Quality is a part of an Operation Management which is concerned with the capability of the management procedure for producing specified quality standard and systems needed to make sure the real activities of managing for the future, managing people satisfaction, managing product and services doing the right things right, first time to get the business ahead. It is the process of management in which organisation has to focus on fulfil the needs of customers and company's objectives. Quality consist many procedures like marketing, finance, production, customer services, and designation for the continuous improvement of the quality of all activities.
Dimensions of Quality:
The total quality management has many dimensions like process focus, continuous process improvement, measurement of processes, Active involvement of suppliers and customers, Long term customer focus, Expanded definition of customer, Long range planning, etc. These dimensions are described below;
The first dimension which is performance dimension is fundamentally use at initial stage, that shows the performance of the product or services of the business.
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The second dimension of quality describes features of the production of selling in the market like how much the customer wants.
The third dimension which is durability is also most important because it is important to have the idea of the product duration that how long is used before it is being replaced or mended.
Reliability which is fourth dimension of the quality is must necessary because people should have the satisfaction by having the item that they bought. If product does not work or have something fault then, company should repair it or mend it without any charge.
In the fifth dimension, company's service should be first class and customer should be satisfied by services of the company. It should give maintenance of the product, and cost of its repair. Company should have the capability of solving the problems of customers.
Appearance is also dimension of quality which people feel like the look, flavour, sound, smell, etc. in the every corner of the aspect; its appearance must be highly created in every effect of the product.
Quality must contain the limited variations in different products of same sort products.
Consistency and conformance:
The eighth dimension is consistency and conformance which relate with the documentation, standard, being on time.
Company should give the full safety like the company should take the full responsibility of their customers' health and environment.
Service should be on time and regularly maintainable for the customer.
Customer Service should be first class after the sales service, treatment got during or before selling the product.
This dimension as it shows companies' product or services should be usable with co-existing as compatible and these are some other specific attributes related to quality as it is shown below;
Process focus is the dimension that mentions an organizational emphasis on the classification and depth of all steps in the flow of production as well as it is the process of the constant improvement the quality and lively involvement of suppliers and consumers in the internal process analyses. There is most important to have necessity of well organized information flow and job restructure within the organization to encourage visibility of processes that come before as well as employee who follow their job. It is necessary to concentrate on quality products which are the main part of every employee who work on that particular process should be completely satisfactory. This is the process for maintaining quality of every single part whatever it is to be performed by individually in their jobs. There must be focus on continuous improvement, analysis the process of each area, and culture of the organisation etc that can be more profitable for the company ahead.
Long term customer focus:
In the long term customer focus, employee should know their work criteria and duties for the improvement of customer satisfaction in a long way and for that they should be honoured. The long term environment is mainly related to the customers who maintain a stake in the company's welfare because they are like employee that are next in the line in the production process, suppliers, and community groups. Accepted mode of procedures without consideration for the impact on the customer needs organisation to focus on employees for the fulfilment the needs of customer. To keep constant eyes on the long time for maintaining the quality is the focal point of this dimension.
Traditional Approach to Quality Management:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
This approach came into the existence from behavioural research after world war two. This led in the late 1940's and 1950's. This approach is about the mass inspection and correction its controls. In the traditional approach, they used to inspect the productions and its quantity as well as in case of the rejection of productions too. Thus, they just used the specific number of production that have been inspected or rejected was related to its statistical calculations as they checked each and every items or a chosen portion of the product.
If the product is in demand of specific number of quantity, then quality department's duty is to check the quality and must be completed the desired quantity at their time. They check the number of quantity for the reporting their manager about the productions whether the product is reliable for the selling in the market or has any suspicious defect. Though approach is not applied in systematic way, it worked very well at time of low production.
Quality assurance also needed for developing any kind of things for the various people. Quality must be guaranteed to people by selling standard quality items as a fully satisfaction. The examiner of the products checks these all area of measurement of products, its definition, and standards of services and goods quality. This means every aspect of the area needs correction so that quality can be maintained in each and every corner of the various products.
Finally, the traditional theory had the intention of zero defects, and to detain each fault of the product. It was tested each and every products personally by skilled inspector.
I.W. Edwards Deming_ basically assisted Japanese industry in improving quality and productivity post -war in 1951, the Japanese Government established the Deming prize for innovation in quality management to be awarded annually to companies that distinguished themselves in quality management.
He continued as professor at New York state university through the 1970's and 1980's
(Ref. W.E. Deming "Quality, Productivity, and Competitive position" .MIT Press 1982
W.E. Deming "Transformation of the western style of management" _ "Interfales" May-June 1985, Page_6-11
"ED Deming wants big changes and he wants them fast." Smithsonian August 1990 Page 74-82)
Deming's 14 Points:
Deming has given the 14 points for the quality management that can be highly useful for any company.
The industry should have the creation firmness of intention for the improvement of service and product, with the aim for becoming competitive, and staying in business, and providing jobs.
The business man must use the latest viewpoint as they are in the age of new economic world. They have to take their responsibilities, and lead the people for the change. They must have the capability of the challenge for the development of business.
There must be no any defect in the product quality and if it is, then it must be stopped or improved once because we need not to inspect on it again and again.
If you want to grow your business then prefer single supplier who gives you a best quality therefore you can reduce the variations in the product as well as your relation with supplier also be maintained for the long time.
It must be consistent improvement in the productions and services all the time for improving quality and productivity, so that the cost can be dramatically reduced.
The employees should be trained under the company's training, so that they can be work on a same way without any variation.
There must be a part of leadership that should have the intention of supervision of the company's machine, gadgets, and for helping workers for the improvement of their work.
Get rid of fear and motivate each and every one for doing a better job so that they can perform their best without any fear.
In the organisation, it is necessary to have the unity amongst all the departments as they all are a part of one company. The all workers should have their eyes on the solution of problems of the production and on the future for the service and product which may be incurred. They ought to understand the teamwork as a part of their success.
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The company must detain the motto, bad words, and aim of the workforce. There must not be any sign of adverse environment in the work area. Objective must be cut down by the management as well as the job values via numbers, prospective aim or leadership.
The objectives and goals should be removed in the company with its quotas, because they encourage poor quality.
He stated for removing the barriers which hold up the hourly employees of their right to superiority of workmanship that intended to get rid of the objectives of company, yearly target, and point rating of as per their work.
Organisation must set up strong and powerful teaching technique and self improvement programme for its workers, so that they can get best quality without any variances.
Management should lay in each and every person of the company for fulfilment the qualitative changes as it is every worker's job.
PHILIP BAYARD CROSBY:
"Quality is free" McGraw Hill 1979. The cost of poor quality is vastly under-stated, so you can spend unlimited amounts on improving quality and still improve profits. The ultimate goal was zero defects. He was born at West Virginia- 18 June, 1926 in Wheeling.
Philip hinted about quality is that it costs money for getting quality where if you cannot accomplish the quality goods and services then, it would be more costly. He wanted to detain defects and consume money behind getting best quality so that money cannot be wasted on inspection as well as its amendment. He wrote his fourteen points which are described as below;
Company ought to have the sense of quality and the aware of its commitment like policy, some level of quotes, and necessary things for satisfying customers' requirements. Management should have a team for supervision improvements that can be useful for maintaining quality as well as they should have process for the measurement of quality at some extent. The other thing is to have an idea of estimation for costing quality assessment with awareness. Company should consistently correct the defects and should be stop at zero percent for that there must have the planning, and training of supervisors. Company should set the target with removing each error and get the recognition of all these things at anytime.
ARMAND V. FEIGENBAUM:
He developed the concepts of total quality control (In total quality control engineering and management. McGraw Hill 1983) and "Quality at source" workers had authority to stop production if quality problems occurred.
ARMAND stated forty steps as his quality principles where he took whole systems method to the quality. He encouraged design of job environments, where the whole organisation would incorporate for the growth of the company. Workers have the full responsibility and they learn by the success of each other in a group in the organisation.
('Guide to quality control' Asian productivity organisation 1982) developed the idea of 'quality circles'_ Multifunctional teams that included management and continually received quality issues.
A student of W. Deming, Ishikawa was a professor of engineering at the University of Tokyo. He made a quality tools with concerned statistics. This tool is famous for the cause and effect diagram which is also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams, and for this people call him, 'A father of the quality circle movement' as well as he helped many companies at that time. He emphasized on the internal customers and suggested the crucial part of total company control instead of concentrating on the service and product of organisation. He valued the unity of each and every worker and must be involved for achieving the company's general goals as well as mutual vision.
JOSEPH N. JURAN:
('Quality control handbook' McGraw Hill 1974) argued for top management commitment to improved product quality, quality planning, continuous improvement of every aspect of product quality etc.
He stated that three main things are very important in the management to have like improvement, planning, and control. There must be well planning about people who are they and the demands of their requirements. The second thing is control over quality defects where defects must be detain before it arises. The last thing is improvement which must be apply for reducing errors as least as they can, and to do better than the earlier work in the organisation.
Quality lay in design, and robustness of design rather than incremental adjustments to production processes. He is famous for his product design. He believed the reason behind more than eighty percent defects is its poor product design.
At initial stage of producing the goods, company must improve the design of product where he is expert to implement the concept, 'design of experiment' for making good design as this related to developing a wide range of design which can work in multi type of circumstances.
He gave the core concept of costs of quality where he mentioned three phases; System design that is for marketing, customers, engineering etc, as it is non statistical stage. The second is Parameter that decides the performance of the product against it. The third stage is tolerance design, which is noticed the cost and loss of production.