After independence to African countries there were much disturbances in political structures. Many of the nations faced revolution by military. Monarchical Governments formed. They were in dilemma as to what structure has to be followed, i.e. (1) capitalistic (2) traditional (3) democratic (4) monarchy etc. People wanted traditional Africa in the culture and modernisation in productive field. Educated were low, hence there were many problems in modernisation. Its general aspiration of any citizen that their age old customs and ritual to be flourished, its neither wrong nor unwanted, but the rulers have to balance the tradition and modernisation. Changes in tradition should not be sudden. They will change according to the situation, as they start learning. Scientific temper will slowly change the attitude of the citizens (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
Post Colonial Development
After independence colonial areas stated their own government, faced many challenges. Leader ship tried continuously for the development and upliftment of citizens. To eliminate poverty initially they followed welfare state policy later on capitalistic preview. Initially it show good progress later the government official become corrupt, both leaders and government official started looting the public treasury for gaining selfish ends. Socialistic polices or the Ujamaa in Tanzania state, capitalist policy as in Angola, Mozambique and Ethiopia, liberal policy of Kenya, South Africa, Nigeria etc had flourished for certain period. Neo liberalism policy had played dominant role. Neo liberalism appeared at top priority, approximately 15 years back neo liberalism is an alternative capitalistic policy of accumulating capital rather then capitalism (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
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Post colonial agrarian production has a drastic change the land resettlement any done in two ways.
High density: The large land holdings by European settlers was divided in pieces ranging from 15 to 100 acres and distributed to local Africans. Majority of the land resettlement was done in this process.
Low density: Land holdings in large extension was transferred to African settlers from European settlers. The European settler was compensated in the form of bank loan through British government (Chweya, 2006).
Through such reforms took place, agrarian production has not reached to the estimated accumulation. There is an argument that agro based development is possible only through large scale capitalistic farm production. It might have success in Europe but its not possible, where high rate of poverty prevails on other side in India where land holding in major share is in small scale formers, ranging between 2 to 15 acres had produced high quality and quantity production due to green revolution, where high production seed were supplied and proper irrigation facilities ware developed. With out proper irrigation facilities and co-operation from government, such as loans for investment for agriculture, growth expectation can't be fulfilled. Other wise the African government had to opted for capitalist agrarian production (Chweya, 2006).
Developing and developed world paradigm
Many projects have been taken up, the outcome produced was not up satisfactory. The trend was like crust and troughs. Initial growth or development was satisfactory but had stagnated during early 1980 and slowly the graph started falling down (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
First of all what is development? Development has no specific definition it is very wide perspective to explain. To explain without any hesitation or controversy, development can be said as full filling the need, its the increase in capacity of an person or society to satisfy his or its needs which are essential (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
The essential need can be classified as follows.
Basic need of life i.e. food and health care
Basic needs of human pride i.e. cloths housing good sanitation.
Basic earning methods i.e. employment. Employment may be either agriculture industrial or service made.
Basic working amenities machinery, mechanised transport etc.
Education: minimum basic education at affordable cost resources, for higher education availability of literature used for education (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
To say shortly food clothing, shelter and educations are the needs and to achieved. Employment with good working conditions are necessary, the capacity to provide such facility is its self called development. Gradually as the development increases the needs of new nature are born, to satisfy such needs also forms a part of development and hence development is continuous and can't be limited to say we have reached development (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Post colonial industrialisation was in public enterprises (PE) African countries around 1960 embraced dependence theory (DT). And the under development theory( UDT) as it originated in developed western countries. Expected development in industrial sector could not be achieved since P.E where not utilised for capital accumulation but where used for large scale production, for market intervening. If capital accumulation had been done, further extension of P.E would have been possible, generation of employment and enhanced production accumulation would have been taken place, which could be used for export trading. If DT had been followed in the era of globalisation (Chweya, 2006).
According to paradigm "Underdevelopment is not a product of trade relation but a result of the preservation of the non capitalistic mode of production" Chweya (2006)
It is to be kept in view that modernization doesn't mean anti socialism, we have to clear it from our minds anti west or anti colonial, anti imperialism, anti accumulation, since modernization is for our development. The result can be utilised according to convenience of the society. Then only nation will develop, modernisation should not be taken as Euronisation or westernisation (Chweya, 2006).
Macro level of management: South African government
The history has revealed that many African countries have struggled with poverty, conflict and ineffective governments. The change in the Government and policies showed impact on political and economies of these African Countries. There was change in customs and African Government had to undertake steps to retain their culture post colonization. The post colonial model was intimately tied to the development of nationalist movement in the 1950s. During the next one decade there was modernization of the economy and consolidation of the post colonial stage. There was Africanisation on large scale after the declaration of Arusha Declaration (AD) in 1967 and there was an important modification of the post colonial model which emphasizes the social profile. The change also led to the nationalization of parts of economy creates space for the Africanisation on a Grand scale. The policies of AD are to meet the expectations and demand for the social base. The time period from 1973 to 1978-79, was authoritarian state leadership and gradually becomes predominant. These developments were offset by considerable increase in foreign assistance. There was break down of the colonolization model during 1978 to 1984. Fundamental changes were required to meet the macro level management policies and practices (Jackson, 2009; Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
Globally the economy and management style is diverse with extremes. One of the study conducted (Jackson, 2009) is in direction to prove the developed-developing world dichotomy. Another research study conducted (Jackson, 2009) deals in management in developing countries has indicated that Western and African styles are different. In the post colonial systems wherein self perpetuating input orientations managers are motivated by control features of their jobs and economic security. The research studies undertaken on management motivation in Africa, those few studies do seem to support this supposition (Blunt and Jones, 1992, report one study in Kenya by Blunt in 1976 and one undertaken in Malawi by Jones in 1986). There is tendency of 'western' approaches to management to be imported into African countries through multinational companies. This may not only affect organizations in the private sector, but also those in the public sectors and those recently privatised enterprises which are in the process of refocusing as a result of downsizing and other major organizational change (Jackson, 2009).
It should be kept in the mind while gives advises the social, political & local of scientific temperament present in that particular society through the colonial government was there for many years they could influence the local for only little extent and particularly we should be alert and keep it in mind that (Jackson, 2009).
After colonial period when African countries had got freedom they turned to word's to the old traditions and though of restructuring their age old traditions they have less scientific temperament as said by Ken Saro-Wiwa in Forest of Flowers, when a young man becomes dumbfounded after bringing home a man who he thought was a woman, people explain transvestites in the following manner. "One man said it was spirit, another said fairy and another ghost" (Saro-Wiwa, 1975). Resorting to old superstitious explanations of events makes it very difficult to understand real life situations and from thence, act responsibly in them. (Saro-Wiwa, 1995).
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Pre colonial land belong to the clan society any member male reached adulthood can claim for the land which no one had claimed till then, can clear land and do agriculture. Any migrated member of another clam would not be destitute but merges as an tenant of a richer clan member (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
Colonialism and the penetration capitalism
Due the advent of mainly British or European colonialism there were many changes in pre colonial structure of African political social & economical. Capitalism of European society was dramatically established due to conquest. Capitalistic preview developed due to trading and accumulation of investment in costal area of Mombasa and later penetrated to the region of Lake Victoria basin. This merchandized capitalistic was systematically developed effectively by Imperial British East Africa Company since 1880 A.D. Later was taken over directly by British government in 1895 in the name British East Africa and continued till 12th December 1963 until Africa got its independence (Bill, Gareth and Helen, 1995).
Micro level of management: South African organization
Since the 1970s, the Postcolonial Studies have gained popularity. Although researchers disagreed on how to define postcolonial term, it refers to the interactions between European countries and the communities they colonized in the modern era. Moreover, several factors have led to wider interest in postcolonial literature such as: the scope and duration of the European empire and its collapse after the Second World War (Pittsburg state university, 2010).
Theory X Management
The management system in Africa in general and particularly in South Africa are mostly representative of a post-colonial heritage, reflecting a theory X style of management that shows how managers thought which in general distrust the human nature with a need to coerce workers into work, permitting few employees initiatives, and rewarding workers based on financial skills only (McGregor,1960). This system has been introduced to the African society by the colonial power (Carlsson, 1998, and Dia, 1996), and has been disseminated after independence due to political and economic interest, or merely because this was the way managers in the colonial epoch where taught.
Post -colonial management systems
Organizational Systems Strategies
Organizational system strategies in Post-colonial management system focuses on inputs through increasing expenditure on health, learning and housing and excludes outputs such as: efficiency, effectiveness, better services and customer satisfaction (Blunt and Jones, 1992). Thus leads to high level risk avoidance and lack of results and objectives orientation (Africamanagement.org, 2009) as well as a lack of clear mission statement or sense of direction. (Kiggundu , 1989)
The organization structure in the post colonial system designed to provide a vertical information flow which associated with centralized decision making , high degree of formalization and specialization, narrow span of control and hierarchy of authority (daft,2010). Blunt and Jones's (1997) also add that there is an emphasis on a bureaucratic resistance to change, importance of kinship networks and a high level of conservatism.
Blunt and Jones (1992) identify the post-colonial organizational systems as being too large, bureaucratic and change resistant, over-staffing, high degree of political interference and poor infrastructure. The private sector organizations on the other hand, are better equipped to meet the globalization challenges. The post-colonial organizational systems have been criticized because of their unethical behaviour towards their stakeholders. (e.g. de Sardan, 1999).
Â Internal Policies
The corporate governance in the post-colonial organizational systems is a result of predilection given to in-group or family members. Thus, the decision making process will based mostly on favouritism rather than the application of universal rules, and may therefore be viewed as discriminatory (Triandis, 1990). Moreover, theory X of management and the absent the democratic system in organizations may reveal an internal policy that valued employees responsibility rather than their rights. (Africamanagement.org, 2009)
Kiggundu (1989) recount the characteristics of the internal climate of post-colonial organizational systems as the following: tight supervision with little delegation; high cost with low productivity and poor morale, lack of job descriptions, job evaluation, and the incentives system as well as high turnover and absenteeism rate. Unions on the other side are more likely powerless or biased to political interests (Fashoyin and Matanmi, 1996).
External Policies and Management Expertise
The external policies in the post-colonial organizational systems concerning customers are likely obscure, and missing the objectives orientation. While top managers are likely educated, well trained and rarely empower their workers, middle manager lack both industrial knowledge and managerial skills which reflect in most cases a low levels of managerial expertise. (Kiggundu , 1989).
The characteristic of managers operation within post-colonial systems would be likely draw from the overall management system operating in a corporate. With a control orientation of post-colonial systems, and self-perpetuating inputs orientations, managers will be motivated by control features of their jobs and economic security rather than results. Even though, few studies have been undertaken on management motivation in sub-Saharan countries these little researches support this assumption. (Blunt and Jones, 1992).
The orientation of management commitment can be derived from the management attributes in the post-colonial systems. Commitment to corporate goals has been associated with the persistence of end results rather than of means. Consequently, a complete disregard to business ethics regarding the stakeholders, and a pursuit of business goals as they dovetail with self interest will reflect the post-colonial organization practices. Furthermore, family influence in Sub-Saharan countries has been discussed in the previous studies and therefore the managers' commitment may be under suspicion.
Management principles have been linked with external locus of control and threat of punishment in post-colonial organizational systems where decision are focus on the short term rather than long term, where the capacity to exercise creativity is narrowly distributed, and where the tasks are formalized and standardized (Kanungo and Jaeger, 1990), therefore, this may well reflect a belief in the disobedient nature of African people at the workplace and a distrust of human being nature (Abudu, 1986).Â
The statement "authoritarian management styles" refers to the way these principles are manifest in management practices with reliance on virtual hierarchy, rank system, low social equality, and a lack of sincerity in communication and data given (Montgomery, 1987; Blunt and Jones, 1992; Blunt and Jones, 1997). As conclusions, the key to management directions in the post-colonial organizational system is towards managing internal procedures, polices and power relations (Africamanagement.org, 2009)
Study on South African Organizations management system
Human resource management in South Africa context is affected heavily by its culture; thus it may need to revise its meaning to manage the predominantly black workforce. Attitudes and practice management may vary in different levels in any organization in South Africa where differentiation between people as a mean or a value to reach the desired goals is touching the culture which requires reconciling. To study the post-colonial management in South Africa in the micro level, we will examine three South African companies' management system towards employees' management as well as the community.
Eskom is the main electrical supplier in South Africa which shows a great commitment to the development of its employees. It has more than 40000 employees and it is governed by the government-appointed electrical council; so all the policies, planning and objectives are determined by the government. Eskom realized the importance of developing its employees to handle the sophisticated work technology they have and to prepare the appropriate management that can take over the organization responsibilities in the future. Eskom policies assure that the affirmative action that requires at least 50% of managerial positions to be black South Africans is considered to be implemented.
Electrification is the main role that made Eskom participates in the Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP). Eskom cares about its employees by supporting them to have their own homes and also it encourage them to bring their families to live with them permanently. Besides the housing allowances, Eskom provides health care insurance for its staff and their dependants. Eskom had established many forums at different levels to encourage their staff to participate in the decision making regarding the issues they face. In addition to the forums, Eskom had established joint task forces to look after the long term visibility of the organization.
In addition to the internal effort to promote its staff, Eskom is investing millions to educate and train the employees on technical skills. Also it spends millions to minimize illiteracy among its staff. Eskom departments had established many management programs to educate its staff like the managers challenge program, business leaders program and the accelerated development program.
The predominantly white management may be affected by the affirmative action at Eskom and the company may face problems in future that lead it to make downsizing to solve the inefficiency problem caused by over-staffing.
While Eskom cares about its staff development, AECI do the same with more emphasis on providing the safe work environment due to its work nature in explosives products for mining, quarrying and construction industries. AECI developed objectives towards its staff that insists in providing equal opportunities for all with attractive compensation packages with emphasis on training and development. Trust, respect, innovations and open communications form the work atmosphere at AECI. AECI adopted management competencies model through its training and development programs and it is based on four aspects: thinking, self-management, influencing and achieving to promote its staff to reach the required level of competencies.
AECI is caring about illiteracy by developing internal literacy program for its entire staff. AECI doesn't show clear implementation of the affirmative action law, also it is not showing actions toward RDP or the community or social projects.
AECI needs to improve its efficiency and that requires downsizing and flattening the hierarchy of its structure and encourages more participation in the decision making processes.
Germiston City Council is based on 40 developed elected councils. 13 departments are associated in many functions such as engineering, social, community and law enforcement services. The transitional council of Germiston is investing in the development and training of its employees and to employ the participative approach of management. As Eskom, Germiston is implementing the affirmative action law towards the black South African employments which caused a threat feeling to the previous staff.
Germiston has a council that cares about the recruitment process by providing tow levels of orientation; general and departmental orientation. Germiston doesn't have an appraisal system, and the poor appraisal is addressed by disciplinary actions.
Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the management system of the three organizations I South Africa that shows the trend to move toward the humanistic view towards people management and respond to the cultural and social needs for affirmative action to protect the rights of the local African or employment.
Table1: Comparison between management in South African organizations
Germiston City Council
at least 50% of managerial positions to be black South Africans
No clear implementation
Millions are spent to minimize illiteracy among its staff
Internal literacy program for its entire staff
Training & Development
Investing in education and training technical skills for their staff
Investment in training & development is managed by the transitional council
Several programs are implemented
Management competence model is applied
Good orientation - no appraisal system
considered important part of RDP
Social and community services are supervised by the departments.
Support Staff Family
Supports staff to bring their families to live with them
Just provide attractive compensation packages
Formalization & Structure
Formal written instructions is emphasized at all levels
Centralized decision making in addition to bureaucratic structure
African People management
African Managers need to manage their people effectively specially that they are working in a multicultural environment and with the influences on the management style by the Western and non-Western traditions. The cultural diversity can be considered as strength, and this is applied for the African management.
By contrasting between the instrumental and humanistic approaches to management, it's possible to understand the dynamics of post colonial management systems. When we do that, the pitfalls of applying a 'developing-developed' country analysis can be evaded.
Another pitfall that can be avoided is that of applying a basic individualism-collectivism model ( Hofstede, 1991) to cultural analysis when explaining the differences between indigenous and imported views of human relations.
The dichotomy of collectivism-individualism dimension is not overly hypercritical and does not provide a clear dissimilarity between developed and developing societies, but instead between Western and non western societies.
The collectivism-individualism concept has a long history, and represents a fairly strong contrast as was proven in many researches about cross-national studies to explore the cultural dimensions of management values such as Hofstede (1991) and Trompenaars ( 1993). Among the definitions of the collectivism by Hui and Triandis (1986) are:
Collectivism can be defined as:
"A feeling of involvement in and contribution to the lives of others"
"Concern about self presentation and loss of face, and gaining approval of the collective",
"Sharing of non material benefits such as time and affection"
"Concern by a person about the effects of actions or decisions on others within a wider collective"
"Sharing material benefits within a social network of reciprocity"
"willingness of a person to accept the opinion and views of others through normative social influences which lead to conformity and maintaining harmony" , and
"Belief in the correspondence of own outcomes with the outcomes of others through interdependences, where a person's misbehavior may bring shame on the whole collective".
Koopman (1991) in his popular management literature highlights the differences between 'communalism' of African cultures and individualism of white cultures in South Africa. He supports the idea that African culture has a collectivist tendency and low on individualism. (Blunt & Jones, 1992).
There are many cultural dimensions that have an effect on the African Cultures such as:
Power Distance ( Hofstede, 1991). The African cultures are tolerating higher levels of variations and hierarchy. Which in turn affects the participation level in organizations and people management styles. Nevertheless, there are differences in power distance between African cultures.
Uncertainty avoidance ( Hofstede, 1991). The African societies are high in uncertainty avoidance. American views of change management , in which increases participation and uncertainty and work well in low uncertainty avoidance cultures, may not work well in African organizations.
Centrality of work ( MOW, 1978). It has been studied that some African countries might be high in femininity and low on work centrality.
Universalism-particularism. The declining in applying the rules according to friendship and connection relations affects the recruitment and promotion policies in some African countries. Which can be difference from practices at countries such as the US or the UK.
Achievement-ascription. Some societies accord status according to ascription. Which might affect recruitment and promotion policies which might be at conflict with practices in some Western cultures.
It has been tried to describe the African culture, but to point to the need to reconceptualize the dichotomy between Western and 'developing' countries in terms of 'humanism' with a positive connotation. When doing so, it might be easier to understand what 'humanistic' cultures have to offer people management practices in other countries.
Contemporary HRM in South Africa
In brief, the postcolonial counties management has attempted to accommodate both the instrumental and humanistic approaches to people management. By conceptualizing the difference between the instrumental Western approach to management and the humanistic indigenous South African approach, the dynamics of post colonial South African management can be understood.
Western-African Indigenous dichotomy
The Western instrumental approach adopts a shareholder value perspective where profitability is accentuated over responsibility. Under that perspective, the organization becomes an instrument and stakeholder management is the mean to achieve economical gain. As such, companies are result focused with the strategic drive being the shareholder value. It is note worthy to know that the shareholder value philosophy means that it is "instrumental" to attend to the stakeholders whilst the organization is not there to wait on them (valuebasedmanagement.net, 2010)
A variant of the above mentioned approach is the modern Western approach .this approach has emerged in South Africa due to the influence of management education and multinational organizations presence . It is underlined as a strategic stakeholder management (figure 1) where the approach holds the conviction that by paying attention to key stakeholders' relationship, the shareholder value can be maximized. Under such approach, the real goal behind organizational decision is financial success. The stake holders are part of an environment that must be managed to deliver a return on investment (ROI) in the form of profit to shareholders (valuebasedmanagement.net, 2010).
Figure 1: Strategic Stakeholder Management 'Direct Effects Variant'.
Note. Adopted from Strategic stakeholder management by valuebasedmanagement.net (2010)
Whereas, the indigenous South African humanistic approach adopts a stakeholder value perspective where responsibility is valued over profitability. This perspective view the organization as an alliance of diverse parties working to the benefit of all and the stakeholder management is considered a mean and an end as well (valuebasedmanagement.net, 2010).
One way to understand the Indigenous South African Approach is by attempting to highlight the cultural dimensions of the culture. African cultures scores high on loyal involvement that is obligation-based commitment. Jackson (2002), underlined a few African cultural dimensions as such:
Having a high power distance means that the African cultures a high tolerance level of the less powerful to inequality as well as to hierarchy. This dimension has reflections on the management styles and levels of employees' participation and empowerment (Hofstede, 2009).
Having a high uncertainty avoidance means that the African community has low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it indicates that African members feel uncomfortable in unstructured situations. This dimension has a reflection on change management within African organizations. Another consequence of such dimension is that the African cultures try to minimize legislative restrictions, safety, and security measures but tend to have more rules than usual. In addition, African people tend to be emotional with more inner motivational drives and less tolerant of differing opinions(Hofstede, 2009).
Being high in femininity means that the African culture has the feminine traits which are modest, caring values. Thus African people value relationships and quality of life whereas Western masculine communities value quantity of life and have traits such as assertiveness, materialism/material success, self-centeredness, power, strength, and individual achievements (Hofstede, 2001 2009).
Being low in work centrality means that the African culture place less importance and find work in a person's total life as trivial in relation to the other four areas such as leisure, community, religion, and family. this aspect of the African culture is in conflict with the western culture that value work life ,mastery and hierarchy over harmony affective autonomy, and egalitarianism (MOW International Research Team, 1987; as cited in Schwartz, 1999).
African culture is a particularistic culture whose logic is based on the heart and human friendship. Compared to African culture, the western universalistic cultures focus more on rules rather than on relationships this dimension has reflections on the organizational recruitment and promotion policies that have a relationship-based application of rules. In addition, particularistic cultures tend to avoid rigid or standardized management systems thus allowing for some room for possible future changes (International Business Culture, n.d.).
African cultures are ascription-oriented meaning that status is attributed to organizational members due to the effect of birth, kinship, gender, age, interpersonal connections, or educational record.Â It refers to the status by being rather than to status by doing, which is the logic of achievement-oriented western societies. This dimension influence recruitment and promotional practices and has reflections on the organizational emphasis on titles, and the positive correlation between supervisor's respect and organizational commitment (Huang, 1999).
Another way to understand the indigenous African value system is to view the cultural characteristics of African organizational life as follows:
Sharing is a value that has risen as a survival strategy in the face of hardship. It is delineated as a network of social obligations and commitment towards kinship and community in large. The concept of 'Ubuntu' means that people are people only through other people. Thus, sharing among other values such as collective trust, openness, and welcome together are important constituents of 'ubuntu'.
Deference to rank is rooted in the African organizational life, since traditional rulers have gained their status by ascription or succession yet they had to earn their followers' respect to be able to rule by consensus. People had the freedom to express their opinion and to disagree. Yet the deference to rank and seniority existed simultaneously with the virtue of humility towards subordinates.
Sanctity of commitment is highlighted in the African organization life since obligations towards given promises and conformity with the social expectations ensures commitment.
Regards for compromise and consensus in the African organization life is related to the value of harmony as well as the deference to rank discussed earlier. Failure to use consensus might results in indifference to the taken decision. The concept of openness is an essential value embraced by community which means that no one should receive retribution for anything said correctly in an open forum.
Good social and personal relations within African organization rises from social solidarity commitment. The African organization life gives value to the human dimension.
As has been discussed earlier, table (2) highlights the differences between the Western and the indigenous approaches
Table 2: Differences between the Western and the indigenous approaches
Modern Western/Post instrumental
Governance and decision making
Lack of flexibility
Increase emphasis on empowerment
Clear rules of action
Decentralized and closer to stakeholder
Participative, consensus seeking
Benign rules of action
Mistrust of human nature
Conditional trust of human nature
Trust of human nature
Status and achievement oriented
People management practices
Administrative personnel procedures
Modern HRM practices relating to individual competency approaches and involving the introduction of :
Performance management systems
Participation at tactical/implementation level
Limited antidiscrimination policies
Holistic approaches to developing the person within the context of the group
Reconciling work life with community/home life.
Participation and empowerment at strategic levels, and including a wider stakeholder base.
Management of diversity and difference
Note. Adopted from International Human Resource Management, by Harzing, A. and Ruysseveldt, J., Great Britain: Sage.
Crossvergence and hybridization
The convergence thesis is reflected through the developing-developed world paradigm which encompasses that cultures are moving together and bringing closer the diversified approaches to value systems (Zorska, n.d.). Yet, within the contemporary research literature of emerging countries like the post colonial countries, crossvergence theory has emerged. The crossvergence theory regards the various influences on the development of hybrid management forms. It is the product of cultural interaction where hybrid values or systems of management emerge. Some of these hybrid forms may prove to be extremely adaptive, successful in managing cross cultural dynamics, as well as meeting the ends of both the instrumental and humanistic perspectives, whilst other forms might fail to do so. The Western (instrumental) and South African (humanistic) orientations within an organization can be managed by designing a hybrid 'human resource development' system. In addition, these adaptive hybrid forms of organization and management systems can minimize conflict and tension between work organizations and the South African civil society.
Every nation has its own priorities. African countries are poor countries with high level of poverty, illiteracy. No country can be developed without being educated, every state has its own political and social problems, only capitalistic or only socialistic policy can't solve all the problems. The state has the responsibility of educating its citizen which has to be done only in welfare state and not as capitalistic preview. Production activities have to be done in capitalistic preview only.
Capitalism has no norms and values. It's only a profit making substance norms and values are output of age old customs and ritual, hence people have to strive hard to protect them, without norms and values society is nothing, its vacuum. People, officials leaders of the nation should keep it mind modernisation is the only way, to develop. Keeping in view the paradigm of develop nations we have to frame our own policies. Even in most advanced nation of the west i.e. USA still there is poverty where unemployed youth resort to theft on gun point, and even kill them for mere single dollar. But its not such in third world nations from this it is clear that only capitalism can't solve all the problems.