Professional Marginalization Of Women In Hospitality Industry Commerce Essay

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In the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women which was adopted by the United Nation General Assembly in 1979, discrimination is defined as " any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, culture, civil or any other field"

Discuss factor that contribute to the professional marginalization of women in hospitality industry


The definition of discrimination is a prejudice, because their behavior has a specific set of characteristics. Characteristics of social discrimination, California, including disability, age, gender reassignment, religion, race, gender and sexual orientation. Discrimination can take many forms, but in the laws of many countries around the world prohibit any form of discrimination. In the United States, the law is very strict about employment discrimination and legal services, in order to protect the individuals subject to discrimination in the workplace. The law will also help guide employers to acceptable behavior discrimination. As discrimination can take many forms. In these identified by 5 types.

Direct discrimination- This is the clearest case of discrimination is deemed to be equivalent to the above characteristics. For example, when a person is deprived of employment opportunities, just because he is gay, this is direct discrimination.

Associative Discrimination- This form of discrimination occurs when someone be discriminated against just because they and some individuals who have the above characteristics. For example, a family has a member with the aid near shunned just because they are AIDS patients.

Discrimination by Perception- This form of discrimination is a generalization discriminate features. For example, just because a gay man with AIDS, but that does not mean that all homosexuals have AIDS.

Indirect Discrimination- When the employer mandated its employees to a particular group, it could be counted as indirect discrimination which is an example of the company requires all employees to work overtime. For those who do not meet the requirements for some reason, this is a threat to the livelihood of the people.

Harassment- The same is true when employees at the workplace harassment are gay or a woman, it applies to discrimination cases.

2.0 Answer of question 1

2.1 Discrimination

Gender inequality and discrimination is the root causes of violence against women, the impact of the imbalance of power between women and men exist in varying degrees in all communities in the world's history and structure. Violence against women and girls is their lack of power and control, as well as the norms of society, the provisions of the social roles of men and women and connivance abuse. Inequality between men and women across the public and private spheres of life, and society. As a whole, economic, cultural and political rights, mainly in the limitations and restrictions on women's freedom, choice and opportunity. These inequalities can increase the risk of women and girls, abuse, violent relationships and exploitation, for example, due to economic dependence and limited survival and earning options, or discrimination, the law as it relates to marriage, divorce, and child custody rights. Women and minorities, has long faced discrimination in the U.S. labor market. Employed women earn less, similar to the average level of education than men. This part of the wage gap reflects the different options, the education of women and men. In the past, women have been less likely to study engineering, science and technology fields, tend to be more. In the job market to some extent, the result of wage differentials, a few years time, in order to raise the children of the women to leave. Another reason is that the wage gap between men and women, there is still a considerable degree of occupation, such as the separation between men and women, nurses tend to be female and dentists men. However, even taking into account these factors, studies have generally found that the average female income even similar to the work of men compared to a decrease of approximately 10%, with the same level of education, training and experience.

2.1.1 The woman in the standpoint

General women's participation in management is still very low, with women in senior positions, and focus on industry and occupation significantly separated by sex. According to Linda Wirth, the 1997 report of the International Labor Organization (ILO) on the progress of women's enterprises, the author of the country, "almost universally, women have not reached the leading position of large enterprise¼Œ regardless of their ability. Women generally fare best in the industry, employing large numbers of women, health and community services, accommodation and catering industries. "Although women into management in recent years has made progress in the overall figures mask varying degrees of success, at the micro level. And the women said to have been a growing number of middle management ranks, the most senior positions are very limited. Even in the United States, in the history of affirmative action and corporate efforts to promote diversity to increase female representation, women accounted for 11.2% of the Fortune 500 companies in 1997.

2.1.2 Barriers to women's corporate advancement

We can move to barriers to women's corporate advancement Literature shows that obstacle of women into the management from multiple sources¼Œ constraints are imposed on their social, by the family and with the employer and women themselves. Observers put forward some different parameters to explain why women don't present a lot of administrative duties. Two of the most powerful obstacle is. Behavioral expectations about the role of women in the family represent a very realistic obstacle, their enterprise upward flow. Most of the burden, raising a child is still on the mother, applied the additional responsibilities in a career woman, usually is not a man faces. Discrimination forms of organization structure and policy. Informal networks and culture is the male-dominated often become women's development obstacle. Enterprise unfair phenomenon development opportunities and rewards hinder women seek top management position.

2.1.3 Leveraging diversity

The leaders must understand, with a diversified workforce, reflects the different views and methods work, but must truly value different opinions and views. To realize learning opportunities and challenges the expression of organization there are different points of view, and ready to stick to it. Organizational culture must establish high expectations, from every a person's performance, arouse people to develop the ability to use all employees and encourage open, instilling the high tolerance controversies. The workers received attention, make them power and submitted to the organization. Therefore must have a clear and widely understand mission, the workers can clear their goals, there is an equal, the bureaucratic structure, and promote the exchange of opinions and constructive challenge.

2.1.4 Tactics to further the advancement of women

About women's capabilities and suitable career stereotypes and prejudices in an enterprise environment. Some more, lack of the line position, who (woman) can prove their ability to clear the bottom line impact position, lack of careful career planning and programming tasks, to ensure that women are equipped with a wealth of experience, suitable for senior positions in the credibility necessary. Therefore, exclude women from non-formal channels of communication and learning about the company's business and promotion opportunities. Companies around the world have implemented a wide range of programs and initiatives designed to overcome these and other similar obstacles. According Catalyst research group, headquartered in the United States, focusing on the progress of women's enterprises factors to determine the successful promotion of gender differences in the following important organizations. In the example Identification and finding HIPO (HIPO is a High Potential employee) women, ensure that women have a mentor, rotation, cross-functional departments of women and ensure that they have the experience distribution line, To "stretch" role of women and the risk they see, Implementation of the succession plan, the focus on women, helping employees balance work and personal responsibility, the management personnel responsible for the advancement of women, and create a comprehensive initiative. This is by no means a comprehensive list, in order to improve the representation of women in senior management, companies can adopt tactics, but it represents the main features of the diversity of the methods of successful businesses.


Take various forms of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation, and appears in a variety of work environments. Different people in need of treatment, because the result in the impairment of certain characteristics, such as race, color, gender, equality of opportunity and treatment. In other words, the result of the discrimination, and strengthen the inequality. Human freedom restricted their ability to select and engaged in their professional and personal aspirations, regardless of ability. Skills and competencies cannot be developed, reward work was rejected, and takes over the sense of humiliation, frustration and powerlessness. The elimination of discrimination in the work of social justice, this is in the heart of the ILO mission. Decent work, which is built on the concept of equal opportunity for all those working or looking for work and life, is the basis of the concept of all women and men, whether as workers, employers or self-employed persons in the formal or informal economy. The elimination of discrimination is an integral part of any feasible poverty reduction and sustainable economic development strategy.

Question 2

Risk management focuses on both the internal and external violators of a code ethics, communication helps to reduce risk and can be vital in loss prevention.

From your point of view, why hotel should have a comprehensive risk management?


Risk management is a core part of any organization's strategic management. This is risk methodical organization, their activities in each activity to achieve the goal of continued interest, in the entire product portfolio of all activities. The focus of good risk management is to identify and address these risks. Its purpose is to increase maximum sustainable value for all the activities of the organization. Marshaling all of these factors can affect the understanding of the organization's potential uplink and downlink. It increases the probability of success and reduces the probability of failure and the uncertainty of the overall objectives of the organization. Therefore, should be a continuous and development process throughout the organization's strategy and the implementation of the Strategy. And it should be orderly resolution of the activities of all the surrounding tissue, in the past, and now, especially future risk. Cultural Organization's policies and procedures must be integrated into the leadership of the most senior management. Strategic tactical and operational objectives, it must be translated allocated throughout the organization responsible for the risk management part of their job description with each the responsibility of the management and staff. It supports all levels of accountability, performance measurement and reward, thus promoting operational efficiency

2.0 Answer question 2

2.1Risk management

Risk management is a process of identifying, evaluating, and give priority to a variety of risks. Once the risks are identified, risk management will create a plan to reduce or eliminate the impact of negative events. A variety of strategies is depending on the type and type of risk enterprises. There are a lot of risk management standards, including the development of the Project Management Institute, the International Standardization Organization (ISO), the National Science and Technology, as well as actuarial society.

2.1.1 Risk management plan

Risk management generally, including risk assessment and management development strategy. The parties attempted to avoid the risk of trying to reduce its negative effects. The only good merchant account provider will ensure that you are from a variety of online fraud protection and risk management techniques to provide you with the best. However, when the account provider helps you do that credit card processing with safety, you also must be alert to potential fraud as a businessman as well. In order to determine the complete list of your loss, loss. Also available tool that can help you analyze the loss, including investigation and other various forms. You need to determine how much the loss of money and size, as well as how often they occur. In the risk management plan, assess the damage, it is important to know the way to treat the risk

2.1.2 Type of risk management

There are many different types of risk, risk management plan can reduce. Common risks include workplace accidents or fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters, like the stuff. It can also include legal risks, such as fraud, theft, sexual harassment lawsuits. Risk is involving business practices, the uncertainty of the financial markets, the credit risk of the failure of the project, or in the security and storage of data and records.

2.1.3 Risk analysis process

Risk analysis process has been completed, it is necessary to compare the estimated risks with risk criteria, the organization has established risk criteria may include related costs and benefits, the law, socio-economic and environmental factors, stakeholder concerns, and so on. Risk assessment, is used to make decisions of significance, the organization's risk, and whether it should accept or deal with a specific risk. While there are several different strategies that can reduce or eliminate the risk, the process of identification and management of risk is fairly standard, consists of five basic steps. First, the threat or risk is identified. In second, the assessment of the threat information has to identify the vulnerability of key assets. Therefore, the risk management, assets specific threat must determine the expected consequences. The last two steps in this process are to identify ways to reduce risk, and risk management procedures according to their importance priority.

2.1.4 Risk Treatment

Any disposal of systemic risk should provide a minimum like example effective and efficient operations, organization, effective internal control and compliance with laws and regulations. Risk analysis procedures can help the effective and efficient organizational operations, by identifying these risks, you need to pay attention to the management. The degree of risk of the effectiveness of internal control, the proposed control measures to eliminate or reduce. Cost-effective internal control related to the cost of the implementation of the control of risk reduction compared to the expected return. Need to measure the potential economic impact of the proposed control measures, if you do not take action, the cost of the proposed action, always need more detailed information and assumptions than immediately.

2.1.5 Risk Management Process

Risk disposal required for effective risk management report and review of the structure, in order to ensure effective risk identification and assessment, and the appropriate control and response. It should conduct regular audits, policies and standards compliance and standards, performance evaluation, to identify improvement opportunities. It should be remembered that the organization is a dynamic, running in a dynamic environment. In its operation must be determined, and make the appropriate changes to the system of the organization and the environment changes. Monitoring process should ensure that there is proper control, understand and follow the procedures in the organization's activities. Changes in the organization and the business environment, it must determine the appropriate changes made ​​to the system. Monitoring and review process to determine are what the intent of the measures taken result is, the procedure adopted and data assessment is appropriate and improved knowledge will help to achieve better decisions, and determine what kind of lessons, lessons for future assessment and risk management. At first, we have to establish the cost of the implementation. This is to be calculated with a certain degree of accuracy, since it soon became the baseline, the cost-effectiveness of the test, the losses can be expected, if you do not take action, it is necessary to estimate and compare the results, management can decide whether or not to perform a risk control measures. Subject to the provisions of the laws, regulations, is not an option. Organization must understand the applicable law, the control system must be implemented to achieve compliance. Only occasionally have some flexibility, reduce the cost of risk is totally disproportionate to the risk. The way of one to gets financial protection against the impact of risks through by risk financing which includes insurance. However, it should be acknowledged that some of the losses or the loss of the element will cover work-related health, safety or environmental incidents, which may include employee morale and organization into disrepute for example, have no health insurance costs.


The importance of risk management cannot be overstated. This is a business company to be successful, a fundamental part of that must be properly addressed. Risk is the risk of doing business, just one part of a process, differences and their implications on treatment. When a company first address the importance of risk management, must comply with the procedures. To do this there are many different procedures, can assist them in their normal development. These programs are advantageous to use because many of the known variables such policies. These programs can use the template to help guide their policies for their specific business manager. The first factor, the importance of risk management is to correctly identify all known risks. If you do not know it, you cannot reduce the risk. So this step must be done accurately and toughly time is appropriate, therefore, all possible known risks can be addressed. Listed risk management, an important step is to determine the impact and likelihood of each identified risk. Doing so will affect it because it is not the risk associated with the business. For this reason, the impact assessment of the probability of each, it come into contact with each company, the impact of each risk also varies. Known, two priorities of the known risk factors can occur. When dome the previous steps to complete the scale and risk management policies then can fully understand it. The next policy put reason in the first place. This is all identified risks in order to mitigate the impact as much as possible to mitigate its impact.