Philosophers View On Motivation Commerce Essay

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Motivation is considered as one of the most important thing that a lot of the philosophers have talked about it and made a lot of famous theories that are being applied in a lot of companies like Maslow's theory, theory of Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, and McClelland's Theory of Needs. Motivation in Emirates NBD is being taken seriously to be improved in the up coming period. Motivation in this industry is very needed because of the huge pressure that they get because of the huge number of customers that the banks have , where it will lead into a lot of working stress.

Research Topic: To investigate Herzberg's theory of motivation and how it applies to the employees of the organization.

Emirates NBD, is the biggest banking group in the Middle East. It was formed in October 2007 when they have offered their shares in Dubai's Financial Market. Emirates NBD doesn't operate in the UAE only but it also operates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, India, Iran, Singapore, the United Kingdom and Jersey.

The company is a leader in the banking business, with over 129 combined branches and over 650 ATM machines spread all over the UAE. The bank is well know as a major player in the corporate banking arena, with a combined market share of almost one fifth of corporate loans Emirates NBD is well positioned to grow and deliver outstanding value to its shareholders, customers, and employees.


Motivation is mainly the basic study of why the people think and behave in a certain way as they do. Where also motivation is the study of the things that motivates , pushes ,and pulls the employee to start , retain and finalize an activity that has be started from the persons' side. Motivation researchers have looked into specific points that have got their interest, like:

What is the person doing?

What is their choices' of behavior?

How long does it take the person to start this mission or task?

How hard does the person work on this task?

Importance of motivation

Motivations is considered as a very important element not only within the learning, but were also in the performance responses. Where in other words we can say whenever a person or an employee has learned an appropriate reaction for a specific situation the employee will not necessarily produce this specific behavior. Where we can also say that the encouragement for an employee to produce the performance is the enthusiasm given to him from the upper level management or supervisors.

Types of motivation

Achievement Motivation

It is the force to achieve and reach goals. An person who is using achievement motivation would like to achieve the objectives that are needed to be done which will lead them to advance up .

Affiliation Motivation

It is related to the people on social basis . people with this type of motivation they perform better when they are complimented and given some good attitude .

Competence Motivation

It is the thing that drives the person to be good at a specific job, which will allow this individual to perform high quality work.

Power Motivation

It is the force to influence people and modify situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.

Attitude Motivation

Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past.

Sources of Motivation

The sources can be differentiated into two categories: central and external sources the internal sources include physical, mental, and spiritual. Where the outer sources include social training.


Escaping of pain

Seeking physical pleasure


Cognitive: maintaining awareness, increasing interests.

Affective: increase security, increase enthusiasm

Conative: achieving goals, increasing self effectiveness.


Understanding the principle of life

Frederick Irving Herzberg

Frederick Irving Herzberg is an American psychologist whose name has got much related to the business management industry specifically for introducing a job enrichment theory and a motivation hygiene theory. One of the most successful publications that he has given to the industry is "One More Time, How Do You Motivate Employees?" where it has sold more than 1.2 million prints in a year.

The two Factor theory (Herzberg's theory)

According to Herzberg, there are two types of factors which can affect motivation.

Hygiene factors

They are factors which gives no positive satisfaction where it will lead to dissatisfaction as a result. These are acquired to the work itself, where it also includes some aspects like policies, practices in the company, salary.


Is the factor which gives a positive satisfaction which raises the conditions of the job itself. Such as achievement, growth, advancement, and achievement.

The Factors

Motivator Factors

Hygiene Factors



Work Itself




Pay and Benefits

Company Policy and Administration

Relationships with co-workers



Job Security

Working Conditions

Personal life

Applying the theory on Emirates NBD

To apply the theory we will start by the hygiene theory. Where we should keep in mind that the hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction. They hygiene factors should be first dealt with to create a perfect environment which an employees can be satisfied in .

Company policies

The companies' policies can frustrate a lot of the employees if the policies where unclear. Sometimes employees can get less dissatisfied by the management by making sure that all the policies are clear and applied on all. Where also the management should make sure that everyone has a printed copy of the policies and procedures that run in the company.


To reduce dissatisfaction in this factor, you should make a good decision when you hire an employees in the role of a supervisor .the role needs leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. Supervisors should always use positive feedback as much as they can.


Salary is not always a motivator for employees, where we should keep in mind that they always want to be paid in a fair way. The company should introduce a salary survey to see if the employees are satisfied of what they are getting from the company.

Interpersonal relations

The company show allow it employees a sensible amount of time for socialization. Where this should help them in developing a sense of teamwork.

Working conditions

The work place should have a very comfortable environment for the employee, where it has been proven that has a very big effect on the employee and their accomplishments.


Achievement is one of the most important factors in this theory it is important to set clear goals that can be achieved. And to make sure that all the employees know what they are doing in regular and timely basis.


An employee's success should always be recognized among the company for the achievement that has been done by this specific employee. For example as a company they should thank this employee publicly or send them a good job certificate or might also give them a bonus.


Employees or staffs are going to be motivated if they have the feeling of ownership of what they are doing. Where the company will have to give the employee freedom and the rights to take care of their own jobs.


A reward is very much appreciated by employees.

Steps to eliminate dissatisfaction according to Herzberg's theory.

Step 1: Get rid of Job Dissatisfaction

To get rid of them, you need to:

Fix company policies.

Provide efficient, helpful and non-intrusive management.

Wages should be competitive.

Job security.

Step 2: Create an environment for Job Satisfaction

Herzberg says you need to address the motivating factors associated with work

Things to consider include:

Providing opportunities for achievement.

Recognizing workers' contributions.

Creating work that is rewarding and that matches the skills and abilities of the worker.

Giving as much responsibility to each team member as possible.

Providing opportunities to advance in the company through internal promotions.

Offering training and development opportunities, so that people can pursue the positions they want within the company.

The Research

Research Topic: To investigate Herzberg's theory of motivation and how it applies to the employees of the organization.

Objectives of the research

To apply Herzberg's motivation theory to the company

To establish the motivation gaps within the company

To identify the types of motivation that are being used to retain and motivate employees

To determine and assess the effects of employee motivation and job satisfaction on the organization.

To recommend methods to improve motivation amongst the employees of the companies.


The method that I have used in this research is a mixture of primary and secondary research. The primary research is basically that I have created a survey that helped me in knowing some specific information that I have needed to complete my research. The questionnaire has 20 questions where they are specified and labeled as the factors of the theory. Each heading is one of the hygiene factors that are included in the theory. I have contacted the branch manager Mrs. Amal Abdulla who has welcomed me and has accepted my request of doing my survey on their employees.

As for the secondary research that I have used includes, internet, books, articles, journals, related studies and other sources of information.

Review of methodology

After finishing of the survey, doing the survey has helped me a lot in getting the information I that I needed to get the final results. Where I also think it has a two sides a good side and a bad one. The good side is that in the questionnaire I had specific factors that I wanted to get the precise detailed information that is related to the theory. The questionnaire's bad side as of what I noticed is that some of the employees didn't take the questionnaire seriously which has given a weird variety of mixed answers.

Review of schedule




21st of October

Finalize, Hand in proposal

The proposal has been handed in on the same day which it has been supposed to be submitted where I had the return to do more editing and adding more information to the proposal that will make it a perfect one.

30th of October

Finalize questionnaire

The questionnaire has been finalized on time although Iv had to also do some more editing with the style of the questions and the style of the questionnaire.

10th of November

Gather secondary information

Gathering secondary information was an easy task as I have had access to the internet that has helped me in getting a lot of secondary information about the motivational theory. Where I have also had a lot of reference books that also had a lot of details which helped me .

20th of November

Distribute questionnaires

Questionnaire has been distributed on the 20th of November as planned.

28th of November

Start analysis of questionnaire

Starting with analysis has been delayed as the manager has asked if she can have a look upon the results that I got where she also has asked if she can have a copy of the survey to present to the administration . where I have started my analysis on the 3rd of November.

10th of November

Finalize data analysis

The data analysis has been finalized on time where I have also presented it in a formal way and has been reviewed by the instructor.

3rd of January

Complete secondary information collection

I have researched about the topic and collected a lot of information about the topic ahead of time to make sure that I can have a lot of information that can help me in finishing of my assignment .

10th of January

Present analysis and data collection

I have presented the analysis and the data collection as a first draft to the instructor , where I have had added some headings that should have been covered in the assignment.

17th of January

Hand in research and analysis

The assignment has been submitted on time.

Survey Sample

Thank you for taking the time to answer this questionnaire. Motivation of employees is one of the major responsibilities that all companies have. In this questionnaire, I will evaluate how well your company provides motivation for you according to Herzberg's motivation theory. This questionnaire is only for research purposes.

Company and administrative policies

Do you as an employee have the policy manual of the company?

 Yes  No

Is it easy to understand?

 Yes  No Not all

Is everyone in the company required to follow the policies?

 Yes  Most of them  Not at all


Do all your supervisors have leader ship skills?

 All  Most Some None

Do you as an employee, trust your supervisors?

 Yes  Not always  No

Is the evaluation process in the company an easy one?

 Strongly Agree  Agree  Disagree Strongly Disagree


Do you perceive that you are paid fairly?

 Yes No

Do you perceive that your benefits from the company are sufficient?

Yes  No Sometimes

Interpersonal relations

Do you socialize on working days during break time?

 Yes  No Not always

Is team working a way of socializing at work?

 Yes  No Not always

Working conditions

Are their facilities at work, such as cafeteria, staff lounges…?

 Yes  No  Some

Are office conditions comfortable?

 Very comfortable  Comfortable  Not important

 Uncomfortable  Very uncomfortable


Do you have clear, achievable goals?

 Yes  No  Some

Do you give regular feedback to you managers?

 Yes  No  Sometimes

Are there challenges in your work place?

 Yes  No  Some


Are you recognized for major accomplishments?

 Yes  No  Sometimes

Are you recognized in a timely, meaningful way?

 Yes  No  Sometimes


Are you rewarded for loyalty?

 Yes  No  Sometimes

Are you rewarded for your performance?

 Yes  No  Sometimes

Are you promoted regularly depending on your performance?

 Yes  No  Sometimes




As an employee in the company, a policy manual should be available to everyone in the branch.


The result we got is that 60% understand what is in the company policy manual where 20% understand some of the policies that are in the manual.

In contrast that all policies should be followed , the result of which I got from the survey is that 50% of the policies are not followed ! where on the other side 45% follow the policies


45% of the people have voted as their supervisors have leadership skills. Where in theories it is well know that not all managers can be leaders but leaders can be managers. In this branch of the bank it consists only of 14 employees. Because of the small number of employees one manager is only needed to take care of the branch. In the result we can see that some of the employees find some of the leadership characteristics in their manager but some don't.

To trust your supervisor is an important thing that an employee should have. The employee should trust the supervisor or manager because without the manager he won't be promoted from his position to a higher one.

Evaluating an employee is not an easy thing that a manager can do. An evaluation process can take a lot of steps that should be taken before a final decision should be taken. So as we can see that 30% strongly agree and 40% agree, but the point that is 25% of the employee which is a big number disagree and say that it is not an easy evaluation process.


In this question 75% answered that they are not paid fairly! In my opinion that most of the people would say that they are not paid fairly. The other 25% of the people who said that they are paid fairly are probably the type of people who are from the type who were not expected that they were going to be paid that much, but after a period of time they will sure be from the people who say they are not paid fairly.

Benefits are extras to the salary, in the question 60% said that the benefits are not enough for then as employees of a big local bank as Emirates Bank NBD.

Interpersonal Relations

Working in a bank is mostly about communication so socializing is not a problem to most of the employees as their work is based on communication.

Working Conditions

Weirdly a range of answers have been submitted. In my opinion in this question the answer should be one because it is obvious that if the 50% of the employees say they have facilities, obviously the other 50% have!.

65% of the employees that have participated feel that the facilities that is provided by the bank is comfortable, which can be acceptable where in the other hand we can see that 20% of them say that it's not important .


11 out of 20 have said that they have clear goals that are being targeted , while 5 said No, the goals of the branch are set by the upper management and being spread out to lower position employees to be achieved through them.

Feedback to a manager is an important process that all employees need to do for the managers to keep them updated about their daily progress at work. 70% of the employees answer yes as 15% said sometimes and 15% said no , where this makes a difference in what position is the employee in the bank.

Challenges within the work place are mostly found in jobs that have direct contact with the customers like in our situation the bank.


Recognition is a very important thing that a manager should always do, because it always motivates the employees. By having 40% say no is a huge number of employees that are not getting motivated or in other words they are not recognized for the work that they presenting for the company.

A part of recognition is to recognized in a timely meaningful way. 50% said that they are recognized in a timely and a meaningful way. Where 20% said they don't !


Loyalty is an important characteristic that an employee should have towards the company. So in this company we can see that 55% of the employees are getting rewarded for this loyalty. There is a lot of options that the company can use and do to deliver this message like a loyalty dinner, or a certificate that can be given to the ones who deserved it.

Discussion & Recommendation

Future research