcomes. Understanding job satisfaction and organizational commitment is important because they both have important impacts on performance, and they also can be influenced by other human resource practices and policies, such as the use of social networking sites in the workplace. Moqbel (2012), also concluded that "social networks serve as a social resource which affects job satisfaction through the provision of supportiveness".

2.5 Employer - Employee Relationship

Online social networks are webs of relationships that grow from computer- mediated discussions. The webs grow from conversations among people who share a common affinity (e.g., they work for the same company, department, or in the same discipline) and who differ in other ways (e.g., they are in different locations, keep different hours, specialize in different disciplines, work for different companies). When the people are distributed across time and space, then these conversations need to take place online, over an intranet or private internet forum (Kimball & Rheingold, 2003). In addition, the Kimball & Rheingold also said that thoughtfully planned and knowledgeably implemented online social networks can enable an organization to connect people and build relationships across boundaries of geography or discipline (Kimball & Rheingold, 2003).

An existence of social networking sites, it will build a good relationship with others people across the boundaries. According to (Ellison et al., 2007, p. 1143), social networking services ''allow individuals to present themselves, articulate their social networks, and establish or maintain connections with others'' and there are different types of social networking sites (SNS) which cater to different needs. Moreover, through social networking the relationship between employers and employees will be more closed that is because they always being connected to each other even they are not in the workplace. For instance, after the working hours they still contact each other through Facebook or Twitter. In addition, according to Awolusi (2012), social networking sites would serve well as a medium for universal linkage between individuals working for an organization without regards to homophilous relationships.

In addition, Computer-supported social networks or CSSNs are social networks that link computer networks and people. According to Kavanaugh (1999), some organizations use CSSNs to foster cooperation and assistance among employees. It encourages teamwork and employee morale (as cited in Lee Sing & Rianna, K., 2009). Besides that, it is especially practical for maintaining long-distance relationships. Self-disclosure, which is a characteristic of relationships, occurs easily via Internet communication (Lee Sing & Rianna, K., 2009).

Furthermore, social networking sites however, provides opportunities for both formal and informal interaction and collaboration with fellow employees and clients/customers which aids knowledge transfer and communication. The sites also have various informal applications and games that members of the same organization can engage in across geographical boundaries and timezones so that team spirit and organizational culture can be maintained (Bennett, Pitt, & Owers, 2008). Meanwhile, van Zyl (2009, p. 909) defines social media as applications and web sites that support the discovery, development and maintenance of potential and existing relationships.

However, in terms of online relationships between managers and employees, Baldas (2009), counsels employers away from tolerating this, claiming that it can trigger or exacerbate legal claims, including harassment, discrimination or wrongful termination, as well as cause accusations of favoritisms if the manager befriends only a select few subordinates. In addition, within the workplace, social networking sites can also disrupt traditional boundaries, relationships and hierarchies between employees. For example, individuals may want to consider whether they should 'accept' a Facebook 'friend request' from their boss. This can be confusing for employees and employers may want to consider offering some type of guidance on this issue, while bearing in mind that individuals differ in terms of the level of detail about their private lives that they are willing to share with work colleagues (Broughton, Higgins, Ben & Annette, 2010).



3.0 Introduction

This chapter gives emphasis on the methodology of this research. It involves the process of conducting the research such as construction of research design, research framework, selection on type of data, sampling design, measurement and scaling, data collection method, data preparation and processing followed by data analysis techniques.

3.1 Research Design

There are two types of methods to get data or information and there are qualitative and quantitative methods. For this research, the researchers decided to use quantitative method to get the outcome for this case study. Quantitative research involves several method of data collection, such as telephone survey, and internet survey. In these methods, the questioning is static or standardized whereby all respondents are asked the same questions and there are no opportunity for a follow up questions. Quantitative research requires that the variables under considerations be measured. This form of research is concerned with how often a variable is present and generally uses number to communicate this amount. Quantitative research use number that allows greater precision in reporting result (Wimmer & Roger, 2010).

3.2 Conceptual Framework





Innovative behavior

(Moqbel, 2012)

(Battor & Battor, 2010)

Organizational performance

(Awolusi, 2012)

Job satisfaction

(Moqbel, 2012)

(G.B.M, E.C., & Kees, 2011)

Employer-Employee relationship

(Awolusi, 2012)

(Kimball & Rheingold, 2003)

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Figure 3.0 Social Networking Impact on Organizational Performance

3.3 Research Hypotheses

There are three hypothesis proposed by researcher to be tested in this study to identify whether the hypothesis are accepted or rejected.

Hypotheses 1

H1 : There is a relationship between innovative behavior and organizational performance.

H0 : There is no relationship between innovative behavior and organizational performance.

Hypotheses 2

H1 : There is a relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance.

H0 : There is no relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance.

Hypotheses 3

H1 : There is a relationship between employer-employee relationship and organizational performance.

H0 : There is no relationship between employer-employee relationship and organizational performance.

3.4 Data Sources

Data collection methods are a technique in which data and information will compile and gathered through observation, questionnaires and others (Sekaran, 2003). There are mainly two sources of data which are primary and secondary data.

3.4.1 Primary Data

For this research, the primary data will be collected by the researcher for specific purpose of deals with the research problem. According to Sekaran (2003), primary data refers to information obtained firsthand by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study. Specifically to address the research problems, data and information will be gathered through several ways. The primary data will be from distribution of questionnaire to respondents.

3.4.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data means the data that have been previously collected for some project other than the one at hand. The objective for secondary data are to collect descriptive information to support decision making and attempt to specify relationship between variables based on secondary data. According to Sekaran (2003) data can also be obtained from secondary data, for instance, company record or archives, government publications, industry analyses offered by the media, web sites, the Internet, and so on. Researcher used the past research or journals, and books also in order to support this research.

3.5 Sampling Design

In the research that has conducted, most of the researchers are using sampling method. According to Sekaran (2003), sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population to make conclusions regarding the whole population.

3.5.1 Target Population

Population is defined as complete group of people, companies, hospitals, stores, college students or entities sharing some common set of characteristics. In other words, the target population is the specific, complete group relevant to the research project. Vitally important to carefully define the target population so that proper source from which the data are to be collected can be identified. Employees Parkson Kota Bharu Trade Center was targeted population

3.5.2 Sampling Method

Sample is defined as a subset of total population in which a number of people is selected as for the purpose of study (Sekaran, 2006). In this study, researcher has used the simple random sampling for the sampling method.

3.5.3 Sample Size

A sample of 150 employees at Parkson Kota Bharu Trade Center will be selected.

3.6 Measurement and Scaling

Most of the questions design in likert scale method which answers range from 1 to 5. The likert scale is as below:-

Scale 1 = Strongly Disagree

Scale 2 = Disagree

Scale 3 = Neutral

Scale 4 = Agree

Scale 5 = Strongly Agree

3.7 Data Collection

In order to collect the data, the method use in collecting the primary data from the respondent is questionnaire whereby the respondent is responsible to answer every questions of Questionnaire is the most effective way in collecting primary data instead of doing interview or observation which requires a lot of time and skills. In order to help respondents to understand the set of questions better, some researcher prefer to use dual language which in "Bahasa Melayu" and Standard English.

Furthermore, to create a good questionnaire there are a few factors that need to be considered such as (1) the appropriateness of the content of the questions, (2) how questions are worded and the level of sophistication of the language used, (3) the type and form of questions asked, (4) the sequencing of the questions, and (5) the personal data sought from the respondents (Sekaran, 2003). However, observation also can be one of the methods to collect the primary data. According to Sekaran (2003), people can be observed in their natural work environment or in the lab setting, and their activities and behaviors or other items of interest can be noted and recorded.

3.7.1 Questionnaire Design

The question was divided into three parts which are section A, B, C, D, E, F. Detailed of research instruments will be outline as per below: Section A

This section is demographic section and it is includes 5 questions that related about the backgrounds of the respondent and obtain information such as gender, age, ethnic group, income level per month and academic qualification. Section B

This section is general information section and it is includes 5 questions. Question number 6 until 10. For example, how often the employees visit social networking sites for a week. Section C

This section include questions based on the dependent variable which is organizational performance and it is includes 3 question. Section D, E, and F

This section includes questions based on the independent variables as stated in theoretical framework. This questions consists 12 questions. Question number 14 until 17 refer to the first independent variables which is innovative behavior (Section D) while question 18 until 21 is refer to second independent, job satisfaction (Section E). The questions number 22 until 25 is referring to the third independent variable which is employer-employee relationship (Section F).

3.8 Data Preparation and Processing

In this research, to analyze the data, the researcher will be using Statistical Package for the Social Science version 20 (SPSS 20) for Windows to analyze the data and to obtain the answer for the research question. SPSS is designed especially to find an accurate data through statistical analysis. The SPSS software helps researcher to test the hypotheses and interpreting result through various statistical techniques.

3.9 Data Analysis

3.9.1 Reliability Analysis

Reliability analysis will be conducted to make sure that the data generated from the questionnaires are reliable and consistent to be used in this study. According to Sekaran (2003), Cronbach's Alpha value less than 0.60 is considered poor, 0.70 until 0.80 is acceptable and those over 0.80 are good. The closer the Cronbach's alpha is to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability.

3.9.2 Pearson Correlation

Pearson correlation analysis is used to determine the strength of relationship between two variables either independent variable or dependent variable. A perfect positive correlation between two variables represented by +1.0 while a perfect negative correlation between two variables represented by -1.0. A range from 0.10 to 0.29 shows low degree of correlation, range between 0.30 to 0.49 represent moderate degree of correlation while range from 0.50 to 1.00 regarded as high degree of correlation (Sekaran, 2003).

3.9.3 Multiple Regressions

Multiple regressions allow us to explore the relationship between a dependent variables and independent variables. The result from multiple regressions also can be used to determine which independent variable influence dependent variable the most. Significant value that less than 0.05 shows that there is a relationship between independent variable and dependent variable while significant value more than 0.05 give the opposite result.