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The relationship between motivation and job satisfaction is very important. A person is only satisfied with job if s/he is motivated to work. It is seemingly not unreasonable belief that an increase in job satisfaction will result in improved performance. The starting point of the employment relationship is an undertaking by an employee to provide skill and effort to the employer in return for which the employer provides the employee with a salary or a wage. The dynamic and often nebulous nature of the employment relationship increases the difficulty of managing it. Trust and the employment relationship play a very important role in creating a successful organization.
A high trust organization has been described by Fox (1973) as: "Organizational participants share certain ends or values; bear towards each other a diffuse sense of long-term obligations; offer each other spontaneous support without narrowly calculating the cost or anticipating any short-term reciprocation; communicate honestly and freely; are ready to response their fortunes in each other's hands; and give each other the benefit of any doubt that may arise with respect to good will or motivation".
Successful organization always have motivated and satisfied employees, who are responsible for its success by providing skills and efforts.
1.2 Company Overview - Primark
The Organization in question is Primark which is a retail group in the value sector and operates a total of 181 stores in Ireland, where it trades under the Penney's brand; Spain and the UK. Primark employs in excess of 25,000 people. In GB, in terms of market share, TNS ranks Primark as GB's second largest clothing retailer by volume and Verdict Research now places Primark as the leading retailer in value clothing. Primark was voted 'Best Value High Street Fashion' by GMTV and ITV viewers. The organization has invested in developing a corporate culture that is dynamic, resourceful and customer focused and that accurately reflects the product offering. As Primark prepares to open a new store in a new location, the HR team focuses on raising the profile and reputation of Primark as an attractive place to work (www.primark.co.uk).
Due to the popularity of its value fashion clothing, stores are always fully packed with customers and employees have to work quite hard as compared to the employees of any other clothing store on high street. The main difficulty HR team is facing is how to motivate their employees at work as the rate of unsatisfied employees increasing day by day which results in hiring and firing. Information collected from Human Resource department showed that out of 20 new recruits, 6 to 8 of them are fired within their probationary period. The reason told by HR manager is that the employees don't take work seriously and after receiving complaints from their managers and supervisors, HR has to give warnings and then end up terminating their employment and hire new staff which increases the recruitment, training, and other costs.
Information collected from Primark's website tells that their policy is to provide job opportunities by offering recruitment programmes to match local circumstances, building up links with local community groups, job centres', colleges and universities, as well as designing more flexible jobs to meet both the individual needs of employees and the efficient Primark operation. Primark offers induction and training programme for all new employees prior to send them on the shop floor. Even after offering such a flexible job opportunity, there is still a dissatisfaction factor in the employees of Primark.
1.3 Significance of Research
This research is very important for an organization that is considered as a best value high street fashion store in GB. Whenever a company hires new people, they have to spend money and time in recruiting and then training those new employees. But when there is a situation like in Primark, where the company has to recruit staff very often due to their existing employees leaving the job or are terminated, the recruitment cost goes over the budget which makes HR department to think how they can retain existing employees and what factors are responsible for the job dissatisfaction among those employees.
As described by Collins (2001) that "those who build great companies understand that the ultimate throttle on growth for any company is not market or technology or competition or products. It is one thing above all others: The ability to get and keep enough of the right people."
So recruiting the right people is important but more important is to keep those right people motivated and satisfied with the job. This research will help Primark to understand the behaviour of its employees and the factors that are responsible for their job dissatisfaction.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
This research is designed to see whether motivation is really an important tool to bring job satisfaction in the employees. Additionally it will aim to help the UK retail sector especially organizations like Primark to clearly understand employee behaviour and getting the best out of their workers. The main objective of this research is to measure the current condition of Primark employees; are they really motivated and satisfied with work, if not then what factors are responsible for job dissatisfaction. Another objective is to review and critically appraise the literature relating to motivation and job satisfaction in the workers. The main research statement is:
"Importance of Job Satisfaction for sales force and Factors leading towards employee dissatisfaction"
Following are the research questions, which will be answered in the research study with the help of literature review and the analysis of the data collected during the research.
Q1. Identify the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction in the UK retail sector especially in the organizations like Primark.
Critically review literature to understand the concepts of employee satisfaction. Also use the theories which are relevant to the topic in defining a questionnaire that will help in identifying the factors responsible for job dissatisfaction.
Q2. What the employer can do to bring the best out of its employee?
Critically review literature to understand the motivation theories and also relate the relevant theory that fits in this case. Also use the literature to develop the understanding about the factors that motivate retail operatives in retail sector.
Q3. Are the employees satisfied with the attitude of the supervisors and managers?
Analyze and obtain employee perceptions on the behavior of their supervisors and managers in Primark and identify significant gaps exist between employee and employer relationship.
Q4. If the employees are really satisfied with their work, then why there is a high rate in firing of staff?
From the analysis determine the consequence of unsatisfied employees in Primark and also identify the importance of job satisfaction and provide suitable recommendations to retain existing staff.
Table 1.1: Research Questions and their related Objectives