Perspectives Of Human Resources Management Commerce Essay

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Managing people can be known as human resource management. Human resources management is the development and implements a system in an organization designed in order to attract, develop as well as retain a high performing workforce within the organization. Well, managing people in an organization is important because organization need a well managed workforce to achieve organization goal.

Besides that, the purpose of having human resources department in an organization is to design and maintain disciplinary systems, to make sure compliance with employment laws, to maintain employee's record, to recruit suitable employees as well as provide appropriate training for employees.

In addition, not every company have human resource management department, whether or not it established in an organization is all depends on size of the organization, philosophy of the top management and whether the workforce is belong to trade union or the company is foreign or local.

2.0 Human resources management of M&S

Task 1

Human Resources Management is crucial to organization change, especially on the organization re-invention; briefly discuss the perspectives of human resource management.

2.1Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management is in the term of strategic, policy as well as processes. The term human resources management had replaced the term 'personnel management' which acts as a description of process to manage the people in organization. Normally, the role of human resource management is use to manage and develop human resources in organization in order to achieve the objective or goal of the organization.

In addition, human resources management also has another definition that is 'human resources management is a function that help an organization to focus on recruitment, management and also is a guider that show direction for the employees who work in the organization. Human resource management that acts as a change agent in an organization is concern with the regulation and nature of the employment relationship at level of workplace as well as broader society.

According to Robert B. Shapiro, CEO of chemical company Monsanto in Harvard Business Review said that 'If an institution wants to be adaptive, it has to let go of some control and trust that people will work on the right things in the right way'. Well, an organization should trust on every worker, so that the company can achieve goal of the organization.

2.1.1 Perspectives of human resources management

Through the above case study, M&S Company is having a rapid organizational transformation. So, it will also affect the process of human resource management of M&S. In this case, M&S human resource management will need to change their system in order to achieve their vision. First, human resource management department will need to set a new objective that can lead to achieve the company vision.

Normally, objective of human resource management are influenced by an organization objectives, vision and goals. It is drawn from and gives to the accomplishment of organization objective. The objectives of human resources are usually used to achieve needs, aspirations, value of individual workers.

The new objective that need to be impose in M&S human resource department is to strengthen and appreciate the employees who work in organization continuously by provide them suitable training to each of the employees and development programs, so that employees are clear to the new expectations of M&S company. Once the employees are clear to the new expectation, this will help them to reduce the high pressure on their performance.

In addition, there are also have two different perspective of human resources management that is suitable to be use in the current condition of M&S. It includes behavior perspective and system perspective.

Behavior perspective of human resources management is mainly considers about the workers behavior. It can be known as a mediator between strategy and organization performance. Behavior perspective is use to manage and control the employees attitude as well as behavior in order to suit certain strategies adopted to accomplish the desires performance. For example, M&S Company is aiming to undergo organizational transformation which based on a vision that imposed on the company in a mainly directive fashion by its CEO and management. This will require a workforce that shows a high quality of innovative behavior like long-term focus, cooperation, creativity and others. So, in the mean time human resources management will need to teach and reinforce the employees in these certain behavior pattern in the workforce.

Well, system perspective of human resources management is about to describe the term of input, throughput and output of an organization. These three systems are involved in the transaction with surrounding environment. The responsible of human resource management in system perspective is to make sure that the workforce has the required skills and ability to supply input that needed by M&S company. For example, M&S employees needed to have the skill and ability to fulfill the change of attitude and behavior within the company that had been imposed by the management and CEO of M&S.

2.1.2 Importance of human resource management of M&S with the focus on increased of direct contact with customers

The important of human resource management of M&S is employee attitude towards the customers. Employee attitude is important in human resource department because employee attitude reflects an organization reputation. If M&S Company has good employee attitude towards customers, they will have high reputation in the markets. This is because good feedback from customers to the public is one of the ways to promote the organization.

Besides that, human resources management also plays an important function in an organization because it is a link between an organization and employees. It is also helps organization to concern on the employees need. Human resources management of M&S Company will need to understand and evaluate the employees need so that they can perceive their job as a part of personal life but not as a routine obligation.

In addition, the important of human resources management also include retain low employee turnover rate by inspire people to work for the company, attract new workers as well as contribute employee development. In order to achieve vision that had been set by M&S CEO, their human resource management will have to train and motivate employees by using communicating ethical policy and social responsible behavior to the employees in the company. This can help M&S Company to clarify their issue and provide solution to ensure that employees work with more efficiently.

2.1.3 Conclusion

Human resources management is important to an organization because organization need a well managed workforce to achieve their organizational goal. Well, the purpose of having a well-managed human resource management is to recruit suitable employees for the organization and also to make sure that the employees have appropriate training.

Task 2

Upon the implementation of a flatter organization structure,

What is the model of flexibility on the workplace that M&S can practice?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of implementing the flexibility of workplace?

2.2 Flatter organization structure

Flat organization can be known as horizontal organization. It is an organizational structure of a company in which majority of the middle-management levels and functions have been eliminated, this will lead the top management in direct contact with the frontline managers and customers. Flat organizations can also bring benefit from most of the advantages that enjoyed by small companies like faster response time to changing conditions and customer preferences.

2.2.1 Model of flexibility

Flexibility represents the ability to respond to current change of the environment. An organization should accommodate change by being flexible. For example, in response to the changes of contractual agreements by customers, easily switch production to satisfy customers demand, easily customize product and service for customer's requirement.

Human Resources flexibility is refers to the capability "to facilitate the organization's ability to adapt effectively and in a timely manner to changing or diverse demands from either its environment or from within the firm itself" (Milliman et al., 1991: 325).

Model of flexibility that can be practice by M&S

The models of flexibility that can be practice by M&S are labor cost flexibility through numerical and wage flexibility as well as functional flexibility through skill, behavior and HR practice flexibility.

Labor cost flexibility through numerical and wages flexibility

In this modern century, flexibility in a company operation is associated with increased flexibility in the labor market. Multinational companies are searching for greater labor flexibility that has convert production and other business processes to foreign countries. However labor market institutions such as unions, labor parties, labor regulation, work arrangement as well as employee characteristics are responsible for differences in labor market flexibilities among countries. (Christpherson, 2002).

Well, according to Bhattacharya &Wright, 2005, he mentions that 'labor cost flexibility is the ability to change labor cost depend on the changes in profitability'. If the organization earns more profit on the year, employees will get extra labor cost as reward.

Besides that, wages flexibility is to adjust the employee wages depend on the changes in supply of labor or the demand for skills of the employees. In short, if employees can supply more daily production and employees that have high skill and experiences of working, they will properly get high wages for their supply.

In addition, numerical flexibility is the ability to accumulate the daily, seasonal and cyclical fluctuations in the quantity of labor as well as to adjust in the number of workers or working hours, so that the organization can adjust the labor cost depend on the numerical flexibility.

Functional flexibility through skill, behavior and HR practice flexibility

Functional flexibility is the ability of a firm to switch employees to other duties or responsibility in the organization. It also represents the ability of a firm to adapt the change of conditions and requirement that affect by training, management as well as outsourcing.

In order to lead an organization to adapt the change of certain condition and requirement, employee skills are important because it can help the organization to adapt the changes. Besides that, organization should have employees that can fulfill different tasks and activities in order to achieve the changes in work requirement (van den Berg & van der Velde, 2005).

According to Wright & Snell, 1998, behavior flexibility is the extent to which employees dominate a broad repertoire of behavioral scripts that can be adapted to certain condition through a specific demands from organization or customers. This is to ensure that the employees are adapted to the current environment in order to undergo functional flexibility. Well, Human resource practice flexibility is the extent to which the organization human resources practices can be adapt and apply into variety of situations, condition, various sites or units of the organization as well as the speed with which these adaptations and applications can be made.

2.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of implementing the flexibility of workplace

Advantages

The advantages of implementing flexibility in the workplace can offer employees:

To have a better work and life balance, so that they are able to meet both work and personal commitments

To reduce the travelling time and cost

To increased sense of control leading in order to increase the sense of well-being

To have a greater job satisfaction

To make sure that the workplace remain in the workforce longer

To be a greater loyalty, trust and respect towards employers.

In addition, there also have advantages for the employers as well. Once the employees are happy and satisfied with a greater sense of loyalty as well as trust, this will bring lots of business benefits for the organization. For example:

Attract skilled and motivated employees such as experience workers, matured age worker, career responsibilities and those who looking for a greater balance between work and personal interests.

Keeping skilled and motivated employees - an effective flexibility in workplace can decrease the unwanted staff losses up to 25%. This also can bring a huge cost saving for a company such as retaining knowledge; maintain customer relationships, advertising and administration costs.

Lower staff absences - when the workplace is flexible employees will have less stressed on their job due to the reason that they are clear about the expectation of the company and have a greater sense of well-being and reducing unplanned absences.

Improving customer service and retention - when companies have more committed employees in the organization, it will have a greater employee retention as well as better match between peaks and troughs in company workflows. Besides that, staffing will also allow an organization to achieve customers' needs.

Disadvantages

Flexibility in an organization workplace is all depends on the business that it has been implemented in. The maturity and understanding of the employees responsible are very critical for the successful implementation of the flexible work rules. This is because if the employees are not responsible to their own job, the business of the company might face a problem of low productivity.

Therefore, this aspect should be taken into consideration right when hiring new employees for company. In the mean time, care should also be taken to those employees that are serious about their jobs, careers and professions are hired by a company, if the company believes in the work flexibility.

In fact, the success or failure of the implementing flexibility of workplace in an organization is depends on how well the employees take it and use the flexibility to become more productive, instead of actually finding ways to shirk work. This is because flexibility in the workplace has been proved that it can help to increase the efficiency of the employee population, various programs and initiatives are now being prepared by employers.

2.2.3 Conclusion

Human resources flexibility is to facilitate the organization's ability to adapt effectively and in a timely manner to changing or diverse demands from either its environment or within the firm itself. But it also will bring disadvantages to the organization such as the employees that are not responsible on their own job, the business of the company might face a problem of low productivity.

Task 3

There are mainly women and minorities in M&S, explain how the management provides equal opportunities within the workplace.

What advice can you provide to M&S on the protection of business against workplace discrimination claim?

2.3 Equal opportunities within the workplace

Equal opportunities within workplace mean that an organization should treat people as individual with different kind of skills and ability without any judgments based on prejudice and stereotypes or judge on characteristics as outlined in anti-discrimination legislation. The characteristics include age, race, sexuality, marital status and others.

2.3.1 How management provides equal opportunities within the workplace

In order to provide equal opportunities within the workplace, management of an organization should eliminate discrimination in workplace. Discrimination in workplace will cause skills and competency of an individual cannot be developed, rewards to work are denied as well as humiliation and frustration will take over an individual. This is because the freedom of an individual to develop their capability and personal aspirations is restricted.

Besides that, management should avoid prejudice and stereotyping in an organization in order to provide equal opportunity in workplace. This is because prejudice and stereotyping will lead to an unfair discrimination when stereotype is unfavorable. So, management should collect accurate information about the employee before judgments.

In addition, management also needs to avoid the problem of regency effect in the organization. Management of an organization should not only evaluate employee on the recent behavior instead of previous behavior because it will causes an unfair judgments for employees. In order to provides an equal opportunity in the workplace, management department of the organization have to evaluate the employees based on their overall performance and behavior in the workplace, so that the process can be fair to every employee in the organization.

Furthermore, halo or horns effect also need to be eliminate in the workplace. Halo effect mean that the organization will only hire or concern on the employees that already appraisal. This situation is not fair for others employees that had not been appraisal, it will also causes other employees started to dislike and it might also lead to low production for the company. In this case, management should be fair enough to every employee in the company in order to avoid problem occur.

2.3.2 Advice that can provide to M&S on the protection of business against workplace discrimination claim

In order to protect M&S business against workplace discrimination, M&S organization should know the laws. Government had set various kinds of laws that can protect company business against workplace discrimination claim. The laws include The Civil Rights Act of 1964- to prohibits employment discrimination, The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA), The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 and others. By knowing the discrimination law, M&S can protect their business well when discrimination claims occur in workplace.

Besides that, M&S also need to provide employee handbook in the company. In the employee handbook no tolerance policy prohibiting discrimination policy and consequences for committing violations in company should be state out clearly. This is to let every employee notice that M&S Company is a discrimination free workplace. In the mean time, all the employees have to read the handbook and sign document to show that they are understand the policy.

M&S Company also can provide training for the employees. M&S Company can invite a special diversity trainer to provide them a detail description of what is not allowed in company, strategy and solution for a tolerant, diverse workforce.

2.3.3 Conclusion

Discrimination should be avoided in an organization, so that employees can feel that they are being protected from discrimination. Besides that, management also needs to provide an equal opportunity for the employees within the organization in order to eliminate discrimination occur in workplace.

Task 4

What are the HRM practices that can be best implemented based on the above scenario?

Discuss the organization performance after the implementation of the new HRM practices.

2.4 Employee Empowerment

Employee empowerment should be implement into M&S Company. "Employee empowerment" is a term that is used to express the ways in which non-managerial staff members that can make decisions without any consulting or opinion from their bosses or managers. These decisions can be small, large or immediate decision but it is all depending upon the degree of power with which the company wishes to invest employees. Employee empowerment can start with training and changing a whole company to an empowerment model. Conversely, it might merely mean giving employees a chance to make some decisions on their own.

Benefit of employee empowerment

Employee empowerment will leads to organizational encouragement of entrepreneurial traits and prompts employees to make decisions, take action, and foster their belief that they can manage and control their own destinies. This belief will bring benefit to themselves such as self-motivation and sense of independence that can change into greater loyalty and extra effort for the organization. Besides that, giving employee's power it can make employees believe that they can control their own success through their own efforts and hard work, which will also lead benefits of the success to the entire organization.

In addition, empowered employee can helps an organization to improve in certain way such as service delivery, more innovative, increase productivity, and gain a competitive edge. It is also give employees to have an opportunity to develop more on their skill set and the ability to use all kind of skill that the employees had been possess as well as gain more experiences and new skills.

Furthermore, empowered employee is able to allow employees to exercise more on their creativity and innovation skills. This will bring benefits to the employees as they getting a higher position in the organization. A company that practice employee empowerment, the employees can gain more confidence, creative and innovative as well as understand strategic direction of the company in order to bring benefit to the organization such as increase in productivity, services and others. In short, Empowerment is beneficial to the organization as well as the employees for which they work.

Conclusion

Employee empowerment that practice in an organization will bring benefit to both. This is because employees can gain more experience and new skills on their works. Once they can handle well with the new skills, they can help the company to increase more productivity, services and implement more innovation to the company.

Conclusion and Recommendation

In conclusion, human resources management can helps organization to maintain well their workforce. Appropriate training for the employees also can bring benefit to the organization such as high productivity, good services and others.

Moreover, human resources management can help to avoid discrimination in an organization by provide every employee an equal opportunity within the organization. In addition, benefit of human resource management for an organization is to provide appropriate training and recruitment, performance appraisals, maintain workforce atmosphere, managing disputes as well as develop public relations in the company.

At last, human resources management is part of the important department in an organization because it manages the employee's workforce. It is also a bridge between the organization and employees, human resource department help organization to maintain good communication and relationship with the employees in order to avoid misunderstand between employer and employee. In short, an organization cannot run well without a proper human resources management in the organization.

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