Sometimes management is measured doesnt matter what needs to be done just to keep things afloat. On the other hand, for business to develop and remain healthy Manager must master certain basic skills in management and leadership - skills that will help manager avoid the disaster situations where you have to do whatever it takes to stay afloat. Necessary skills include problem solving and decision making, setting up, meeting management, allocation, and communications and managing manager.
1. Be able to understand the purpose and construction of a personal development plan
Explain the purpose of a personal development plan for both the middle manager and the organization
For life needing a road map and without a map we get lost. With no the map/goals in life we never know our direction or the routes to take. A few people take side roads on their maps and never get back on the freeway. While others go speeding down the road not checking the review mirror or they become stalled. There are those who are sitting in the parking lot of life and never get started. As a result, a map is important to give us way, imminent, and help us find our way when we do take the wrong exit or a side manner.
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At the level of theÂ individual, personal development includes the following activities:
-To get strength backÂ self-awareness
-To improveÂ self-knowledge
-Structure or renewingÂ identity
-To develop strengths orÂ talents
-To improve prosperity
To identify or improvingÂ potential
Structure employability orÂ human capital
To initiate a life enterprise or personal autonomy
defining and executingÂ personal development plans
getting betterÂ social abilities
Theory covers a wider field than self-development or self-help: personal development also includes developing other people. This may take place through roles such as those of a teacher or mentor, either through a personal competency (such as the skill of certain managers in developing the potential of employees) or a professional deal ( Pathways to Management and Leadership-2008).
1.2 Discuss a management styles and its impact on the middle manager's need to work with others.
A middle manager's performance is measured in part by the performance of his team. The ability to interact with and lead a diverse work team is influenced by his leadership style and how it fits with the team members' different work styles. Some team members will react positively and some negatively to the same manager. In order to be successful, a middle manager should understand the different leadership styles and how they may affect his staff and impact his own performance.
Middle managers who use this style may get a lot done but rarely gain the respect and willing cooperation of their staff. Autocrats rule from above and make all the decisions. Staff members are rarely included in decision-making and don't have any recourse after decisions are made.
In a democracy, individuals are able to vote on decisions, and the majority rules. Middle managers who use this style may gain some cooperation from their staffs at the risk of fostering resentment. While staff is involved in the decision-making process, democratic managers often end up making the final decision to meet the demands of upper management.
A collaborative management style sees management and staff working together. Roles are clear, but ideas and suggestions are treated equally and everyone has a say in decisions, which are made through discussion and compromise. The interests of both management and staff are considered important. As staff performance improves, the middle manager's rating by upper management tends to improve.
Self-Directed Team Style
Self-directed teams have the responsibility and authority for completing work assignments, with management taking a hands-off approach. The manager assigns the work, gives guidelines and communicates clear performance expectations. The teams are then responsible for determining how the job is done to meet expectations and deliver results. (The Impact of Leadership Style on a Middle Level Manager's Performance-www.ehow.com,28/10/2012)
Construct a personal development plan that addresses the middle manager's short and longer term needs
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Built up a hard working team to reach the goals of the organization effectively and efficiently in the long and short run-A leader would always want to develop a group or team who perform well in achieving the aims and objectives over the period of time. In order to do that a leader must always communicate with the followers and guide them thorough out the time. In the long run, it is very important to develop such a team, as it will be beneficial for the team it's self and for the leader
In the second step, a leader must know his strength and the working style he would like to maintain- The leader needs to acknowledge his strength that he will need to apply in the long and short terms. It is important because, if he knows this strength then only he will be able to guide his team accordingly by using the appropriate leadership style. The leader can chose to follow the Autocratic, Democratic, Paternalistic or ever Laissez-Faire leadership style, depending what suits his team.
The leader needs to do a complete survey on himself meaning, he needs know what he exactly want over the period of time- The leader usually expects to develop a good communication between himself and the followers and have his facts right. He would be keen to do that for a positive career in the near future.
Mix and Match (Combining the strength and need)- Once he knows his strengths and needs, now it's time to combine these two and start working towards his ultimate aim, which usually is to become a good team leader and work its way towards achieving its goals.
Grow and Develop- After identifying the strengths and needs, it is time to grow and do the necessary developments where required.
New Career- Once the needs and the way of fulfilling the needs have been acknowledged and implemented, that's when the leader has most likely achieved his needs for the long and short term. And now it's just the matter of time for him lead his team to the right direction.
2. Be able to understand data and information and their use in meeting stakeholder's needs
2.1 Determine the differences between data and information, and show quantitative and qualitative examples
Data- Data are raw facts. Computer programs work or data. Data are basic facts.
E.g. 121279 is a data. It has no meaning. It may be a date of birth, number of rupees etc.
Information- Meaningful data are information. Information are organized data. E.g. 12-12-79 is a date of birth of a person, Rs.121279 is an amount of money.
-"Information is interpreted data" such 1 car, two houses, 3 girls etc.
Data and information are related to each other but they differ in many ways especially in their meanings. Here are five examples on how they differ from each other.
-Data are facts while information are interpreted facts, When we talk about data, they are facts that people gather based on their observation and experiences. They are raw facts which people gather. In the meantime, information is what becomes of these data. Interpret facts based on the data gathered.
-Data is based from records and observations while information is based on research. Most data are just simple records of facts or observations. They're often written down on a sheet of paper or stored in one's brain. On the other hand, information is more factual in nature.
-Data are mere numbers and figures while information give meaning to these numbers and figures. When we talk about data we refer to the numbers and figures we often see in our math textbooks. They come in the form of graphs, timelines, fractions, decimals, ratio and proportion, and many more.
-Data lack meaning while information are meaningful indeed, numbers and figures alone lack meaning. They can never tell you something unless they are interpreted and explained. This is what data are. On the contrary, information are full of meanings. They're data which are explained or interpreted to be understood by individuals.Â
-Data are useless while information are useful -Data alone are meaningless. What's the use of gathering them if you don't know what they are about or what they stand for? Information on the other hand are something you can readily understand and use.
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(5 Examples of difference between data & information-http://www.blurtit.com/q2897552.html,28/10/2012)
2.2 Identify organisational stakeholders, their needs from the organization and the data or information available on these stakeholders
An idea of stakeholders is intricated by different meanings and uses dependent upon both background and alliance. As usual usage a stakeholder is a third party who temporarily holds money or property while the issue of ownership is being determined between two other parties eg a bet on a race, litigation on ownership of property.
Figure: Organisational structure holders
Who are stakeholders?
Following on from the above, organisations depend on support from a wide range of other organisations and individuals. Some are merely different terms for the same thing. These can be placed into five categories.
-Shareholders including investors, owners, partners, directors, people owning shares or stock, banks and anyone having a financial stake in the business
-Customers including clients, purchasers, consumers and end users.
-Employees including temporary and permanent staff and managers. Some texts regard management as a separate stakeholder group but all managers are employees unless they happen to be owners who also manage the organization.
-Suppliers including manufactures, service providers, consultants and contract labour
-Society including people in the local community, the global community and the various organisations set up to govern police and regulate the population and its interrelationships.(Customer abd stakeholders-www.thecqi.org,29/10/2012).
There are different types of stakeholders and they have different interest in the organization and so is the need of the data and information available to them. As an example from 'annual report' itÂ is a wide-ranging report on a company'sÂ Â activities all the way through the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give stakeholders and other interested people information about the company's actions and financial performance whereÂ stakeholders can get varied information with regards to profit, loss, latest product and services, past presentation, upcoming steps etc.
2.3 Develop a plan that meets a stakeholder needs, including resources required
Stakeholder Management is an important discipline that successful people use to win support from others. During the early 1970's May large firm adopted a formalised top to bottom drop down strategic planning module. Under this module strategic planning became a deliberate process in which top executives periodically would formulate the firm's strategy then communicate it down the organisation for implementation.
Developed below is flow chart that explains this process:
Figure: Strategy process
The above process is most applicable to strategic management and development planning. In the above process, companies or firms will be used to denote a single-business firm or a single business unit of a diversified firm.
-Mission: A company's mission is its reason for being. The mission is often found in the form of a mission statement, which portrays a sense of purpose to employees' projects an image of the company to the customers.
-Objectives: Objectives are the goals of an organisation. For example the objectives of PRC is to admit a good number of potential students internationally and nationally. The objectives should be measurable, challenging and achievable.
-Situation Analysis: Once the firm has specified its objectives, it begins with its current situation to divers a development plan to full fill those objectives. Changes in the external environment, often presents new opportunities and new ways to reach the goals. The firm must also know its capabilities and limitations in orders to select the opportunities that it can pursue with a higher probability of success. The external environment is usually divided into two groups: the macro-environment that affects all firms and the micro-environment that only affects the firm in a particular industry.
-Implementation: For effective implementation the strategy and development plan needs to be into more detailed policies that can be easily understood at the functional level of the organisation. It should be translated into specific policies for functional areas such as:
Research and Development
-Control: Once implemented the result of the strategy needs to be measured and evaluated, with changes made as required to keep the plan on track. Standards of performance are set, the actual performance measured and appropriated actions are taken to ensure success.
3. Be able to understand selection processes, performance development and team welfare
3.1 Discuss the general principles and processes of recruiting and selecting staff to meet an existing vacancy.
All those involved in the recruitment and selection of staff are required to conduct themselves in ways which do not involve any form of unfair discrimination. The principles of unfair discrimination are as follows.
Discrimination in recruitment and selection is unfair when decisions are based on arbitrary or irrelevant requirements. Â Â Applicants are statutorilyÂ protected against unfair discrimination on the grounds ofÂ age, gender reassignment, disability, marriage and civil partnership,Â pregnancy and maternity, race, religion and belief, sex, and sexual orientation by the Equality Act 2010.
Unlawful direct discrimination occurs when someone is treated unfavourably because of his or her race, sex, age, religion or belief, sexual orientation or marital status.
Indirect discrimination occurs when a condition or requirement is applied generally and equally to all groups.
Under the Equality Act a disabled person is anyone with a physical, or mental impairment that has a substantial and long-term adverse effect upon his/her ability to carry out day-to-day activities.
The recruitment process begins with the human resources department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. This contains:
-position to be filled.
-figure of persons.
-Duties to be performed.
-credentials Required-The requirements should be detailed under the following heading(s):
-Education/Training (include standard qualifications and NVQs)
-To Prepare the job detail and person requirement.
-place and rising the sources of required number and types of employees.
-Small -list and identifying the potential with required distinctiveness.
-to arrange the interviews with the selected candidates.
- To conduct the interview and decision making.
1. Get ready job description and person specification
2. Publicity the vacancy
3. Administration the response
5. Organize interviews
6. Conducting interviews and decision making
(Recruitment policy and procedure-www.brookes.ac.uk,30/10/2012).
The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities. Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization. Selection is the process by which managers a person's more likely to succeed in the jobs, given management goals and requirements (Mulins,2009)
3.2 Determine a method that identifies poor performance and a process for supporting performance improvement
Stewart and Stewart (Stewart V, Stewart-2002).Â Have provided a checklist to help identify such poor performers. It includes checks on the following:
-Quantity of work
-Quality of work
-Role as the centre of conflict
-Setting of unrealistic targets
-Refusal to delegate
-Slowness in taking decisions.
Two principal methods for identifying poor performance in these areas have been recognised. They are either reactive or proactive. In the reactive situation, complaints, critical incidents and complaints by colleagues form the basis for an investigation. Such information already exists and is being monitored through clinical governance. By contrast, in the proactive situation, data collected on agreed indicators would form the basis for identifying poor performance
Supporting performance Improvement Plan: To develop a Performance Improvement Plan. Armed with the strategies we've looked at, you first need to evaluate the performance issue that you're facing:
Have you discussed with the person what he or she feels the problem is?
Have you evaluated your organization's motivation system? Are you doing everything you can to recognize and reward people's contributions?
Are you rewarding the things that you actually want done?
Do you have regular goal setting and development meetings with members of your team?
Do you help your people keep their skills current?
From there, it's important that you and the employee discuss and agree upon a plan for improving performance. Write down what you've agreed, along with dates by which goals should be achieved. Then monitor progress with the team member, and use the techniques we've discussed above for increasing motivation and dealing with ability-related issues.
Recognize that the actions needed to close ability gaps need high motivation on the employee's part to be successful. The two causes of poor performance - lack of ability and low motivation - are inextricably intertwined, and goal setting, feedback, and a supportive work environment are necessary conditions for improving both.(performance tools-www.mindtools.com,30/10/2012).
3.3 Assess the impact of encouraging team welfare on the development of objectives
Sometimes it isn't obvious when people are shirking their responsibilities, but there are several signs to watch out for.
Lacking interest in their work, and in the well-being of the team.
Blaming others for mistakes and failures.
Avoiding challenging tasks and projects; and not taking risks.
Regularly complaining about unfair treatment by team leaders and team members - and engaging in self-pity.
Avoiding taking initiative and being dependent on others for work, advice, and instructions.
Lacking trust in team members and leaders.
Making excuses regularly - they may often say "It's not my fault," or, "That's unfair."
Strategies and Tools
When team members don't take responsibility for their actions, some managers may just hope that the problem goes away. Others may try to remove these people from their teams completely.
Neither of these approaches is ideal - the situation is likely to get worse if you just leave it alone; while laying people off should be a last resort, especially if you're dealing with people who have the potential to be effective team members.
Instead, your aim should be to provide your people with the skills and resources needed to do their jobs, and then to create an environment where it's easy for them to take responsibility for their decisions and actions.
And yes, sometimes you'll need to be firm and courageous, and sometimes your actions will cause conflict. We'll now explore a variety of strategies and tools that you can use to get people to take responsibility.(taking responsibility-www.mindtools.com,30/10/2012).
Staff development and employee welfare practices were developed during the period of industrial revolution by early management authorities like Robert Owen, F.W. Taylor and others. Their philosophy was that, people's behavior depended on how they were treated. Owen, for example, stipulated that employees should work hard to develop their talents and human beings should therefore eliminate practices that would lead to poor health (Porter, 2003).
Welfare practices are motivational avenues put in place by management to enhance productivity and motivate staff to give off their best. These include incentive packages, training opportunities etc.( 27/10/ 2012)
Environment in which it doubtlessly exists. For all intents and purposes, development is necessary, its execution is like any management task, it must be done in a way that maximizes the results from the time and effort involved, it does not just happen, it takes Time (Forsyth, 2001).
One of the best things you can do as a manager to motivate your employees is to lead by example. If you are lazy, prone to procrastination or allow your temper to flare, you will likely get the same behavior from your employees. If you want to motivate your employees to pursue excellence in their job responsibilities, behave how you would like them to behave. Speak kindly, show respect and give praise where it is due.