Petrosin Corporation Pte Ltd (PC) is the main company in Petrosin Group (hereby referred as Petrosin) with its headquarter in Singapore and regional offices in Pakistan, Dubai, Houston and Afghanistan. The Company is involved with Oil & Gas Engineering and Construction, Information Technology & Trading. Petrosin Corporation's international subsidiaries are leaders in LPG Marketing, CNG Outlets, Hydrocarbon Exploration/Development and various other diversified fields.
Petrosin Engineering Pvt Ltd (PEPL) is a leading Company of Pakistan in engineering design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of oil and gas processing plants. Company is also involved with operations and maintenance services.
Petrosin Group specializes in Projects involving Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Contracting (EPCC) activities related to following Oil & Gas sector,
Gas Processing Facilities
Oil & Gas Processing
Gas Purification Facilities
Petrosin Ravi Industries Pvt Ltd (PRIL) is manufacturing arm of Petrosin Group, it has following capabilities;
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Petrosin Ravi Engineering has a fabrication facility in Pakistan consisting of 687,421 square feet of total yard area with 52,744 square feet of covered workshop.
Petrosin Ravi has the capability to roll tubular pipes and plates as follows:
11/2" thick @ 8 ft width
1 " thick @ 10 ft
Petrosin Ravi has the necessary equipment to carry out the following testing in its yard:
Petrosin Ravi has the following equipment. Additional equipment can be mobilized at a short notice from associated companies or rented from other companies:
Dish End Forming Machine (up to V' thick and 3000 mm diameter) Rolling Machine (up to 11/2" thick)
Submerged Arc Welding Machines
Automatic Pipe Cutting / Beveling Machines
Hydraulic Pipe Benders
Rotators (10 m.t to 40 m.t)
HEAT TREATMENT FACILITIES
PRIL have a modular-type heat treatment furnace in our yard to carry out heat treatment work.
All blasting and painting work is either carried out in our yard or at our subcontractor's premises
The Petrosin Group was established in Singapore in 1984 and has since developed reputation of excellence in providing innovative technology and superior project management in conjunction involving engineering, design, manufacturing and construction. An introductory overview of the Petrosin Group organization, Profile of Consortium Partners and Capabilities is presented hereunder.
The Petrosin Group comprises of 14 (fourteen) companies located worldwide, out of which 8 (eight) are directly related to the engineering, procurement, manufacturing, construction, and turnkey execution of oil & gas facilities.
Detail chart showing different companies of Petrosin Group under 'Companies Business Categories' classifications is attached with this section along with 'Companies Worldwide Location'.
Profile of Petrosin Companies.
Petrosin Engineering Pvt. Ltd.
Petrosin Engineering Pvt Ltd. formerly known as Petrosin Products Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd., was incorporated in 1995 with Joint Registrar of Companies in Pakistan under section 32 of the Companies ordinance 2984, XLVII of 1984.
Petrosin Engineering is engineering, project & site management arm of Petrosin Group was established in 1995. This entity is equipped with latest industry standard design, CAD and project management systems whilst using latest international engineering standards and sophisticated simulation techniques.
Petrosin Corporation Pte Ltd
Petrosin Corporation Pte Ltd formerly known as Petrosin Engineers and Contractors Pte Limited was incorporated in 1989 with the Registrar of Companies & Business in Singapore under section 19(4) of the Companies Act CAP-50, copy attached with this section.
Equipment and raw material such as shell material, internals, piping, instrumentation and others under this proposal will be supplied directly by the Trading Division of Petrosin Corporation Pte Ltd, Singapore. The trading division of PCS has the distinction of making procurement of over USD 100 million in past three years for Petrosin various project located around the globe.
Petrosin Ravi Industries Ltd
Petrosin Ravi Industries Limited., established in 1965 with the name of Ravi Engineering Ltd (a unit of State Enterprises), which was acquired by Petrosin Group in June 1995 under the Privatization Policy of the Government of Pakistan and changed its name into Petrosin Ravi Engineering Limited in November 1996. It is located on the Main G.T. Road with easy access of the rear of the factory to the national railway track network of Pakistan Railways, to any place in Pakistan. The name of the company was re-changed into Petrosin Ravi Industries Limited under section 40 of the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984) in May 1997.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Through its strong presence in Pakistan, the Petrosin Group has is fully geared up to meet the client needs in the country. Petrosin Ravi Industries Limited is a member of Petrosin Group's Manufacturing Division which provides high quality process equipment, storage tanks, and steel structures for facilities in the oil & gas, petrochemicals, refining, power generation and other related industry world-wide. During implementation and realization of its projects. Petrosin Ravi Industries Limited., enjoys complete support of manufacturing, engineering, project management, information technology, property and trading divisions of the Group which are strategically placed around the world.
In August 1997, this facility became Pakistan's first private sector organization to be accredited ASME "U" and "S" stamps for manufacturing of pressure vessels and boilers under certification of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
As mentioned above, Petrosin specializes in executing EPCC projects, manufactures and supplies a full range of oil and gas processing equipment and plants.
The EPCC capabilities cover oil and gas treatment facilities, processing plants including condensate processing plants, separation plants, gas dehydration and dew point control plants, LPG production plants, gas sweetening plants and oil dehydration and desalting plants. Petrosin has supplied packaged units and equipment including process heaters, fluid filtration units, pressure reduction and metering stations, oil handling facilities, block stations, pumping units, lube oil blending plants and storage facilities.
Petrosin with its own highly established manufacturing facilities involved in supply of high quality (ASME certified) equipment for the process industry in general, and the Oil and Gas industry in particular. Petrosin has the capabilities, and extensive experience in manufacturing of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, skid assemblies, structures etc. for many projects worldwide.
Petrosin provides total understanding of customer's requirements and needs while offering world class services in following areas to the oil & gas, petrochemicals, refining, power generation and other related industry worldwide:
Project Management & Construction
Fabrication / Manufacturing
Plant Operations & Maintenance
Laying of Cross-country Pipeline
Trading & Supply
Exploration & Production
A comprehensive introduction to Petrosin Group, is also available at Petrosin's own webs site http://www.petrosin.com
B- ORGANISATIONAL BEHVIOUR- INTRODUCTION
Organizational Behaviour (OB) consists of two words; Organization and Behaviour. We need to focus on both words separately to get better understanding.
Organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance, and has a separation boundary from its environment. (Wikipedia)
Behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. Behavior can be conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. (Wikipedia)
According to Fred Luthans, "Organizational behavior is the understanding, predicting and controlling of human behavior at work".
According to Keith Davis, "Organizational behavior is the state and application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. It's a human tool for the human benefit applies broadly to the behavior of people in all types of organizations such as business, government, schools etc. It helps people, structure, technology and the external environment bend together into an effective operative system".
Thus, Organisational Behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
The study of Organizational Behaviour (OB) is very interesting but equally challenging. As defined earlier it is related to individuals, group of people working together in teams. The study of organizational behaviour relates to the expected behaviour of an individual in the organization. No two individuals are likely to behave in the same manner in a particular work situation. It is the predictability of a manager about the expected behaviour of an individual. There are no absolutes in human behaviour. It is the human factor that is contributory to the productivity hence the study of human behaviour is important. Great importance therefore must be attached to the study. Researchers, management practitioners, psychologists, and social scientists must understand the very credentials of an individual, his background, social framework, educational update, impact of social groups and other situational factors on behaviour. Managers under whom an individual is working should be able to explain, predict, evaluate and modify human behaviour that will largely depend upon knowledge, skill and experience of the manager in handling large group of people in diverse situations. Preemptive actions need to be taken for human behaviour forecasting. The value system, emotional intelligence, organizational culture, job design and the work environment are important causal agents in determining human behaviour. Cause and effect relationship plays an important role in how an individual is likely to behave in a particular situation and its impact on productivity. An appropriate organizational culture can modify individual behaviour. Recent trends exist in laying greater stress on organizational development and imbibing a favorable organizational culture in each individual. It also involves fostering a team spirit and motivation so that the organizational objectives are achieved. There is a need for commitment on the part of the management that should be continuous and incremental in nature.
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Following disciples contributed to the development of organisational behaviour,
Psychology - The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of human and other animals.
Sociology - The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
Social psychology - An area with psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
Anthropology - The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Political science - the study of the behaviour of individual and groups within a political environment
OB involves integration of studies undertaken relating to behavioural sciences like psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, social psychology and political science.
Therefore, organizational behaviour is a comprehensive field of study in which individual, group and organizational structure is studied in relation to organizational growth and organizational culture, in an environment where impact of modern technology is great. The aim of the study is to ensure that the human behaviour contributes towards growth of the organization and greater efficiency is achieved.
Organizational behaviour is a study and application of managerial skills and knowledge to people in the organization to investigate individual and group behaviour. Various concepts and models in the field of organizational behaviour attempt to identify, not only the human behaviour but also modify their attitude and promote skills so that they can act more effectively. This is done scientifically; therefore, organizational behaviour field is a scientific discipline. The knowledge and models are practically applied to workers, groups and organizational structure that provide tools for improved behaviour and dynamics of relationship. The field of organizational behaviour also provides various systems and models for international relationship that are applied to organizations.
1- Organisational Behaviour - Chapter-01 (Study of Organization Behaviour), page-03
C- Study of Organisational behaviour Models and Applications
Keith Davis has accepted four different models of Organisational Behaviour. These models show evolution of thinking and behaviour on the part of management and leaders alike.
 Zaleznik (1986) and Kotter (1990) both felt that leadership and management are two separate but inter supporting systems terms, each having its own functions and its own unique activities, both are imperative for a complex organizations. According to Kotter, management is about planning, controlling, and putting appropriate structures and systems in place, whereas leadership had more to do with anticipating change, coping with change, and adopting a visionary stance.
According to Ken "SKC" Ogbonnia "Effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals" (Wikipedia). Thus, leaders in any organization have the capacity to listen and observe, by utilization of their skills and expertise to encourage change for betterment in the organization. Leaders set agendas, identify problem and initiate remedies in consultation with followers. While on the other hand management is more concern with planning, scheduling, organizing, controlling and directing an organization.
Keith Davis has recognized following four models for Organisational Behaviour,
The model is based on the assumption that results are attain only through authority. People must accept the authority of their superiors and obey their instructions. Obedience is the main requisite for any employee. Obedience on the part of subordinates can be for respect for the knowledge and the authority of the superiors or fear of punishment. Job security, basic needs of a person, survival and growth makes the subordinates to obey
This assumes that the Organisational behavior depends upon the economic resources. Employee work for money and desires job security. While money is the main managerial orientation, job security is the main employee orientation. For the basic need of job security employee offer a passive co-operation to the superiors. The management knows better welfare of the people & takes the role of custodian and guardian of the people and their wealth
The model assumes that management is leadership. The management plays the role of a supportive leadership. The employees are performance oriented & need support for their initiative and drive for performance. This encourages participation by the subordinates. The basic need of the employee is the self esteem and recognition. The employees need support, status and recognition for their performance.
This model is based on the assumption that generally the employees are self disciplined and they exhibit a responsible behaviour. The main need of the employee is self actualization. If this need is satisfied, they show enthusiastic performance. Therefore they must be encouraged for the participation in decision making. Team building on the part of management is must as the team work is main managerial orientation.
No organization exclusively follows any single model. Though usually one model dominates however other models are over-lapping.
Model depends on
Employee Psychological Result
Dependence on boss
Dependence on Organization
Employees Needs met
The organizational behavior models express the shift in the outlooks of the manager of looking towards their employees and the resultant organizational environment. The autocratic model was very much in existence at the time of industrial revolution and sometime after. Subsequently because of the changes in thinking of industrialists and managers custodial model of OB which consisted of concessions, economic privileges for employees came into existence. In both the above said models, managers did not bother to create and atmosphere which would be conductive to the development of the employee. The question of motivating, guiding and developing the employees did not arise. With the supportive model coming up the change in managerial orientation can be perceived. It emerged as a sequel to the human relations era. Here, the theory assumes that employees have the skill and will to contribute to the organizational efforts. It came to be recognized that manager is not the boss but a leader of the team of employees entrusted to him. The collegial model has limited application and is useful when one is dealing with scientific and professional employees. Here, managers' role is changed from that of a leader to that of a partner. Whatever the work, it's to be done as a team where lines between the manager and employee are obliterated.
Hence, it is proved that the fundamental concepts of the organizational behavior revolve around the nature of the human being and nature of organization. These fundamental concepts help the manager understand some basics of human behavior at work. This helps in providing employees with respect equal to that of manager on one hand and on the other helps in motivating employees to achieve the desired organizational objective. The study of OB further helps in developing mutual interests and catering to making an organization live in the society. Therefore, for understanding all the above said points and also employee's psychology it is necessary that every manager should have the knowledge of Organizational behavior.
PETROSIN AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODELS:
Petrosin is implementing Organisational behaviour models in hybrid fashion. Hiehrical sctructure prevalent in Petrosin is as,
Autocratic Model best represent the organizational behaviour pertinent in Petrosin. Such model is widely used worldwide. As said earlier, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models begin to build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one "best" model. Leader i.e Prsident has complete authority over all sort of decision making. "Management approval" (a buzz word in Petrosin) is required for any crucial disicion concerning financial, human resource management and operation management. Autocratic model is deemed necessary for cultural consideration as well.
However as stated earlier other models are also overlapping depending on particular situations. Collegial Model is more visible on-site projects. Where team partnership is an important requisite for success of projects. Usually Project Manager acts as team member for successful completion of project in givem timeframe.
Consequence in such approcah on part of Petrosin shall be discussed in final chapter.
Business psychology and organizsational behaviour: a students's Handbook by Eugene F. Mckenna
D- Study of Motivation Theories and its Applications
Human behavior is determined by Values, attitudes, cultures, needs and expectations. On the other hand Personality is the complex mixture of knowledge, attitudes, and attributes that distinguish one from others. Personality is determined by physiological, biological factors (sex, age, race, height and weight). Early childhood has deep impact on individual's ability. Other factors effecting personality are environmental and cultural values. Individual's personality could be different, but every group of persons must have the similarities in their culture. A good supervisor/manager is the one who leads a group based on approach in similarities rather than differences.
Motivation is willingness to strife in achieving a goal, based on individual's need. Maslow has defined such needs as "The hierarchy of needs", Needs can categorized as
Biological (physiological needs as food, water, cloth)
Security (safety as house, job, medical care, income, retirement)
Social (belonging, identity, friends, colleagues)
Self-respect (recognition, achievement, status, sense of accomplishment, self-worth)
Self-fulfillment (self-realization, the desire to use one's capabilities to the fullest)
Frediric Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
Frediric Herzberg of Case Western Reserve University provided an interesting extension of Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory and developed a scientific theory of content work motivation. Its also called the Dual Factory theory and the Motivation-Hygiene theory of Motivation. The theory originally was derived by analyzing "critical incidents" written by 200 engineers and accountants in nine different companies in Pittsburgh area, USA. Herzberg and his associates conducted extensive interviews with the professional subjects in the study and asked them what they liked or disliked about their work. The resent approach was simplistic built around the question "think of a time when you felt exceptionally good or exceptionally good about your job, either your present job or other you have had". This approach has been repeated many a times with variety of job holders in various countries. The results indicated that when people talked about feeling good or satisfied they mentioned features in string to the job and when people talked about feeling dissatisfied with the job they talked about factors extrinsic to the hob. Herzberg called these motivation and maintenance factors respectively.
As stated it is Herzber's Theory is extension of Maslow theory of Needs. Thus, Hygiene factors represent the need to remove or avoid pain in environment. Though it not an intrinsic part of a job, but they are related to the conditions under which a job is performed. Such needs or factor are mostly cause of negative feelings. They are environment related factors, hygiene. They must be viewed as preventive measures that remove source of dissatisfaction from the environment like physical hygiene they do not lead to growth but only prevent deterioration. It is worth noting that maintaining a hygiene work environment will not improve motivation any more than garbage disposal or water purification. Hygiene factors produce no growth in worker output, they prevent loss in performance caused by worker restriction. Few basic Hygiene factors can be summarized as,
Money, status and security
Company policies and administration
Motivators are associated with positive feelings of employees about the job. They are related to the content or essence of the job. They make people satisfied with their job. If manager wish to increase motivation and performance about the average level, they must enrich the work and increase a person's freedom on the job. Motivators are necessary to keep job satisfaction and job performance high. On the other hand, if they are not present they do not prove highly satisfying. Motivators are opportunity for growth and advancements, they are summarized as,
Achievement or accomplishment
Recognition for accomplishment
Challenging or interesting work
Responsibility for work
Expectancy theory is based on worker's perceptions of the relationships among effort, performance, and reward. It is common to expect any effort leads good performance, then results positive reward, but it doesn't have to be so in the reality.
Theory X: Most employees dislike work, avoid responsibility and must be controlled
Theory Y: Most employees enjoy work, seek responsibility and are capable to self-direct
Applications of Motivation Theories in context of Petrosin:
How should motivation theories be applied for every employee? This question perplexes every modern day organization. Petrosin is also no exception in this context. Though efforts are being made but mostly they are Macro Level. Macro Level arrangements are usually made at policy level by management. Implementation is more left with managers, officers and supervisors who are mostly not aware to use modern motivation theories as aimed by policy makers.
One important instance of Hygiene factor used for motivation was a project manager who was at site but worried for his car back at home which was not working properly thus diverting his attention was removed by Petrosin administration by providing car maintenance facility on company's expenses. Such instances are cause of motivation but since they are not properly employed across the board they may cause jealousy and envy among employees.
E- SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR CULTURE AT PETROSIN:
However, various motivators can be adapted from Hygiene to job content factors such as Variety and challenge for improving Organisational behaviour culture at Petrosin.
Few Important suggestions for motivation enhancement are,
Broadening the scope and importance of each job
Job rotation is switching job tasks among employees
Job enlargement is expanding one's job with a great variety of tasks to perform
Job enrichment is more challenging tasks with more decision-making responsibility
Job redesign as well-designed jobs lead to increased motivation
Skill variety: the degree to which an employee has an opportunity to do various tasks
Task identity: the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task significance: the degree to which the job impacts the lives or work of others
Autonomy: the amount of independence and freedom that one makes decisions
Feedback: the amount of information one receives on job performance
Employee involvement programs as problem-solving teams, quality circles, semi-autonomous or self-directed work.
Supervising with Management-by-Objectives (MBO): Employees are setting their performance target and appraising.
Paper by Kushal R Jain HERZBERG'S MOTIVATION - HYGIENE THEORY(TWO FACTOR THEORY)
Special Thanks to Petrosin Management and Employees for extending support in accomplishment of this report.
Organisational Behaviour - Chapter-01 (Study of Organization Behaviour), page-03
Business psychology and organizsational behaviour: a students's Handbook by Eugene F. Mckenna
Paper by Kushal R Jain HERZBERG'S MOTIVATION - HYGIENE THEORY(TWO FACTOR THEORY)
The Blackwell Handbook Principles of Organizational Behaviour edited by Edwin A. Locke
Organizational Behaviour Concepts, Controversies, Applications by Stephen P. Robbins 7th Edition.
Report on Organizational Behaviour. (Source www.scribd.com)