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We can define the selection and recruitment process as an 'activity that matches between job and applicant.' This process efficacy depends upon three factors that's a specific and clear definition of the needs of the organization, regularity in the evaluation and effective selection and recruitment techniques, modification and review of the resourcing system in the light of experience (Marjorie and Stephan 2010). The effectiveness of selection and recruitment plays a Vitol role in the organization functioning. Good recruitment and selection process can produce positive results and vice versa. According to CIPD (2009) cost estimation in relevance to inappropriate selection and recruitment amounting £4000 for a manager for a professional it is about 10000. They comprise management cost, cost of pay roll, training, selection and recruitment, orientation, and because of the satisfaction of the customers indirect cost or loss of business.
Training recruitment and selection has become critically significant for almost all of the organizations over the world and they play a vital role in the development of an organization, there contribution towards effective performance of an organization is also significant. Selection and recruitment process should be efficient, fair and effective as being suggested by ACAS (2006). There should be evident fairness from courteous, honest and equitable dealing of candidates to create a positive rut which facilitate the candidates to demonstrate themselves according to their abilities. Thus we can judge the process effectiveness through quality and quantity, suitability, appropriateness, cost effective and timely as the efficiency indicators of the candidates. Thus we can say that quality selection and recruitment is not only meant to fulfill the vacant positions in an organization but it actually put the right people in the right place in order to get maximum productivity and good quality of work as well as to create a suitable environment for work in order to achieve the objective of the business (Stephan and Marjorie 2010).
The Islamabad Club of Pakistan is a leading presidential government organization established in 1967, and has been registered on 22 February 1968 as a limited company, incorporated under the company's act 1931. Human Resource Department in the club is responsible for the recruitment and selection of competent applicants. Recruitment process is done as a mix strategy of international. The Islamabad Club is located in the heart of Islamabad (the capital of Pakistan) and is surrounded by more than 25 embassies; it means that the club is meeting the international club standards keeping in view its own cultural and religious requirements.
The Research Problem
To critically evaluate the significance of recruitment and selection as a tool of diversity management in a non for profit organization Islamabad Club Islamabad Pakistan with the point of view to put forward the most appropriate recommendations in the similar context.
1- To critically evaluates the factual concept of diversity management and resourcing in the modern age human resource management.
2. To critically evaluate the applicability of recruitment & selection as a useful technique for the acquisition of diversity management in the organization.
3. To critically evaluate and analyze the resourcing stratagem and practices adapted by Islamabad Club viz a viz similar to that recommended by the academic identical writings.
4. To suggest the necessary steps that an organization should focus on in order to promote the procedure of recruitment and selection which they are previously using for the performance appraisals.
Reasons for the Selection of the Research Problem
The significance of good recruitment and selection increase many folds in the organization like Islamabad Club Pakistan especially in developing countries. Likewise in the human resource, diversity management can be imagined as modern ways with theoretical and conceptual discussion are still considered to be in their early stages (Subeliani and Tsogas, 2005). Keeping in view various dimensions of human resource in an organization the concept of diversity can be illustrated. For example, gender uniformity, values and culture were understood as essential attributes for the organization success. In this context, the modern concepts of globalization has over-ruled the traditional phenomenon, now diversity in terms of values, gender and culture are seems to be the benchmarks of success for the management of human resource in an organization. Since, recruitment and selection in this regard becomes the essential, most influential and efficient tool in diversity management process, in almost every type of organizations.
In Islamabad Club HR department including other members of selection committee are responsible to suggest the club administrator on scheduled matters of selection and recruitment, which includes selection criteria, techniques, education, training and further aspects relevant in the direction of recruitment. For the sake of recruitment HR department of Islamabad Club is using a mixed strategy involving both international and traditional standers in a diverse way. Hence a diverse, societal, cultural and cost-effective methodology is used to overcome the requirement of human resource of Islamabad club.
Systematically, selection and recruitment are two different measures. The process of recruitment aims to attract the right person for the specific job who conveniently enough skills. On the other hand, selection is such a course that involves the use of suitable techniques for the purpose of appointment, induction and selection of a proficient recruited applicant (Stephan and Marjorie 2010).The concept of recruitment and selection can be regarded as the steps of the same process or they may be considered two different procedures. According to (Dipboye and Johnson, 2007) thinking recruitment and selection both as the same process involves five stages of recruitment and selection. In the initial phase recognition of the attributes and standardized requirement compulsory for a position or task are outlined to set up the applicant requirements for the job description. Personal qualities may be defined as behaviour, personality, mentality, logical thinking, temper and demographic details. 2ndly recruitment involves gathering necessary information about the candidates. Third and forth phases are concerned with the applicant judgment in connection with the job requirements to make decisions for the hiring. The last but not the least is to assess usefulness of the method through technical checks to make sure legitimacy, justice and the efficacy of the practice.
In particular, as defined by Barber (1998) recruitment is such a practice or activity followed by an organization with the primary objective to identify and attract the potential workforce. Thus, possibly, the practice of recruitment can be separated in two different stages. Initially it takes into consideration suitable criterion to recognize potential work-force, subsequently it deals to attract suitable applicant for the job. Hence recruitment is such significant practices which hinge the holistic human resource structure. In the similar context, Taylor and Collins (2000) suggested that for the triumph and endurance of organization recruitment is defined as the one of the critical human resource function. Mostly the term recruitment is defined as one of the most important stage of human resource procedures, greatly emphasize on selection techniques and methodologies. Yet successful organizations underline this stage to get a high pool of candidate to limit the criticalness and significance of selection phase. Barber (1998) recruitment is such a practice or activity followed by an organization with the primary objective to identify and attract the potential workforce. To recognize the significance of the practice current studies are committed to personal approaches and thought in suitable applicants. In the similar context Bills Berry (2007) argue a two mode of communication amongst organizations and candidates. Thus, the level of effectiveness this method induces in desirability of the applicants could be thought as a significant pointer to test the influence of the same. There are two main sources of recruitment that can either be external or internal within the organization. Internal recruitment can be done by using available data of the employees with human resource department in the firm, announcing job using notice board and other possible sources, while external recruitment can be done through job advertisement using different sources of media, or through walk-ins interview depend how urgent the job is need to be done.
Next step after recruitment is selection of candidates. More emphasize is given to this critical stage to make a good choice amongst the competent applicants. Selection is carried out by various methods in this stage. The most vital and common way to select an appropriate candidate for the job is individual interviewing; other method includes psychological testing, group interviewing and testing etc (Newell, 2005). In the similar context Cook (1993) suggested a mixture of application forms, interviews and references a traditional approach, he also refers bio-data, mental tests as a contemporary techniques for selection.
The process of recruitment and selection are vital for almost every organization as the human resource is consist of those who offer their services to the public and citizens. If the process of recruitment and selection is done and planned poorly, then this could be the fault of personal managers with selection process being attended by less than qualified candidate's pool. Similarly, selection challenges focuses on the process of making sure that the criterion used for the selection have relevance with the job and are applied consistently, thus helps in identifying the appropriate candidates for the job (Liou 2001, p.191). First contact of the prospective employees with the organization is recruitment and selection, while the term recruitment is refer to as short listing of the candidates and selection is concerned with the individual selection from the pool of shortlisted candidates via group activities and interviews. The most significant aspect of this process is to ensure that the right candidates are selected and that they are most likely to overcome the requirements of the organization. Recruitment difficulties are faced by almost 84% of the organizations. These cumbersome situations leaves HR managers with a very little choice while selecting appropriate applicants in a short time thus they rush in the recruitment process. There is only one line manager in various organizations who is responsible for the overall recruitment and some of them are not aware about the standard practices of HR or they don't have sufficient formal training while recruiting (Torrington et al, 2008). In the process of front-line recruitment of the employees, organizations must make use of standard and ground-breaking recruiting process of HRM. Combination of job in-line with person oriented approaches should be used by the organization in the front line staff recruiting. Prospective applicant should be endowed with the right core psychological skill and enthusiasm for the job. While for the best recruitment process psychometric tests can be considered as the best approach.
Good recruitment and selection is always vital, as they contribute drastically towards the efficient performance of an organization and create a positive and smooth relationship between employees. In the similar context ACAS (2006) suggests that the process of selection and recruitment is supposed to be resourceful, fair and effective. The absence of biasness is evident to the well-mannered, unbiased, and sincere dealing of candidates to give a constructive framework that accommodate the candidates from a diverse setting to demonstrate their ability. Process effectiveness can be judged through the appropriate quality and quantity presence of applicants and difference between right and wrong. While, time management and cost effectiveness both are the symbols of the same efficiency. As the study of diversity and cross traditions management is the significant area of the subject of human resource, therefore, the research is exceptionally vital and related to the forthcoming global debates on the human resource. Also this study is effectively highlighting diverse areas of recruitment and selection via diversity management.
In the present global business environment organization which effectively organize and administer their human resource via applying intentional practices have a diverse significance and can simply get a competitive advantage in the market over the other competitors. In the same circumstance resourcing is an important element of human resource management which mainly focuses on the important aspects of recruiting and selection (Stephen and Marjorie (2010). likewise diversity can be known as an agreement to plan to recruit and retain employees from diverse cultural social and demographic backgrounds (Thomas, 1992). So, for the practical implementation and sureness of diverse management selection and recruitment can be taken as initial steps. Since, possibly the importance of selection and recruitment in the context is instrumental for diversity management. Collectively if the functional and strategic parameters of the practices are coincide then they are likely to provide advantageous results. Certainly the procedure of selection and recruitment starts with the proper performance of diversity of planned management. In this context the study aims to analyze the impact of selection and recruitment as a tool for the diversity achievement in a non for profit organization Islamabad Club of Pakistan.
Research can be defined as "the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to understand a phenomenon" Leedy, P. and Ormrod, J. (2001 cited in Williams, C. 2007). Similarly research method can be described as a common way that a researcher adopt while making progress in the research job Leedy, P. And Ormrod, J. (2001). Thus, in such prospect study of the research methodology aims to develop a plane to identify the objective of the research problem with-in the specific structure. Broadly speaking there are three common ways in which research can be categorized i.e. qualitative, mixed methodology and quantitative (Williams, C. 2007). Research usually select the quantitative approach to answer the research questions requiring numerical data while, qualitative approach of research required theoretical data, and both textural and numerical data is used in the mixed methodology. Positivist and interpretive are the two types of research methodology. For the improvement of validity and reliability in quantitative research the term triangulation is used. This process involves more than one research method in the study. In the similar framework Patton (2001 p. 247 cited in Golafshani, N. 2003) advise the application of triangulation by defining "triangulation strengthen a research by mixing methods. This means that using different methods of qualitative and quantitative data altogether. In the similar background Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1998) recommend that in definite situations the research investigator can apply a mix of qualitative and quantitative data in contrast with the research. This process called as data triangulation. This system provides substitute information to rationalize the preposition, thus raising the scope, deepness and uniformity in the research method. Triangulation can be done through various methods i.e. ecological triangulation, researcher triangulation, hypothetical triangulation and combine triangulation" Burns, R.B. (2000 p. 420).
This research is of the purpose to evaluate the significance of selection and staffing in one of the premier presidential government organization of Pakistan, 'The Islamabad Club Islamabad Pakistan'. Thus, the study aims to lighten a number of problems concerned with the analysis of selection and recruiting strategy in contrast with the diverse management trends. It also analyse the efficacy of recruitment and selection and the recognition and need of further improvement. Therefore difficulty, time management and dedication, and challenges of methodology to be adopted are the utmost points to be focus. Even though, the traditional move signifies the use of quantitative approach, but the secrecy in correlation with the information of selection policy, extent of accuracy and characteristic of legitimacy are a number of obstacles in this course of work. For that reason, this study will primarily base on the amalgamation of experimental work and secondary data. Literary study based on reliable academic and authorised means is supported by the responsible official interviews for the implantation of human resource strategies and methodologies under reconsideration. For the collection of primary data responsible officials are contacted and strong relations are established before they were interviewed. In this context a draft questionnaire has been managed and attached in appendix A. Hence this study will primarily based on the interviewing of responsible management, while the data which is available in different scholars journals, newspapers and databases will be used as a source of secondary data and the research nature in this study will be quantitative. Thus this study will looked upon triangulation of primary, theoretical and statistical data (if found significant). The techniques to be used in this study will enable the researcher to gain knowledge about the ground reality of the subject. Methodology used in this context is also efficient time and cost effective. However there is a possibility that the used information have disadvantages they may be outdated or incorrect.
Primarily, a comprehensive crucial conversation will be arranged on the starting point of literature review, theoretical understanding, mechanism and significance of selection and staffing procedures in contrast with a diverse HRM. Consequently, a trend analysis will be carried out of the methodology being used for selection and recruitment by the human resource department of Islamabad Club of Pakistan in order to view its viability in comparison with prevailing global selection and recruitment policy.
To overcome the objective of the research, different tools of research methodology have been applied throughout the research. i.e., predominantly the research is being carried out through descriptive and qualitative methods due to the subject nature. In comparison with other international organizations of the same nature a quantitative touch is given while using statistical data for comparing.
To enlighten the prevailing procedures followed by the organization, black letter approach of the research will be used (predominantly followed in authorized research to enlighten the ground realities of undisputed means). To enlighten the factual aspects in relation with the existing socio and traditional situation of Pakistan which influences the structure and process of the organization Legal-Socio approach has been used.
Eventually, the comparative approach for the comparison of the concept relevance and procedural characteristics of the organization with the present age modern HRM will be used. Furthermore following sequence outlined as under.
1. Re-evaluation of the academic literature existing within the modern-day HRM to realize and comprehend the significance of selection and recruitment in the organisational framework.
2. Description of methodology and strategy of human resourcing followed by Islamabad Club Islamabad Pakistan for their employees in contrast with collected primary and secondary data.
3. Significant and critical examination of the human resource methodology and strategy being adopted by Islamabad Club in contrast with the literature review.
4. Critical analysis of the methodology and strategy being adopted by organization for human resourcing in comparison with similar international organizations.
5. Recognition of the weak areas in methodology and strategy of human resourcing in the organization in order to offer some vital suggestions to bring improvement in the same.
Limitations of the Research
1. Using data freely available for public in some cases while the organization itself is sensitive in nature; therefore to analyse the proposed study has definite limitations. In such circumstances, chances to get out-dated, incomplete, and less accurate data cannot be neglected.
2. The research is mainly supported by descriptive data which lacks the empirical support. Therefore the research strength and reliability will be reduced.
3. Research focuses on multi-disciplinary subjects; they include social, economic history and official HRM aspects. Thus the scope of the research possibly can overcome theoretical parameters of an explicit subject akin to HRM.
4. Recruitment and selection as a subject are so broad in nature. As a result the pertinent aspects seem to be missing in the extensive literal support and argument.
To end up the research in focus aims to maximise the theoretical knowledge of the researcher for advance application in the practice of HRM. Thus the information collected can be utilized for the advancement in the field of human resource management in the same organization.