Public Service Policy And Strategy Commerce Essay


Change, according to Osborne, SP and Brown, is defined as broad spectrum that involves transition of Public service Organization from one stage to another. The change might be positive or negative resulting growth or decline of PSO. Main element of change include: services design, the structure of PSO, management or administration of PSO, and the skills necessary to manage the public services. Understanding the process of transformation and change management in public service organizations are key elements of the role of leaders and managers. There are basically two kinds of strategies for managing change can be explained, planned and emergency, depending on the type of change. John P. Kotter (1947 b) of the book "Leading Change" (1995) and "The Heart of Change" (2002) reviewed understanding of change management by describing the useful models. Here, Kotter discovers the correct paradigms of responses and approaches of the change in which organization see, feel and then change. Kotter illustrated change model in mainly eight steps. Like; urgency creation, innovative team building, vision clearance, buy-in communication, action empowerment, short term win creation, integrity with change implementation consistency. DFID possesses eight goals called Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) priorities on world poverty reduction by 2015. These goals were created at UN millennium summit at New York in 2000 (, 2011).

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This report explains current scenario of UK Department for International Development (DFID) and its need for change. It introduces a novel strategic direction for DFID. The main theme of change is, "development of DFID's own executive organization to avail the UKaid directly to recipients public eliminating contribution of respective governments and other organizational bodies to minimize the level of corruption and other organizational incompetence". This report is divided into mainly five sections. Section 1 introduces DFID and a change situation. Section 2 explains force field analysis evaluating drivers and resisters of the change. Section 3 emphasizes on Mintzberg's concept of an emergent strategy, while section 4 constructs an action plan to make the change happen. Finally, section 5 concludes the report.

Section 1: Introduction to DFID and change proposal

1.1 Organization background (UK DFID)

The Department for International Development (DFID) is UK Government Department which is headed by cabinet minister. Current secretary of state is Andrew Mitchell. The Department aims to "promote sustainable world development and eradicate poverty throughout the world". DFID has provided £550 million of UKaid in 2008/09 for poverty removal from the developing countries. They also believe that in 2010/11 the budget will be increased up to 780 million. Furthermore, the equivalent of 0.7% of the UK's gross national income will be dedicated to development assistance, by 2013, from 0.36% in 2007/08. UKaid delivery to the developing countries is basically either directly and/or via international bodies. Up to 27 per cent of UKaid went to the government to spend on their need and 1/3 of it goes through international bodies like; the World Bank, the United Nation and the European Union. UKaid is also provided through the charity bodies like; Oxfam, VSO, Action Aid and charities based in developing countries (, 2011).

1.2 Analyzing the change situation

After scanning the external environment of DFID, it is revealed that if UKaid goes directly to the recipient public bypassing the respective government and other bodies through formation of executive organisation having its own team of UKaid distribution and management to maximizing the utilization of UKaid.

The fundamental purpose of this new strategic direction is to reduce level of corruption of respective governments and other organisational incompetence. This change in DFID strategy would include generation of entire strategy to approach public in developing countries straight away.

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Section 2: Force field analysis evaluating drivers and resisters of the change

Force field analysis (Lewin 1951) is widely used in change management and can be used to help understand most change processes in any organizations. It is required to identify total drivers and resisters and assign appropriate score from 0-9 according to their level of influence on the change. Based on the total score of all the drivers and resisters, it is determined whether implementation of change would be successful or not. There are internal and external forces exist which influence (drive or resist) the change. Internal forces degeneration by human resources, aid recipient public, employees, shareholders, and media. While, external factors forcing change are political, economical, social and technological influencers.

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The main forces influencing the change in DFID are discussed below. Here forces, influencing objectives of the change, are also considered.





Change proposal





Legislative basis for change


Formation of DFID's own executives organisation to directly provide UKaid to recipient


Political resistance of change

Contribution of the EU legislation



Resulting Lack of incorporation of the recipient government

Need of corruption reduction on UKaid delivery



DFID benefits from other firm's different strategies

Belief of Maximum utilisation of UKaid



Cost cutting for bottom level operation

Possibilities of high level of public service



Lack of skills of bottom level operatives

Need of lowering other organisational incompetence






Drivers of change:

Legislative basis for change: Legal legislations are responsible for implementation of any change in DFID. Being appropriate legislation influence the change as a great driver. The movement of International Development is regulated by The International Development Act 2002, which came into effect on 17/06/2002, which governs how and where the fund supposed to spend. Another law, The 2006 International Development (Reporting and Transparency) Act, required secretary of state to report the total expenditure of UKaid annually. This force scored 6 out of 0-9 as it is fundamental driver of change

Contribution of the EU legislation: As UK is a part of European Union; the EU legislation influences the UK legislation. Therefore to make change in the UK DFID, support from European Union is mandatory. I believe the level of influence in the change is scored as 5 out of 0-9 system.

Need of corruption reduction on UKaid delivery: There is no wonder with the fact about corruption in the government of developing countries. It is fact that up to 50% of aid is lost in developing countries (BBC 2010). There are more chances of corruption, if UKaid is given to the respective government. This force, need of corruption reduction, scores 4 as it is given high consideration for effective UKaid utilization.

Belief of maximum utilization of UKaid: If UKaid reaches directly to the recipients by the own staff and management of DFID, it is apparent the better utilization of UKaid. This force impacts deeply and thus scores 7 to demonstrate the significance of UKaid utilization maximization.

Possibilities of high level of public service: According to my personal views, there would be increased level of public service if DFID itself operates for the UKaid distribution by its own. It scores 4 to explain the level of own values and accountabilities.

Need of lowering other organizational incompetence: If UKaid is provided through many organizations there are many chances of incompetence of any organization in any ways. The problem may be the organisations themselves, as they may be structured rigidly or hierarchically. This force scores 4 from 0-9 system as it impacts quite little to drive the change.

Resisters of change:

Political resistance of change: Politicians, involved in misconduct of public fund, raise obstacles for political and economic development in developing countries, and raise difficult challenges for foreign aid (Inge Amundsen, 2006). Corrupt politician may obstruct this change as it prevents them in their goal of corruption. Thus the level of impact of this factor is scored as 5.

Resulting lack of incorporation of the government: Affects eternal environment of DFID (Bryson, J. M., 2004). The level of this force scores 4 according to its impact illustrating the prevention of DFID benefiting from respective government's involvement.

Restriction to get benefits from other firm's different strategies: different organizations have different operational strategy (, 2010) affecting diverse parameter of recipient public. This change may prevent such benefits scoring highest 6.

Cost cutting for bottom level operation: This change requires bottom level operation for UKaid distribution. And thus, it is obvious the increment in the cost of operation declining the amount of net UKaid. Thus it scores 5.

Lack of skills of bottom level operatives: As part of the change, DFID needs to recruit lots of employees and volunteers. The possibilities of incompetence in their professional skills may obstruct the change efficiency. Therefore I give the score of 3 to this force.

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So, after considering the numbers of drivers and resisters with their degree of influence it is quite clear that there will be more drivers than resisters of this change. Quantitative measurement of the degree of influence of drivers fully played out the resisters. Total score of drivers is 32 and the same for resistors is 23, so it is more likely to succeed the change and the change has the positive impact on DFID's performance.

Section 3: Mintzberg's concept of an emergent strategy for proposed change in DFID

3.1 Understanding Mintzberg's emergent strategy

An emergent phenomenon is defined as events that Public Service Organization managers cannot foresee and which arise because of unexpected changes in the environment (Osborne S.P. & brown K. (2005). Mintzberg, Quinn & Ghoshal (1998) highlights the difference between deliberate and emergent strategy. According to Mintzberg, H. (1994), an emergent strategy is a pattern of action that develops over time in an organization in the absence of a specific mission and goals, or despite a mission and goals.

In addition, implementation of strategic plans should involve learning. A learning organization might be defined as one that has enlisted the intelligence as well as the effort of all those employed within it (Mintzberg, 1994). The strategic plan will include ways in which reduce the drivers against change and building upon good practice from within the organization.

3.2 Constructing emergent strategy to implement change in DFID

Following three steps allow us to generate emergent strategy;

Identify critical areas of uncertainty.

Execute smart experiment.

Adjust and redirect based on the results of the experiments.

By implementing above steps enables DFID to quickly adjust or shelve flawed ideas, increasing the chances of ultimate success.

Identify critical areas of uncertainty.

Change in organization behavior of DFID creates significant level of uncertainty. DFID operates to provide UKaid to help developing countries to fight against poverty and to achieve MDGs. It provides UKaid directly to the respective government or through other international organizations. The change in this strategy is proposed to approach UKaid recipient directly by DFID with its own staff and management to reduce corruption and maximize the utilization of UKaid.

While planning of emergent strategy, uncertainty of the change must be identified in the form of staff, volunteers and other resources. External and internal factors affecting environment of new DFID's organization also influence the uncertainty of change. Prioritizing the assumptions and key risks possible in change of DFID answering the question, what is the impact of being wrong about an assumption, or failing to overcome a risk?

Execute smart experiment.

Smart experiment and risk mitigation strategies are at the heart of a good emergent strategy. Instead of risking resources on uncertain strategies, DFID can invest a little to learn a lot about the key uncertainties in their approach. Experiments can range from simple activities such as small focus groups to more complicated ones such as launching a localized test market. They basically involve internal best practice assessment, secondary market research, external benchmarking, business modeling / simulations, and so on (Scott D.A., & et al. 2008)

Adjust and redirect based on the results of the experiments.

The final stage of the process of mastering an emergent strategy is to apply the lessons of the knowledge - building exercises. Redirecting a strategy can be emotionally wrenching. This is a final step that trips up well-intentioned organization, DFID. This step may require forcing the DFID and its management to reassess its approach systematically at regular milestones. After reaching particular milestone, following four options, according to Scott D.A., & et al. (2008), are considered;

Double down: Experiment data points winning strategy with no deal - killing uncertainties, so move rapidly for change situation.

Continue exploring: All signs look positive, but still there are untested assumptions, so keep experimenting.

Revector: Investigation suggest that current strategy is not viable, but there are few changes in the strategy are required, so change approach and keep experimenting again to test them.

Shelve: There is no clear path forward, so move on to other projects.

Thus emergent strategy for change implementation in DFID can be constructed. It provides pre-strategic planning and implementation.

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Section 4: Precise Action plan







Mile stones



1. To Develop DFID's own team of executives

A1.1 Organise entire system of operation


managerial and

operational responsibilities

Paid Employees,



Salaries for employees

and volunteer allowance

A1.1 Mar, 2011.

A1.2 Feb, 2011.

A1.3 Apr, 2011.

Employees resistance,

Human incompetence

Completed organisation of human resources

A1.2 Construct executive strategy

A1.3 Develop effective HR management system

2. To effective distribution of UKaid distributors

2.1 Bottom level operation executives to deliver UKaid

Operation responsibilities

Same as above

Same as above

2.1 May, 2011.

2.2 Jul, 2011.

Negative impact of PEST factors

Experiment level of UKaid distribution

2.2 Interact with local public to discover their most priorities

3. To collect and analyse experiment data

3.1 Record all the activities of UKaid distribution




3.1 Aug, 2011.

3.2 Oct, 2011.

Errors in the data analysis

Obtain certain conclusion from data analysis

3.2 Analyse the data using various statistical methods.

4. To finalised emergent strategy

4.1 If outcomes from data analysis are positive, go for it.




4.1 Dec, 2011.

4.2 Feb, 2011.


Achievement of Final outcomes of Emergent strategy for implementing change in DFID

4.2 If outcomes are negative, redirect the strategy and imply whole process again and again until positive results achievedSection 5: Concluding Thoughts

Organizations are beginning to realize that change is now inevitable and normal part of organizational life if they are to survive and grow. However, the failure rate in introducing major changes. Instead of providing the promised benefits, these changes create confusion, frustration and low morale resulting in low productivity growth. Change things to have experience in working with client organizations to help them avoid pitfalls and guide them to achieve the desired results. DFID did not have "quick fix" solutions. Rather, it diagnoses the need for change, and determines what the amendment would be to plan how this should happen.

This report concludes with the innovation ideas to help DFID to achieve its goal of elimination of world poverty and other MDGs. It emphasises on the increased utilisation of UKaid provided to the developing countries. The fundamental idea is to provide UKaid directly to the beneficiary public, eliminating involvement of respective government and other international bodies to better UKaid utilisation avoiding corruption and other organisation incompetence. This report explains force field analysis identifying resistors and drivers of this proposed change. And the score of drivers for change is 26 and that of resisters is 15. Thus it stimulates success of the change situation. Emergent strategy of Mintzberg, for this proposed change, which illustrates pre-strategic decision. Action plan, finally, is drawn for details execution of the change strategy.

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