A study of the quality of management training of employees and the effectiveness in job delivery at the Protea and Southern Sun hotels in Durban. The guests of the hotel industry come from all walks of life, which is why there are so many different expectations that guests have trying to cater for all these different types of expectations or needs means that the hotels services must be up to date, the standard of service must be high and maintained all the times. To keep the standards high strategies are used that incorporate training, performance management, marketing, and recruitment. Each and every guest no matter where they are from or what culture they follow, they all want a pleasant experience or guest satisfaction because hotel is a "home away from home."(Torrence & Thompson,1990: pg77) This is exactly what all hotel managers want to achieve. The field of hotel management is fun, exciting and full of growth, its also always changing as a result of improving technologies, communication and evolving demands. As a result, there is an increased level of pressure on managers, in this present day managers have to have a large number of skills at their disposal because they work for long hours and have many responsibilities. They make sure everything is running efficiently and productively, in the large establishments, they may have a team to help them in his daily responsibilities, but in a small establishment, the manager will be required to oversee everything personally. For managers to do their jobs effectively and efficiently they need the ability to delicate, to lead and motivate people. To ensure that the mangers of the hospitality industry have adequate amounts of these abilities they are sent through training. In the literature to come there will be an in-depth look into identifying the need for training and finding the best way to train the managers and lastly the impact that the training has on the organization. Every manager within an organization needs to fit into that organizations needs, the managers skills, abilities and knowledge needs to be in tune with what the organization needs, this is why the recruitment and selection policies of an organization is based on the mission statement. The deficiencies of skills in the work place can have many adverse effects on the business operation. Problems like these can cause other issues in any area where there is a manager, resulting in poor sales, high staff turnover, increased costs and slow production. The solution is training and development of the management staff, so that each manager will know their role or duties that they have to perform everyday. The higher the rank of a manager the more conceptual skills will be needed, and the department or organisation would determine the area of specialisation of the manager, this is the area or department that the manager will have to manage, a manager is allocated this role based on their technical skills.
2.2. Types of hotel management positions:
2.2.1. General Manager: The General manager is responsible for all the operations in the hotel, they exercise their authority over creating budgets, allocating resources, setting prices, setting standards, including the quality of employees, food, amenities, and décor. Their skills may also be required in the establishing of new hotels to create models of operation, develop a systematic workflow, and manage the renovations.
2.2.2. Executive housekeeper: They are responsible for cleaning every area of the hotel, including the guest rooms. Each area of the hotel must be cleaned, in accordance with the occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993 and the standards of the hotel, the chemicals, and other tools used in the cleaning process must be maintained or ordered at an adequate level to ensure that there is no pause in operations.
2.2.3. Front Office Manager: They are responsible for the front desk and has a team to deal with the guests. The front office team must deal with the guests are checked in, reservations, assigning rooms, guest complaints and make changes to the bill. The manager oversees all this, controls it and ensures that the staff receive the relevant training so that they are able to do the job.
2.2.4. Banqueting manager: Any hotel that hosted events such as conferences, parties and weddings has a Banqueting manager who works with the client or client company and the various hotel operations in order to organize an event. The manager will plan everything for the event from décor to the itinerary and they have to be on hand during the event to ensure that everything goes according to plan and if it does not they have to take the necessary corrective action.
2.2.5. Assistant manager: There are many assistant managers especially in large hotels, their role is to aid their supervising manager in their duties, and taking over their duties in the supervising managers absence.
2.2.5. Executive Chef: The executive chef position is one of the most demanding job positions in a hotel because of the many responsibilities placed on the executive chef, including running kitchen operations, creating menus, maintaining quality food service guidelines, submit orders to suppliers, and plan for regular services or deliveries. Such as linen deliveries or deep cleaning of dining rooms or kitchen equipment, basic maintenance and cleaning of equipment, they inspect the quality of fresh meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods, cooking utensils, furniture, and fixtures to make sure their requests are fulfilled, and organise different services like pest control garbage removal. With so many responsibilities, such a manager must be well trained and experienced.
2.2.6. Education and training of Hotel managers
U.S. labour (2004) suggested that advanced education of managers is an asset the courses in hospitality management (hotel management) includes economics, accounting practice, administration, marketing, catering, housekeeping, food service management, and the using of computers in various applications. The courses also include an internship providing the learner with valuable experience in all the areas of the hotel operation. For an employee just out of college there is still a long way to go, that person must be able to coordinate and lead others because to be a manager means to achieve goals through and with others. Also the ability to communication well and solve problems which means the manager must listen, be patient, understanding and think quick and decisively. These are the areas that need to be measure in every manager to rate their performance. However managers who have a masters degree usually have a much greater ability to view the organisation holistically which is an excellent quality in a high ranking manger, it allows them to make decisions that are more informed.
It is a formal stocktaking of what has been achieved and what still needs to be done in the future, it is a way of individually rating the performance of the employees, but the manager must consider that the information obtained may be bias, therefore a holistic view of each employees performance is needed (Stoner, et al. (1995). The most effective form of appraisals is the 360 degree appraisal system, which requires interviewing the employee and their co workers to gain a holistic understanding of the employees performance and al of the associated problems and potential solutions. The employees become apart of the decision making process they will start to feel needed and eventually motivated to be in the work place and the employees and managers know what is expected of them, and receive regular feedback about their performance, and rewards their are linked directly to their performance.
The mission statement is a guideline that shows the managers the intended direction of the business, therefore guiding them in the setting of all goals, plans and activities. This is why an analysis of how well the plans are achieved is a good indicter of where the problem sectors are, it is a way of narrowing down the search area.
Analysis of job requirements
This is an in depth investigation into the skills knowledge of each job position, including an analysis of the job specification and how each job inter-links with one another to achieve the organisational goals. After these first three steps there should be a clear understanding of where the problem areas are and who the potential candidates for training are.
2.2.10. Employee survey
Managers as well as non managers are asked to decribe the problems that they are facing in the work place. Non managers are also apart of this survey because they are under the control and influence of the manager and any problems experienced by them is supposed to be for seen by the manager if the problems have not been for seen by the manager this shows a laps in judgment and could require corrective action such as a warning, dismissal or training.
2.2.11. According to Munroe Frazer's 5 Points
Alec Rodger and Munroe Frazer suggested theories of testing an employees abilities. The first which point refers a persons appearance, speech, and manner in which they address others, one person and their ability to affect many people and in the work place that affect should be a positive which will be to the advantage of the employee and organisation (Boella, M, Turner, S.G.2005). Qualifications and experience which is the skills knowledge and experience giving the employee the ability to the job, these attributes of a person can be acquired through education and training and are very important especially for those who hold management positions, this knowledge gives them the ability to think strategically(Boella, M, Turner, S.G.2005). The next point is Innate ability refers to how quickly a person's mind works and applies their skills and knowledge, It gives the managers the ability to see new growth opportunities and solutions in any aspect of the operation. Also motivation is important, it refers to the kind of work that a person prefers to do and the amount of effort that they put into it, every young employee is searching for their nich which is their area of expertise, the kind of work that makes them happy. Lastly emotional adjustment which is the psychological or emotional capacity to cope with the demands of living and working with other people who may be of different cultures or ethnic backgrounds, the ability to adjust to difficult people and still remain and still remain satisfied in their jobs. As a manager this point is very important because a manager must not only understand emotions but they must plan for in so that a satisfied and productive workforce can be maintained.
2.2.12. Alec Rodger's seven point plan suggests that:
When accessing an employees capacity to do a job relevance, validity, reliability related to the job must be measured. This is done by evaluating the following criteria. Physical make up is determined by analysing a person's health, physique, appearance, bearing, speech, excluding discriminatory features such as accent, this is done to make sure the employee is physically able to cope with the job requirements. Also there is the persons attainments which is the persons education, training, experience, achievements that has be acquired through out their career. The next point is intelligence which refers to cognitive abilities such as learning capacity, analytical ability. Special attributes refers to the persons dexterity, mathematical, IT abilities and any other ability that may have been gain through hobbies. Interests covers the intellectual, practical, active or social attributes of a persons personality, interests disposition refers to maturity, self-reliance, compassion, humour. And lastly circumstances geographical mobility (excluding discriminatory factors such as age, children, marital status, unless it is specifically relevant to job). The results will determine the strengths and weaknesses both theoretically and practically then it will be compared in a psychometric objective approach. This process is time consuming but its results are much more detailed than any other approach and the accessory is allowed to get a much more complet picture of the employees and all of their traits.
2.3. Types of appropriate surveys
2.3.1. Aptitude tests
These tests are used to asses verbal and numeric reasoning, with the purpose of determining what the employees style of working is and how he or she interacts with other employees. Alec Rodger and Munroe Frazer suggested theories of testing an employees abilities (Chris Jarvis.(2003).Business open learning achieve[online], http://www.bola.biz/recruitment/ (10 may 2010)
2.3.2. Personality tests In this test person is judged according to personality dimensions, dimensions such as introvert, extrovert, stable and unstable. This test determines a persons view or perception of other people and this affects a persons ability to interact and work with his co-workers or employees.
2.3.4. Emotional intelligence
As suggested by Goleman (1995) the emotional intelligence test measures the emotional intelligence quotient. It determents the how well the person manages their emotions, motivates themselves, recognises and understands others emotions and their ability to manage others emotions. All these factors directly affect the persons ability to manager stress. By understanding all of these aspects of a persons personality you can get a good understanding of how productive the person is, it is ideal that all managers have a high emotional intelligence quotient, giving them the ability to make rational decisions in any situation without any form of bias Goleman,D.G.(1995).
2.3.5. In-tray tests
This type of test is unique to each field because it is a situational test Goleman,D.G.(1995). The person is given problem and is required to solve it in a limited period of time, the test can be administered in groups or individually. the test is meant to rate the planning and organisational skills in complex situations.
"All managers should ideally have leadership skills, but not all leaders are necessarily managers." This is the unfortunate fact of our industry (Dr Mitchell L.,Springer,PMP,SPHR,2005,pg).
The leader should have authority, power, influence, the ability to delegate, and must be responsible. Authority is something that can be earned through a job position or qualification. Power is some thing that is given to the leader by his/ her followers (Dr Mitchell L.,Springer,PMP,SPHR,2005,pg). Influence is the ability of the leader to change the peoples behaviour. Delegation is the act of assigning formal authority and responsibility for the completion of specific activities to a subordinate. To have these traits are not enough because to be truly effective the leader must be consistent in their instructions, know how to praise their followers, lead by example, learn from their mistakes, show enthusiasm for their work, as well as a good sense of humour and he shouldn't be afraid of taking risks.
2.4.1. Traits of a Leader:
Thorough knowledge of subject matter and technical matters which will allows leaders to make well informed decisions and to understand the implications of those decisions (James A.F. et al,1995).
The person should put in a lot of effort into everything that they do, they must be ambitious and have a desire to achieve, and the person should show persistence and initiative, as well as being energetic.
Desire to lead
Demonstrates the willingness to take responsibility and to lead their group to success.
Honesty and integrity
These are the moral or ethical traits that a leader should possess. Build trusting relationships between themselves and their followers with out any form of manipulation or deceit.
Being sure about ones abilities in any given situation.
To gather and analyze information and make the correct decision or solve problems
Job relevant Knowledge
Thorough knowledge of subject matter and technical matters which will allows leaders to make well informed decisions and to understand the implications of those decisions.
2.4.2. Leadership Styles
126.96.36.199. Autocratic Style:
This style of leadership means that the leader plays the roll of boss, the leaders ideals are enforced and the employees participation is limited, there is unilateral decision making which is enforced by the leader dictating to the employees. the employees may feel secure only if the leader is competent enough to do the job however the employees can still become frustrated with their restricted participation. This style may seem cruel or out of date but with the right motivational and compensation processes in place the employees can be kept motivated and productive.
188.8.131.52. Democratic Style:
The employees participation in the decision making and goals setting process with limitations. Trust respect and the concern for productivity is very important. Managers make use of feedback and coaching to improve the business operation
184.108.40.206. Liassees Fair:
Leaders who adopt this style of leading give their employees complete control of the decion making, the leader must be highly committed and involved in every aspect of the process. The team must show commitment and initiative since this method is the most time consuming and problematic, the leader will stand by whatever decision made.
Internal drive motivates or encourages people to achieve a particular goal. Motivation in a work setting maybe driven not only by internal factors it can also be influenced by external factors. It is up to the managers of the organization to manage the motivation of the employees, because no employee can perform their job to the best of their ability if they are not motivated to do so.
2.5.1. Maslows theory - Hierarchy of needs:
Figure 2.1. Maslows hierarchy of needs (Management. James A.F. Stoner, Freeman, Gilbert,1995;448)
Abraham Maslow (1951) believed that there are certain needs that have to be satisfied for a person to function. The diagram above shows this, the needs at the bottom are the most important. As those are satisfied the person is able to satisfy the others and so on until the person is motivated.
220.127.116.11. Physiological Needs:
These are the most basic of human needs or biological needs and without satisfying these needs the person will not survive, needs like food, water, shelter, sleep, and clothing. Organizations provide salaries, time off and staff benefits because such benefits allows the person to satisfy his physiological needs and improve or maintain his or her physical health.
18.104.22.168. Safety Needs:
This is the need for a safe and secure environment, this means that the environment must have no physical or psychological threats to the person. In order to provide this security companies enforce rules of conduct to regulate the behaviour of and to ensure the safety of others, also security staff ensure the employees are safe from outsiders coming to harm them while at work. Another form of security is the employees job security which is secured by the pension fund, provident fund and the medical aid, such benefits are used to reassure the person that they are valued.
22.214.171.124. Social needs:
The humans are social beings, every person wants to belong, have friends and be loved. This drives people to constantly socialize and make more friends. When a person is put into a new environment he or she will seek out a companionship / friendship, this is human nature. Businesses encourage the forming and sustaining of relationships, they do this by creating peer activities and team building exercises like Action Cricket and Paint Ball.
Physiological, safety and social needs are deficiency needs and if these needs are not meat the individual will fail to develop in to a healthy person.
126.96.36.199. Esteem needs:
Esteem needs is a person's continuous need to develop self respect and to gain approval from others, a persons confidence is directly linked to their esteem. Organizations recognize their employee's achievements by giving award ceremonies or monetary bonuses to build the persons esteem and confidence.
188.8.131.52. Self Actualization:
The need or desire for personal growth to be all that one is capable of being, so that the person can achieve their dreams. Companies encourage this by offering bursaries and training courses to further the qualifications and abilities of their employees.
2.6. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory
Herzburg's (1959) theory for motivation was that there are factors that create job satisfaction and there are factors that create job dissatisfaction, with both motivators and hygiene factors satisfied the worker will be motivated. He called the factors that cause job satisfaction motivators and those that cause job dissatisfaction, hygiene factors.
Motivators are factors that must be satisfied for the worker to become satisfied with their job with will make them motivated. The motivators are achievement in work which gives the person the feeling that they are the best at what they do, recognition gives the employee the feeling that they are valued or an asset to the company and lets the employees know that their hard work was not for nothing, promotion opportunities allows the employee to explore new avenues of their work and show that they are going somewhere in their careers, responsibility is very important to the employees because if an employees is given more responsibility it proves that their abilities are trusted and every employee wants like they are trusted or wanted and lastly changes in personal growth and development a person may do this by choosing a new job, location to work or a different company, so that they can gain or improve on certain traits this is very important for managers, because they have to develop their leadership skills and this can best be done by managing and or leading people of different cultures or corporate cultures. According to Herzberg (1959) none of the motivators can be achieved if the hygiene factors have not been satisfied.
2.6.2. Hygiene factors
When these factors are adequately satisfied, it will prevent the worker form becoming dissatisfied, but will not play a role in motivation of the individual. These factors are associated with the conditions surrounding the work such as the work environment, it does not involve the work it's self.
Quality of interpersonal relations with others is affected by stress, recognition, sleep, work environment, the home environment and these factors directly affect the motivation of the individual. All these factors affect the person holistically, resulting in a person that just doesn't want to go to work, in other words a de-motivated person. To motivate an employee the manager would need to ensure all his staff to work reasonable hours, recognize them for their good work, and allocate their due leave to them so that they may use it to sleep and de-stress, and pay them sufficiently so that they will have the resources to manage their home environment. Lastly the work environment this can be managed by implementing a code of conduct, organising rules to keep the work environment neat and orderly.
In this way employees of the organization can relay their messages across to others. This is quite a complex subject, since there are so many barriers affecting the each of the different form of communication. The types of communication such as the verbal communication and non verbal communication (Stoner, et al. (1995). These two categories can be divided further, verbal communication is industrial jargon, expressions, slang, grapevine, telephone. None verbal communication is body language written communication (Stoner, et al. (1995).
2.7.1. Verbal communication:
184.108.40.206. Industrial Jargon:
Within any given industry or community there are terminologies that are commonly used. In the hospitality industry there are terms like `blanch and mes em plus terms such as this are not commonly known out side of the hospitality industry (Bender D.A,2005). Managers must be up to date with the jargon of their organisation and be able to understand and use it properly.
This is another way of expression. For example `I worked like a dog today`. This expression shows that the person worked hard and is tired. Expressions are not commonly used since a great deal of people don't speak English well enough to use expressions properly. Managers are generally well spoken but should be careful of the expressions they use while communicating with co workers, it may cause misunderstandings and unintentional conflicts.
When information travels from one person to another via word of mouth, it is travelling the grapevine. Within every organization, community or social group there is a grapevine transferring information that is usually meant to be kept confidential. The disadvantage of this medium is that the reliability of the information is questionable because there could be a broken telephone effect. This is when the information is changed as a result of bias or anger or even misinterpretation.
2.7.2. None verbal Communication:
220.127.116.11. Body language:
Body language is the facial expressions, eye movements, posture and gestures that convey messages. The message given off is usually unintentional for the untrained person, but for a manager it can be used in conveying a point while giving presentations or speeches, it helps to keep the audiences attention and studies show that the audience will retain more information if the speaker uses positive body language. Body language can be positive if the message being sent out s positive messages of confidence and enthusiasm.
18.104.22.168. Written Communication:
Written communication is constantly done throughout the day. Whether its in emails, memos, or hand written letters, it is still important to communicate the intended point across. Every manager should be able to write creatively no matter the message or purpose of the literature.
22.214.171.124. Communication Barriers
There are factors that hinder communication especially in multi cultural organisations, factors such as filtering, emotions, selective perception and language. Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it seem more favourable to the receiver. Selective Perception is information that based on what one sees and hears, in other words this information comes from the grapevine and is unreliable. Emotions could affect a persons ability to interpret a message depending on the persons state of mine at the time when he/ she received it. Anger, jealousy, fear, hatred, are some of the emotions that effect a persons ability to understand a message. The best approach to dealing with emotions is to accept that emotions are part of the communications process and to try to understand it when it causes a problem and if an employee is behaving aggressively the manager should calm him down and talk about their concerns, paying careful attention to what they say. Language South Africa is a country of eleven official languages and many slang terms, not every one understands all of these many languages and terms, this is the largest barrier to communicating in the hospitality industry, but it can be over come if the manager learns the language that is most common to that area this will greatly help to reduce the communication difficulties. When giving instructions, the instructions should be clear, concise language. Make sure they understand what needs to be done, get feedback and check their understanding of what was said. And observe them work and correct them wherever necessary. When taking statements from employees the manager check the accuracy of the statement, and prevent yes or no answers, this can be done by using feedback and it will prevent biases from corrupting the information.
2.8. Training methods:
Coaching in business is aimed at improving skills in management, communication and strategic skills. It also promotes self-responsibility and initiative, and facilitating adaptation to new challenges and accommodates and supports the employees obligations to their homes and families so that they are productive while they are at work Blanchard,Thacker (2007). Coaching can deliver all this by developing employee skills in line with organisational objectives and by advising or helping them with their work making them feel valued according to (Jacky Pratt, PECI,2004)
2.8.2. Benefits of coaching
The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) reports shows that there are significant benefits for the individual and for the organisations who adopt this style of training if the human recourses department incorporates it into their strategies and plans.
2.8.3. Job rotation
Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation an increase their technical skills. This system creates multi skilled employees, which are exactly what managers need to be. However, it does have one disadvantage that, productivity will be slowed down while the employee is learning how to do the activities in the new job position.
2.8.4. Training positions,
The trainee is given duties and under the supervision of a supervisor or an experienced co worker, the trainee will observe the other co workers and learn the methods, procedures, and standards required for performance of departmental duties. The trainee will also receive other forms of training to try and fast track his or her progress, he will also have to work in various other departments (job rotation) so that he or she can acquire more technical skills. This type of training is tedious and other employees often get frustrated with trainees mistakes, the trainee may even slow down production.
2.8.5. Classroom Training
Direct teaching, co operative learning, lecturing, panel of experts, brainstorming, video tapes/slide shows , case studies role playing, worksheets/ surveys. These are the classroom learning techniques According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.6. Direct teaching
The students are told what to learn and why they have to learn also because the learning objectives are so clear it is easy to measure the students progress, it is a .widely used technique and is good for teaching facts and basic skills. This technique require the teacher to prepare the material in advance and an oral presentation is needed, it also may hinder the creativity of the teacher According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.7. Co operative learning
This technique helps to encourage mutual responsibility, patient and companionate with regards to their group members, they also learn how to work together. The tasks are time consuming since each member has to be consulted on how the task is to be done, this is why the group must not be too large. The disadvantage is that some group members may be lazy or controlling According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.8. Lecture with discussion
This technique is very much like direct learning except that students are allowed to ask questions and the lectures and students will discuss the answer, this requires the lecturer to be well prepared for hard questions. Time restriction may limit the learning of the students According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.9. Panel of experts
This is the bringing in of experts or guest speakers to talk about a specific topic or field, experts can present different options and views resulting in better discussions. How ever experts may stray of the topic or over shadow theories According to (Adprima,1997).
A group of learners discussing their ideas to achieve a task or goal in the most effective way possible, all ideas are considered and one idea may spark another, and a spirit of co-operation is created. The teacher must introduce the issues and be prepared to intervene when the process is not productive According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.11. Video tapes/slide shows
This is an entertaining way of introducing content or raising issues, it is possible that too many issues will be raised to have a focused discussion and the learners discussions may move of the topic decreasing the productivity of the section According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.12. Case studies
Case studies develops the students analytical and problem solving skills and forces them to explore complex issues and use new knowledge and skills. The long term benefits of this for a company is that the employees will be more competent and creative in many aspects of their job such as problem solving According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.13. Role playing
The teacher introduces a situation and defines the roles, the students act out the roles and gain an understanding of other peoples point of view, students may feel self-conscious or threatened so this can not take place in large groups According to (Adprima,1997).
2.8.14. Worksheets/ surveys
This allows students to think for themselves and formulate theories and ideas without any influence from others and this information can be revised at any time however the teacher must prepare the handouts in advance, and its contents and structure must be carefully thought out because it will affect the workflow According to (Adprima,1997).
The training and development of employees is a complex task that is essential to the well being of the organisation, it is an activity that should be continuously done throughout the life of the organisation, this activity also makes a valuable contribution towards decreasing the skills deficiency in South Africa.