Qualitative And Quantitative Methods Of Research Commerce Essay

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In order to conduct a research the qualitative or quantitative method may be utilized. The process of research deals with the factors that helps in exploring and rewriting the information based on the principles and characteristics (Malhotra & Birks, 2007). However, a certain degree of elasticity is also granted to the researchers who help in utilize their knowledge and the information through the process of qualitative technique of research (Kumar, 2005).

On the other hand, the quantitative analysis is believed as a planned approach where the goals, of the investigation are considers being crucial. It generally deals with the prearranged method, where the consequential information is utilized in various circumstances. The main reason for the adoption of the qualitative research is that it is inexpensive and efficient in performing the task faster than the quantitative marketing research and after that it was widely used by researcher to quantify the data. The quantitative variables are used to determine and evaluate the degree of the problem (Kumar, 2005). Numerous rewards are based on utilizing questionnaire that comprises an effortless organization and steadiness approach of replies to multi preference answers. Lastly the information gained must be generalized, analyze and interpret in an effective manner so that to make important decision (Malhotra & Birks, 2007). This study helps the quantitative analysis by organizing statistical information in regard to economic and time limitations (Saunders et al., 2007).

For an inductive research, it was imperative for this research to put into application qualitative method. Hence, this research was a qualitative research, where the data was collected through questionnaire to achieve the research objectives.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The two fundamental methods of data collection are Primary and secondary data collection (Kumar, 2005). Secondary method has few advantages over primary information, as they are reasonably cheap, immediately recovered and willingly available (Malhotra and Birks, 2007). To collect the secondary data the researcher generally gather published form of information like as company websites (Sekaran, 2003).

Primary form of information are those type of information which id composed for the first time by the researcher by the method of questionnaires, experimenting, observing or by merging the element of research together .

Gathering of primary data commonly comprise of ample amount of time and money. There are several ways used to collect the primary data but the main criteria are based on the investigator ability (Kumar, 2005). A quantitative method is generally used to collect the primary data; however the data may be collected from both the quantitative and qualitative ways (Kumar, 2005).

A questionnaire survey is believed to be the most suitable method for collecting primary data to generate necessary results. The aim of the researcher was to clear all the doubts and ambiguity in regards to the questionnaire (Kumar, 2005). However, the information collected might take a longer procedure but it is most reliable method (Malhotra & Birks, 2007).

A primary data collection method was adopted for gathering information through quantitative research method which helps in formulating the hypothesis regarding the analysis.

A questionnaire is said to be as a set of open-ended and close-ended group of or questions. The questions in asked in the questionnaire must be made simple and easy for the respondents because they can answer to the question without any help. The format must be created in an interactive manner so that it would be easy for both the party to read and understand. Lastly, the respondent may not feel it troublesome to answer any question (Kumar, (2005).

However, free style of investigation occurs in an unstructured format of questionnaire in a highly structured questionnaire method the questions response are said to be limited (Chisnall, 2005).

Secondary and primary data collection was complementary to each other in this research. More clearly, secondary data collection paved the way for primary data collection in this research. Secondary data was collected in this research in the form of external sources as books and journals. Literature review represents the secondary data in this research. Further, primary data was collected in this research through questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 10 close-ended questions and was administered either telephonic or personally.

SAMPLING DESIGN

Researchers generally use sample survey method in research methodology in order to obtain information regarding a large group of population by evaluating and selecting a sample from that population. Due to the inconsistency of character of the population, researcher use the scientific approach of sample designs in the procedure of sample selection the purpose of sample is to minimize the risk factors of a distorted view of the population, and they also make authentic inferences about the population based on the information gathered from the sample survey and data collection. In order to make the research more authentic and valid inferences process is used for the population.

The method of gathering information through collection of sampling is necessary because it is very difficult to count each member of the population which is exceptionally huge. The main advantages of sampling are that it is time efficient cost saving and information may be gathered for huge population. Through the sample unit (Chisnall, 2005), there are two broad method of sampling probability and non-probability method. A probability sampling is a technique in which every individual has equal opportunity of being selected in the sample where as in the non-probability sampling the result of the sample is not known to the researcher (Hair, 2003).

In this research sample was selected through non-probability sampling method. This was because; the researcher was not sure as which particular person to be selected. Hence, based on own judgment sample was selected from managerial people working in the marketing/advertising department of Air India. The sample size was 50.

PILOT STUDY

A pilot study is a basic method adopted for doing a trial of research .This is important method adapted to the growth of an extensive instruction programme. In a pilot study the entire teaching programme is carried out with some degree of participants.

In order to achieve the desired objectives of the testing, such as improving, the method adopted for checking the appropriateness of standard measures, and data-collecting routines the pilot study provides added information that leads to an enhance the training programme. The pilot study greatly focuses on the number of treatment errors which are found because of unforeseen problems. Pilot testing methods are commonly adopted for testing the questionnaire. Small group of samples i.e, respondents are taken together to improve the quality research and method adopted to short out the problem relating to the quality of questionnaire. Pilot testing is important for making better quality questionnaire (Malhotra and Birks, 2007).

Pilot study was done in this research to pre-test the questionnaire. For this some 10 experts in the field were involved in a group discussion, where they were asked to give their opinion regarding the various issues identified. Finally based on the outcome of the discussion, questions were decided for the questionnaire.

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

Unnecessary measurements are carried out regarding the attributes, referring to the reliability and validity of the research which helps in gaining consistent results regarding the scale (Malhotra and Birks, 2007). Reliability and Validity of a research is believed to be a very important aspect of the research. The reliability and validity is strongly connected with the level of consistency. The technique applied in the process of reliability and validity is applied to get the authentic result each time. The reliability method generally focuses on the method adopted for the research for getting the consistent result and there should be more confusion left in the minds of researcher as well as to the mind of people for whom the research is being conducted. To gain a regular effect of the questionnaire the pilot study was utilized to make a pre-test of the questionnaire.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis is said to be a method by which various forms of data and method are analyzed and evaluated to get the desired results. However, these methods are designed in order to improve the quality of research for getting better information. The data analysis also helps in adopting appropriate method so that proposed results may be extracted within the expected time period. In due course of organizing and maintaining the data, various write-ups and trends are taken into account for doing further research (Remenyi et at, 1998). The key approach of the data analysis is to evaluate and discuss the literature regarding the particular subject and the research issue.

SUMMARY

The main aim of the research is to explore the facts regarding corporate sustainability and business models in airlines industry with the case study of Air India (the Indian public sector airlines corporation). This finding was made possible through the efforts of inductive research design. The secondary and primary form of data collection method was also taken into account for better understanding of the research. The secondary data was gathered through collection of books and journals. Conversely, primary data was gathered through collected using questionnaire.

4. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In order to achieve these objectives, both secondary and primary data was conducted in this research as per the methods specified in the previous chapter. In this chapter, the collected secondary and primary data is analysed in accordance with the questions of the questionnaire.

4.2 MAIN BODY

Corporate sustainability and business model

The research literature reveals that the designing of a business models is said to be a multifaceted system because of the interrelated activities involved in various blueprints. Different requirements like as technical, financial user, of the organizational value is required to maintain a balance. Design process also makes significant effect in making choices from the technical domain to user domain. This inter connection of design makes the choice process as a complex procedure for mobile services. However, the business developers also require maintaining a balance among the interests involved in the working of the organization (Klein-Woolthuis, 1999). This was also believed that over the passing of time. In the view of researcher the business model and its concept is believed to be most valuable. The business model also views this network as a model of companies which intends to create the value of employment through the use of technological opportunities for corporate sustainability. Design process also makes significant effect in making choices from the technical domain to user domain. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as to what extent corporate sustainability of Air India currently depends on selecting the right business model. The data collected in this context reveals that corporate sustainability of Air India currently on greater degree depends on selecting the right business model (see table and figure 4.1).

Table 4.1: Corporate sustainability and business model

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

To great extent

19

76%

76%

To some extent

6

24%

100%

Not at all

0

0%

100%

Figure 4.1: Corporate sustainability and business model

As the data report in this table reveals: for respondents in greater majority (74% out of the total 25), they find that corporate sustainability of Air India currently 'to great extent' depends on selecting the right business model; whereas for the remaining respondents (26%), they find that corporate sustainability of Air India currently 'to some extent' depends on selecting the right business model. By and large, these data conclude that certainly corporate sustainability of Air India currently on greater degree depends on selecting the right business model.

Corporate sustainability challenge

The research literature reveals that it has been argued that sustainability is not associated such as spiritual, economic prosperity, social justice, and environmentalism development, although these are consistent with the mindset of sustainability. Three views has been developed based on this literature by De Bakker, Groenewegen et al. (2005), First, this development is through imprecision for testing of theory, by describing central constructs and their association with it. Second is social responsibility literature realization progress of business which is hidden or may be weak, by continuous introduction of new concepts, which includes triple bottom line and sustainable development. Third, hardly any progress could be made or has been made, due to normative character of inherent literature. In this way, this research provides evidence for variegational and progressive views. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as what constitutes the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that sustainable development and enhancing profitability constitute the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India (see table and figure 4.2).

Table 4.2: Corporate sustainability challenge

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Sustainable development

11

44%

44%

Increasing revenue

5

20%

64%

Enhancing profitability

9

36%

100%

Figure 4.2: Corporate sustainability challenge

As the data report in this table reveals :for respondents in greater majority (80% out of the total 25), they find that 'sustainable development'(44%) and 'enhancing profitability' (36%) constitute the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India; whereas for the remaining respondents (22%), they find that 'increasing revenue' constitutes the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India. By and large, these data conclude that in general sustainable development and enhancing profitability constitute the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India.

Corporate sustainability and external environmental factor

The research literature reveals that corporate sustainability is related to old theories and concepts of ethics, corporate citizenship, stakeholder management, and corporate social responsibility (Andriof and McIntosh, 2001). Despite to combining these terms, convergence of these terms is highly contested. Colbert et al. (2003) commented, on interlinked concepts of sustainable development, stakeholder approach and corporate social responsibility (CSR), these concepts assumed to be consonant advocated from the various sociological, ecological, business, ethical, and political prospective. Sustainability term is often used by environmental, corporations, and politicians groups for evaluation of corporate policies, economic systems and industrial processes (Philips, 2008). In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as which external environmental factor has the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that political/legal and economic as external environmental factors have the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India (see table and figure 4.3).

Table 4.3: Corporate sustainability and external environmental factor

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Political/Legal

9

36%

36%

Economic

9

36%

72%

Social

3

12%

84%

Technological

4

16%

100%

Figure 4.3: Corporate sustainability and external environmental factor

As the data report in this table reveals :for respondents in greater majority (72% out of the total 25), they find that ' political/legal'(36%) and 'economic'(36%) as external environmental factors have the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India ; whereas for the remaining respondents (28%), they find that 'technological' (16%) and 'social'(12%) as external environmental factors have the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India. By and large, these data conclude that in general political/legal and economic as external environmental factors have the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India.

Business strategy and business model

The research literature reveals that in spite of its popularity, only a little consensus is made over how to describe the business models. Some scholar's believe that equal business approach is used for revenue models. In this way a business model must focus over the concept of money making through the individual effort of firm within a value chain (Rappa, 2001). While making a comparison of various meaning of business models (Weill & Vitale, 2001; and Rappa, 2001) it become easy to make a division among common elements among various other factor like as : Service design: is a value oriented service network which deals with offering a particular target to a group of users, while offering a particular service. Organisation design: is a process which is typically based on the factors which are needed to focus on a particular service, towards creating of value network for number of users. Technology design: is said to be a fundamental process by which the organization tries to focus on the working of the organization in order to satisfy its objectives through the use of technical system . This is required by the firms for delivering the service offered. Finance design: a description of monetary value which tends to improve the work efficiency and services to minimize the risks involved in the, investments and revenues of various value network. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as which aspect of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model. The data collected in this context reveals that design of service and design of finance as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model (see table and figure 4.4).

Table 4.4: Business strategy and business model

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Design of service

8

32%

32%

Design of organisation

4

16%

48%

Design of technology

4

16%

64%

Design of finance

9

36%

100%

Figure 4.4: Business strategy and business model

As the data report in this table reveals :for respondents in majority (68% out of the total 25), they find that ' design of service'(32%) and 'design of finance'(36%) as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model ; whereas for the remaining respondents (32%), they find that 'design of organisation' (16%) and 'design of technology'(16%) as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model . By and large, these data conclude that in general design of service and design of finance as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model .

Business model and value adding process

The research literature reveals that there is substantial amount of common characteristics in elements implemented among several lists. The understanding and the classification of the elements may vary according to the standpoint of the researcher. Osterwalder et al Pigneur et al, (2005) come up with a structured analysis of the models employed in the business and, focus to develop a comprehensive gathering of rudiments in regard to the Business Model Ontology. This move toward the entire element and ties them together so that the activities, resources, are made more compatible towards creation of value proposition. It may also be termed as a manufacturing process in a retailing operation. It explores that how the Value Proposition is made available. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as to what extent value adding process should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment. The data collected in this context reveals that value adding process on greater degree should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment (see table and figure 4.5).

Table 4.5: Business model and value adding process

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

To great extent

16

64%

64%

To some extent

9

36%

100%

Not at all

0

0%

100%

Figure 4.5: Business model and value adding process

As the data report in this table reveals: for respondents in majority (64% out of the total 25), they find that value adding process 'to great extent' should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment; whereas for the remaining respondents (36%), they find that value adding process 'to some extent' should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment . By and large, these data conclude that certainly value adding process on greater degree should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment.

Value adding process and stakeholders

The research literature reveals that the primacy part of the value proposition business model may surge from this element, without which the entity process may not exist. The business model may make sense without giving reference to the value proposition (Swatman et al. 2003; Osterwalder, Pigneur et al. 2005). Customer: The entity which focus on the value proposition. It may also be said as a group of consumers for whom the services of the business are made. Partner: This term is explained as the other supplements or entities which are worn in accumulation the value to the domain that helps the entity in giving the Value Proposition to the purchaser; through the medium and other sources by allowing the entity to contract out (Weill and Vitale 2001). However, for some instance, the partner is believed as a regulatory body that acts as a valuable part in value domain. The partner may also be said as a third party who provides the Value in Return to the entity. Resources: comprise of financial, human, physical and intellectual, property resources and information technology hardware and software, which may be provided by suppliers. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as which stakeholder should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success. The data collected in this context reveals that customers and employees as stakeholders should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success (see table and figure 4.6 ).

Table 4.6: Value adding process and stakeholders

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Customers

12

48%

48%

Partners

4

16%

64%

Employees

9

36%

100%

Figure 4.6: Value adding process and stakeholders

As the data report in this table reveals :for respondents in greater majority (84% out of the total 25), they find that 'customers'(48%) and 'employees'(36%) as stakeholders should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success; whereas for the remaining respondents (16%), they find that 'partners' as stakeholder should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success. By and large, these data conclude that in general customers and employees as stakeholders should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success .

Business model and business strategy orientation

The research literature reveals that Sweet (2001) found that there is a deep connection among the value creation object, business models and policy, Ramirez (1999) and Stabell & Fjeldstad (1998). However, it was said that these relation and connection are believed to be the basic requirement for creation of value. Value creation is said as an approach by which various problems may be solved and the efficiency of the organization may be improved , and cost and risk can be reduced(Sandberg 2002). In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as business model of Air India should be oriented towards which business strategy for corporate success in the current industry environment. The data collected in this context reveals business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of reducing risk and cost and improving operation for corporate success in the current industry environment (see table and figure 4.7 ).

Table 4.7: Business model and business strategy orientation

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Solving problem

6

24%

24%

Improving operation

8

32%

56%

Reducing risk and cost

11

44%

100%

Figure 4.7: Business model and business strategy orientation

As the data report in this table reveals :for respondents in greater majority (76% out of the total 25), they find that business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of 'reducing risk and cost'(44%) and 'improving operation' (32%) for corporate success in the current industry environment ; whereas for the remaining respondents (24%), they find that that business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of 'problem solving' for corporate success in the current industry environment. By and large, these data conclude that in general business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of reducing risk and cost and improving operation for corporate success in the current industry environment.

Creating value through infrastructure

The research literature reveals that the narrow business model depends largely on the characteristic of internal aspects of the organization. Petrovic et al. (2001) argue that this model is not based on the terms of defining the complex and social system working within various sections of the processes. However, those who contend, believes this from company's value creating logic ( Linder & Cantrell 2002), this processes also focus on the process of creating the infrastructure for generation of value and also helps in constructing the base of business policy . Similarly, Boulton et al. (2000) focus on the need to develop a business model which may help in the creation of value to the assets. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as to what extent creating value through infrastructure is key to business strategy success of Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that creating value through infrastructure on greater degree is key to business strategy success of Air India (see table and figure 4.8 ).

Table 4.8: Creating value through infrastructure

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

To great extent

15

60%

60%

To some extent

10

40%

100%

Not at all

0

0%

100%

Figure 4.8: Creating value through infrastructure

As the data report in this table reveals: for respondents in majority (60% out of the total 25), they find that creating value through infrastructure 'to great extent' is key to business strategy success of Air India; whereas for the remaining respondents (40%), they find that creating value through infrastructure 'to some extent' is key to business strategy success of Air India. By and large, these data conclude that certainly creating value through infrastructure on greater degree is a key to business strategy success of Air India.

Sustainable business model and strategy

The research literature reveals that travelling by airlines has been proved to be a unique link between people cultures and countries which is playing a vital role in the development and integration of different businesses. The increasing affordability of air business for the purpose of business and leisure has made is accessible of many people. Air transport is also essential for business world; it helps in opening new market and creating jobs by revealing opportunities on the new location of developing and developed world. It expands communities by social and economic participation through moving services and products over long distance quickly. Air transport is meeting growing demand of customers in a sustainable way while balancing social developments, and environmental accountability and also economic progress. In recent decades the environmental impact of aviation industry has reduced due to adoption and use of specific operating methods and new technological development by airline industry. If we compare the earlier air transport land usage and levels of emission it has come down. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards which strategy. The data collected in this context reveals that sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of maintaining an optimal balance between profit and economic progress and social and environmental responsibility (see table and figure 4.9 ).

Table 4.9: Sustainable business model and strategy

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Satisfy increasing demand of customers

6

24%

24%

Maintain an optimal balance between profitability and economic progress

10

40%

64%

Social and environmental responsibility

9

36%

100%

Figure 4.9: Sustainable business model and strategy

As the data report in this table reveals: for respondents in greater majority (76% out of the total 25), they find that sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of 'maintain an optimal balance between profit and economic progress'(40%) and 'social and environmental responsibility'(36%) ; whereas for the remaining respondents ( 24 %), they find that that sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of 'satisfying increasing demand of customers' . By and large, these data conclude that generally sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of maintaining an optimal balance between profit and economic progress and social and environmental responsibility.

Successful business approach and corporate sustainability

The research literature reveals that believing business model as a unique combination of intangible and tangible assets within the factors of an organization's ability in order to destroy or to create the value" (Boulton et al. 1997), however, lots of author's have explained that the internal prerequisites of creation of value is very important. Those airlines facing market threats, opportunities and challenges for sustainability would have complex and greater impact on these airlines (Frigo, 2007). All these opportunities and arising challenges can be better managed through the of model corporate sustainability. According to Grayson et al (2008), many leading companies of the world are now taking steps to improve and enhance their sustainability and use it as a core function of their identity and offerings to drive the processes of innovation. A commitment from leadership, team work, systems approach and a systematic approach are the essentials to integrate corporate sustainability in the management systems that help in management and in establishment of a strategy for corporate sustainability and its planned execution. In the light of this revelation, it examined in this research as in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability which internal strategic aspect should be most focused by Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability commitment to leadership as internal strategic aspect should be most focused(than teamwork) by Air India (see table and figure 4.10 ).

Table 4.10: Successful business approach and corporate sustainability

Factors

No. of respondents

Response in percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Commitment to leadership

15

60%

60%

Teamwork

10

40%

100%

Figure 4.10: Successful business approach and corporate sustainability

As the data report in this table reveals :for respondents in majority (60% out of the total 25), they find that in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability 'commitment to leadership' as internal strategic aspect should be most focused by Air India ; whereas for the remaining respondents (40%), they find that that in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability 'teamwork' as internal strategic aspect should be most focused by Air India. By and large, these data conclude that in general in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability commitment to leadership as internal strategic aspect should be most focused(than teamwork) by Air India.

4.3 SUMMARY

Corporate sustainability of Air India currently on greater degree depends on selecting the right business model. Sustainable development and enhancing profitability constitute the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India. Political/legal and economic as external environmental factors have the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India. Design of service and design of finance as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model. Value adding process on greater degree should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment. Customers and employees as stakeholders should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success. Business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of reducing risk and cost and improving operation for corporate success in the current industry environment. Creating value through infrastructure on greater degree is a key to business strategy success of Air India. Sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of maintaining an optimal balance between profit and economic progress and social and environmental responsibility. In order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability commitment to leadership as internal strategic aspect should be most focused(than teamwork) by Air India.

5. CONCLUSION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This research was aimed at conducting a study on corporate sustainability and business models in airlines industry. The study has been conducted with the case study of Air India (the Indian public sector airlines corporation). The research has attempted to achieve following objectives: to identify and assess the importance of business model in corporate sustainability; to identify and assess the corporate sustainability challenge of Air India; to identify the business models of Air India; to assess the effectiveness of business models of Air India in its corporate sustainability; and to recommend suitable business models for Air India in its corporate sustainability.

5.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

First of all, it examined in this research as to what extent corporate sustainability of Air India currently depends on selecting the right business model. The data collected in this context reveals that corporate sustainability of Air India currently on greater degree depends on selecting the right business model. Further, it examined in this research as what constitutes the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that sustainable development and enhancing profitability constitute the major corporate sustainability challenge for Air India.

Next, it examined in this research as which external environmental factor has the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that political/legal and economic as external environmental factors have the most influential effect on corporate sustainability of Air India. Further, it examined in this research as which aspect of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model. The data collected in this context reveals that design of service and design of finance as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model.

Moreover, it examined in this research as to what extent value adding process should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment. The data collected in this context reveals that value adding process on greater degree should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment. Further, it examined in this research as which stakeholder should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success. The data collected in this context reveals that customers and employees as stakeholders should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success.

In addition, it examined in this research as business model of Air India should be oriented towards which business strategy for corporate success in the current industry environment. The data collected in this context reveals business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of reducing risk and cost and improving operation for corporate success in the current industry environment. Further, it examined in this research as to what extent creating value through infrastructure is key to business strategy success of Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that creating value through infrastructure on greater degree is a key to business strategy success of Air India.

Lastly, it examined in this research as sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards which strategy. The data collected in this context reveals that sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of maintaining an optimal balance between profit and economic progress and social and environmental responsibility. Further, it examined in this research as in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability which internal strategic aspect should be most focused by Air India. The data collected in this context reveals that in order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability commitment to leadership as internal strategic aspect should be most focused(than teamwork) by Air India.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

Design of service and design of finance as aspects of business strategy should be the central focus of Air India in its business model. Value adding process on greater degree should be the central focus of business model for Air India in the current industry environment. Customers and employees as stakeholders should be at the center of value adding process in the business model of Air India for corporate success. Business model of Air India should be oriented towards business strategy of reducing risk and cost and improving operation for corporate success in the current industry environment. Creating value through infrastructure on greater degree is a key to business strategy success of Air India. Sustainable business model of Air India should be centrally focused towards strategy of maintaining an optimal balance between profit and economic progress and social and environmental responsibility. In order to have successful business approach and corporate sustainability commitment to leadership as internal strategic aspect should be most focused(than teamwork) by Air India.

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