Personality Perception And Attribution Commerce Essay


In the class second module e studied how elements like perception, personality and attribution could influence the individual behavior in the organization. David C. Funder, a philology professor authors of The personality puzzle, defines in his book that "Personality has been defined as an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms--hidden or not--behind those patterns" (Funder, 2001, p.2).

Personality turns out to be an essential element to explain the behavior of individuals, also explains the environment in which these individuals perform. The personality, then it works as a feature that defines the work environment in the company.

Perception, on the other side, is the way that each person see the world, is how understand the life experiences, and that is why also explains the subject's actions. The way in which the members of an organization perceive what happens around them is very special, because each person tends to interpret what is lived differently, but that perception is not always the reality

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Attribution is defined by the McMillan dictionary as "the act of attributing something to a particular cause or person, especially the act of saying that something was written, said, painted etc by a particular person".

Each event that happens within the organization can be attributed to different factors. Employees may believe that the outcome of some events could be the result of external or internal factors, that's why the understanding of this feature is essential for understanding organizational behavior.


• Funder, D. C. (2001). The personality puzzle. (2nd ed.) New York: Norton.


• Takao Inamori, Farhad Analoui, "Beyond Pygmalion effect: the role of managerial perception", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 29 Iss: 4, pp.306 - 321

Attitudes and values

In an Organization people often tends to confuse attitude with personality, attributing the individual behavior to the personality, but the attitude plays a fundamental role too.

An attitude, roughly, is a residuum of experience, by which further activity is conditioned and controlled ... We, may think of attitudes as acquired tendencies to act in specific ways toward objects (Krueger & Reckless, 1931). Attitude works sometimes as a predisposition or as a way to evaluate the environment and the situations.

As I mentioned, the attitude and disposition are similar, which indicates that the attitude is the result of something; the attitude is formed through experience, and therefore can be modified. As a form of evaluation, the attitude is expressed in the organizational environment. Employees of a company may, for example, modify their attitude toward change.

Values are the set of society characteristics, and are a mechanism with which individuals rely to determine what is good or bad, what is right or wrong. The values become an assessment tool to one's actions and others

The role of values in the organization is to determine guidelines of conduct. If the organization develops its own value system, individuals will act according to the values of their culture, and such behavior will always be consistent with what the organization wants.

Organizational values are visible in the mission and objectives of the company. Agree to it, is that employees should direct their actions. This is how the values play a catalytic role of the workplace.



• Gregorio Martín-de-Castro, José Emilio Navas-López, Pedro López-Sáez, Elsa Alama-Salazar, (2006) "Organizational capital as competitive advantage of the firm", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 7 Iss: 3, pp.324 -


The pygmalion effect tried to explain how perceptions of an organization, person, groups etc. toward a target, person or another group can generate a response in the latter either negative or positive depending on the initial perception, in other words, to summarize its most minimal and simple expression take the example presented mark machaalani in his book 2005 ¨If for instance, you tell a new teacher at a grammar school - whom has no previous experience with her new to be students-that a particular young student of hers is extremely bright and clever, the new teacher will automatically be more supportive, more encouraging, teach more challenging material, be patient and allow that student more time to answer questions, and provide extra feedback to that student. The student receiving all this attention and absorbing in the teacher's belief learns more and is as a result, better in school ¨ this examplo was really representative and clear for me.

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Pygmailon effect occurs at around us all the time both in the workplace as in for example in our daily lives and because it requires the perception of the parties is positive if for example it must be true that is, they must believe true that perception is correct, this on the field work to reach or achieve positive things and make a profit or give consent to use the Effect using it as a tool must believe what they are doing and those who do this is the basis of all this.

All this makes us think immediately of motivation as a tool and review its real power and effectiveness which has taken importance throughout the years and what this entails motivation like trust in the employee takes a new level and becomes priority and the motivation to walk correctly expressed and generated or will be reflected in the positive performance of companies

the aftermentioned effect can also show that from a business standpoint there is a real awareness of the work seen beyond a simple number or an operator and perhaps given a vision-oriented and more human so to speak, and is supported by numerous studies such as those mentioned.

This effect is the result of a type of communication, in the latter case supervisor employee motivation employee ados this generates positive result because the employee feels that their work is valued and that their work is not lost, however in some cultures the effect may not necessarily occur, since for example the cultural environment is impersonal and evaluated the results, i mean the pressure to deliver results is necessary or put the example of manual work such as the construction, where time is money, the time always running out and the work is not so motivational, or chief employee relationship exists beyond the greeting and evaluation of their results as a whole.

In cases like this and cases where the number of employees in charge of a single supervisor is a lot of the Pygmalion effect can not occur as the result of a communication, you need this and may simply not exist.


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Publicado por Felipe Echeverri en 13:49 0 comentarios

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domingo 22 de agosto de 2010

Organizational Behaivor and National Culture

Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior refers to the interaction of the individuals in their enviroment, and one of our main caracteristics as species is the sociable behavior, and the organizational behavior managing managing people and organization ninth edition griffin and moorhead define its as ``Organizational behaivor is study of the human behaivor in organizational settings, the interface between human behaivor and the organization and the organization itself. ´´in this reading they start from the begining saynig that the organizations have at least one thing in common they main component is the people so the interaction between them is really important.

There is an aspect to take into account that envolves this interactual professional and personal behaivor and is to adapt ourselves to the enviromet and is oriented to make dynamics group that would let us performed in specific circumstances, and this needs that the people to had match in some facts informal and formal as well like values, beleif and feelings for example.

One of the challenges that face now days the organizations is exactlly this common aspects that the people search to interact and in this economic model that needs and suport globalization and the individuals that interact in the system not necesarilly share or even understand between them and all this is one of the main challenges of the globalization the cultures and behaivors are very differents between countrys and this is a thing that the organizations face all days. and dont forget that the diversification and expansion is one of the keys to organizations to survive these days and off course in the future.

National culture

Lets start saying what compose the culture and what exactly is culture for humans, is the combination of behavior patterns, knowledge, rules, morality, beliefs, arts. and lets name a few components that are language, religion and taboos and the food and eating habits and allot of aspects that refers to the daily aspects of the group members.

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as many research have found in allot of countries, the incidence of the culture in the members that contain a group or sub group because don't forget that in a single nation can be different cultures and with different values between them, the culture shape strong values in the members of each group, all this is to keep in mind that the term national and culture as a single term can be misleading.

the power of the national culture its huge and also its importance the influence for example in politics lets see politics are shaped by values also if they changes between members and this values its an important part and beginning to shape and create a social system and behavior patterns shape economics and these two social system and economics leads to governance.

so the governance and the culture are strongly related this is the political aspect but in the case of the organizations the corporate culture is completely linked to the national culture, and this is the reason why the organizations modify the way it behaves or acts, depending on the culture in witch they operate, because the way in which it is received in a given environment depends on it.



Cultural dimensions

Masculinity (MAS)

First lets remember this dimension acording to hofstede ''refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found.''

Not only defines the mens and womens role in their culture, it also explain if the culture behaivor rrespond to masculine or feminims values, for example a friend of mine that use to work in a coffe preducer company, she had this problem when the company was taring to open a new market in the middle east and her work was to capture clients but when she was traing to close the business the client didnt make the deal with her because in Middle Eastern culture, the ability of business is even a feature that is attributed mainly to the man. Values such as persuasion, addressing the goals, among others, are male values.

The other example its hypothetical and its also also with Middle Eastern culture as many of these countries are Muslim and in this culture the role of women continues to be different and very specific in comparison to other countries for which a mixed gender group in an organization that is negotiating with a company in this area can be found with a less smooth negotiation with a homogeneous group in terms of gender is refined and specifically the masculine gender.

Corporate culture

Clearly there are corporate cultures within organizations, remember that organizations are shaped by people and because it is a natural condition of human beings to fall into their environment, and does so with the members that it considers relevant to their values and other aspects that shape the culture, so cultures are formed within the forming groups.

The same organization also provides the elements to be generated cultural groups, as one of the aspects that make the culture, its to share common goals, beliefs and common language and the corporation as an organizational form the basis for the formation of groups is also common knowledge that companies support and promote group work and confidence between its parts for the correct execution of the work day.

And if it can be modify? In my personal opinion more than modify i think the cultures evolved al days and in a organization the people not always its the same all years can be a new person or someones leaves and the new ones introduce some aspects of their own that make the culture changes, so in the short time maybe its inperceptible but in the long term obiously change.

In conclucion its not a organization choice the culture inside them, its a result of the interaction and comunication of the employees, so to be modified by some one, like a racional and concient decicion y dobut it.


Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001

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lunes 6 de septiembre de 2010

East Asia

Japanese and Korean Managment Styles

Japanese and Korean companies are interacting a lot with each otther, they are working and growing simultaneously but will never be homogeneous they have diferent systems that closely related with their culture, indead they have differents, they converge in some aspects.

In the Japanese side not all the companies are a like but they works with some common principles or managment style that is based on economies of scale that let them aplied an aggressive pricing another thing that can be reconaized in the japanese managment style its the market share as a growth strategy all this let them to value maximization.

The japanese organization mantain excelents relationships betwen their suppliers, this as result means excelent cooperation and coordination, they also have fast and flexible development of prducts nad taht its possible because they have flexible manufacturing prces connecting product, desing and production.

In these organizations the employee have participation and middle managment this means trust and group loyalty.

Corporate values in japan are higly valorated and even the employee have the idea of carry the organization throug the dificult times and changes.

There are also the ''zaibatzu'' organizations, these are big groups of companies in japan, these organiztions were diversified family enterprises during the meji era. these enterprises are so important that their have their own bank, diferent subsidies and a favorable tax payment.

In the Korean managment style they its important remember that they used to be a japanese colony so they are influenciated by these culture, so in most part of the 70's and 80', they folow in several ways the japanese economic development model. The goverment interven with credits, exports and foreign relationship.

Similar to japan in korea there are big groups of enterprises controlled by families called ''Chaebol'' this groups are very important in the industrie of korea, but unlike the Zaibatzu the Chaebol are not allowed to have banks.


1. List the main similarities and differences of Japanese and Korean management styles.

Lets begin with te similarities first, these two countries share a lot of managerial thisngs, cause their share culture values, like for example the worker participation in the organizations, they both promote and excellent relationship with the supliers and try tu fullfill their costumers needs, all this is a consecuence of the things and aspects they face, for example they bith economies are oriented to the globalization, expansion and growth.

Another similarity its that both have conglomerates controlled by families, the chaebol in korea and the zaibatzu in japan.

The korean managment styles are in a way different, despite they were inspired or copied by the japanese managment, acording to Lee, Jangho, Thomas W. Roehl, & Soonkyoo Choe. 2000. the most important different betwen them, is their relationship with the govern and the tradition most of the kids in Korea want to work or follow their parents works.

4. In the case of Korean and Japanese management styles, do you think they tend to converge or diverge? Are they likely to converge to each other or to other management styles (Western, Asian, etc).

Ithink they tend to converge more than diverge, casue they are hardly related in its history and in the future.

These two managment stayles decend from one so the basis are very similars and the development to, they direct their economies in the same direcrtion i mean globalization, exports, high tecnology, automitive industry just to meniton some, so the chalenges and threats the face are very similar so i expect, that in the future this two managment styles, tend more to converge than the opposite.


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viernes 3 de septiembre de 2010

Comunication and Virtual Teams


In this module the teacher develop the comunicaion and virtual teams issues.

Communication is the basis of interpersonal relationships and is a skill learned and the basis for communication is the sharing of ideas this communication is quite complex in humans, this complexity is expressed in very simple elements that are the communicator, the receiver , the perceptual screens, and the message.

There are some others aspects that its important to take acount like the noise, encode, decode and feedback, that play an important role in the individuals communications.

Seen from the point of view of organizations, communication is an important topic for obvious reasons and, as mentioned above allows the information is transmitted and shared employees also relates to each other and those with supervisors.

Even so the communication within the organization may be different because the way we relate to the interior of these is different, it depends on the way in which the administrator is to its employees and we can differentiate or view this role are divided into five :

The expressive speaker: this kind of manager express their feelings, thoughts, ideas is they are more open and this causes the employee knows what to expect.

The emphatic listeners: These managers focus on the other, listen patiently, but when it is necessary to blame the other is saying do not take responsibility for their actions.

The persuasive leaders: These administrators before giving orders for things done, try to encourage the other for goals to be achieved.

Sensitive to feelings leaders: Are those that maintain a critical perspective, but that does make your private criticta

Informative managers: Are those that maintain and try to maintain open communication with the other.

There are also the basic principles for effective communication are very simple, but are very important and must be taken into account by every manager since this will allow the message to be understood completely.

Completeness, feedback, time, consistency, full understanding, clarity and specific objective.


Virtual teams lets start with the definition ¨A Virtual Team - also known as a Geographically Dispersed

Team (GDT) - is a group of individuals who work across time,

space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by

webs of communication technology. They have complementary

skills and are committed to a common purpose, have

interdependent performance goals, and share an approach to

work for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

Geographically dispersed teams allow organizations to hire and

retain the best people regardless of location.¨

Most important caracteristics of the virtual teams.

• Driven by a common purpose,Enabled by communication technologies, Involved in cross-boundary collaboration, Members may belong to different companies,Not permanent, Small team size, Geographically dispersed over different time zones, Knowledge workers.

The virtual teams are divided in four virtual teams, teleworkers, virtual communities and virtual groups.

Virtual teams refers to the members of the virtual groups interaction each others and have comon goals

Teleworkers are those how are out side the organization and have remote access to the organization information.

Virtual groups is the group of teleworkers that have different activities and tasks but the same supervaisor.

Virtual communities this ones are a group of people that via internet had common norms and porpuses

All this goups depend on the tecnology and have some disadvantages they need workers that dont need much more supervision and the trainig of de individuals its really hard.


Music as a way of sending messages can be a very useful tool, as the melodies tracienden cultural barriers, language and finally the same words itself, which can be useful for an organization. This is a way of involve the emploees and people with the organization.

Its important dont forget, that the melodies arouse feelings and this can better to get persons involved with the organization but it is important to remember that organizations are complex and are composed of many different components, claiming that a melody can send the whole message of what the oraganizacion is itself is a difficult task, i mean to show the hole picture.

As we have seen to spread a message loud and clear, requires certain principles and are viewed as the effective communication that could not be met fully in a sound or melody, I mean particularly that of the specific objective as this is a that my view may be lost in the interpretation that gives every person a message.

but before descarding this idea, lets see why companies all over de world have a melody

Acording to the article Business Strategy to Employees of Melcrum Publishing, he said:

"Communicating business strategy to employees in a compelling and engaging way is something all communicators strive for. Ultimately, employees who feel part of the 'bigger picture' and are pulling in the same direction will not only have a positive impact on the bottom line, but also give your company a competitive advantage."

taking this into account, would be stupid not to review these options and that as the author says, the use of these tools generates added value and a competitive advantage as a positive incentive to work and this obviously has a positive impact, so i conclude that all organizations may see this option as a posibility.


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