Personal management is a part of management system concerned with people at work and their relationships within an enterprise. Personal management is setup to achieve both efficiency and justice in an organization. It aims in development of an effective organization, enabling each individual to perform his best and contribute to the success of the organizational goals. According to Torrington and hall (1987), Personal management can be defined as a series of activities enabling employees and their employers to agree on the objectives and nature of the working relationship, eventually ensuring that the agreement is fulfilled.
HRM and Personal Management
A debate regarding differences between HRM and Personal management was going on for some time. But it ended down recently, as the terms Human resource management and Human resources are now in general use both as proper synonyms for personal management. The differences between Human resource management and personal management seem to be substantial, but they can be defined as a matter of approach and emphasis rather than a single substance.
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Following are similarities between Human resources management and Personal management:
Human resource management and personal management both recognize the responsibilities of line managers for managing employees. The personal function provides the managers with necessary support and advice for carrying out their responsibilities.
Both Personal management strategies and Human resource management strategies flow from the business strategy.
Personal management and HRM both recognize that among the functions one of the most essential function is to match individuals to the ever changing organizational requirements and placing them accordingly in the right organizational duties.
Range of selection, performance management, training, competence analysis, reward management techniques is similar in both Human resource management and personal management.
Personal management like Human resource management shows importance for the process of participation and communication within an employee relations system.
Following are differences between Personal management and Human resource management:
Personal management seeks in influencing line management whereas HRM is integrated in line management.
Personal management is primarily aimed at non-managers whereas HRM is more concerned with managerial staff.
Human resource management underlines the importance of senior management involved in the management culture whereas Personal management underlines the importance of social psychologically oriented ideas.
Human resource management is described as an approach whereas Personal management is said to be traditional.
Although Human resource management shares a platform with personal management together with finding efficient means in selecting, training, appraising, developing and rewarding employees, there are some points of dissimilarity. Traditional personnel management tended to be parochial, striving to influence line managers, whereas Human resource management is integrated into the role of line managers, with a strong proactive stance and a bias towards business. Personnel management has a history of placing emphasis on bureaucratic control often in a reactive sense. By contrast, human resource management makes a determined effort to be a more integrative mechanism in bringing individual issues into line with business issues, with a pronounced problem seeking and problem solving orientation, and a determination to build collaborative organisational system. The role of top management in setting the agenda for change and development is very much in evidence in human resource management.
There is a general view that Human resource management must play a critical part in the success of the organisation in order to ensure its own viability.
Recruitment, Selection and Retention
Tesco is one of Britainâ€™s major retailers. It is amongst top three retailers across the globe. It has 37000 stores operating globally and approximately 440,000 employees. Tesco started with a market stall setup by Jack Cohen in 1919. Tesco was first opened in 1929 at Edgware and ever since the company has developed and expanded. Tesco responded to upcoming opportunities and has been constant in pioneering innovations, leading it to be a successful retailer. Tesco always believes in going an extra mile for its customers for customer loyalty. Tesco has developed different types of stores for customer benefit and offers competitive prices for a wide range of commodities.
Recruiting is a process with the help of which organizations attract individuals to fill a job vacancy in that organization. Recruitment process follows human resource planning and goes hand in hand with the selection process. There are basically three stages of recruitment and selection process; Defining requirements, attracting candidates and selecting candidates.
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Defining requirements consists of preparing job descriptions and deciding the terms and conditions of employment. Attracting candidates involves evaluating and reviewing alternative sources of applicants within the company and also from outside the company, advertisement. Selection involves selecting the most suitable individuals, interviewing, assessing candidates, offering employment, obtaining references and preparing contracts of employment. The categories and number of individuals requires is specified in the recruitment program. Tesco has appointed a diversity advisory group that monitors the composition of the organizations workforce against a target mirroring the UK population, for example there is no statistical difference by ethnicity, age or gender. Staff selection toolkit is used which provides a checklist of information needed for recruiting new staff.
Recruitment involves attracting the correct standard of applicants to apply for vacancies. Tesco uses different ways for advertising jobs. The recruitment process can be divided into two types internal and external.
Workforce planning process is used for analyzing the future needs of employees in terms of number, skills, age group and location. It allows the organization to plan, so as to meet the needs through recruitment and training. It is vital for a company like TESCO to plan ahead because the company is growing. An important element of workforce planning is having clear job descriptions and person specifications, for example; age, gender. A job description outlines the job title, to and for whom the job holder will be responsible to and a list of descriptions of roles and responsibilities.
Tesco firstly checks the internal talent plan for filling a vacancy. This process lists current employees seeking to move either at the same level or on promotion. If there are no suitable candidates in the listed talent plan then the company advertises the post for the job vacancy internally on the intranet for two weeks.
In this type of recruitment the company advertises job vacancies through the Tesco website www.tesco-careers.com or through vacancy boards in stores. For managerial positions applications are made online. The applicants chosen are interview followed by attendance at an assessment center, at this point the selection process is at completion.
Selection is a process involving to choose from the most suitable candidates for the job vacancy. Screening of candidates is a very important step of the selection process. The first stages of screening involve the selectors to look carefully at each applicantâ€™s curriculum vitae (CV). The CV summarizes the details of a candidate such as education, job history.
The selection procedure is as follows:
Vacancies advertised on Tesco website and or other media.
Screening of applicants CVs to find best fit with Tesco.
Successful candidates invited for interview.
Successful candidates from screening attend assessment center, where as unsuccessful candidate are sent letter.
Successful candidates invited for second interview.
Successful candidates sent offer letter and contract for the job position.
These are the standard Tesco selection procedures followed for employing. And the same procedures for selection of employees will be followed by me when selecting the employees for the new store. Diversity of staff is a key of success for TESCO, and I will use the same procedures for employing staff of different groups.
Staff retention is a process where the employees are encouraged in working with the organization for the maximum period of time. It may be until the completion of a particular project or contract. Staff retention is important for the employee as well as for the organization. At TESCO staff retention is an important factor. Following this process has led in improving business and corporate responsibility at TESCO. Staff retention can lead to lower costs of expense for the organization especially in terms of recruitment and training resources. Employee turnover is a major organizational phenomenon. From the organizational perspective employee turnover represents a significant cost in terms of recruiting, training. Managing retention is a constant challenge for any manager. For an organization like TESCO high level retention is desired. Negative impacts of retention consist of high financial cost, productivity losses and workflow interruptions, quality of service, loss of expertise, loss of business opportunities. Because of such negative consequences of turnover of the organization, there are many intangible benefits associated with turnover reduction solutions. Some of the solutions are improved job satisfaction, organizational commitment, customer satisfaction, teamwork. For any organization to develop a retention strategy several steps are to be taken. Firstly a manager must assess the current situation and measure the turnover rate; this can be calculated by dividing the total number of annual terminations by the average number of employees in the work force. The key point for staff retention is to hire the right individuals and continue to develop their careers. TESCO takes a responsibility approach to train and develop new staff as well as existing staff. Personal development helps to produce long lasting competencies. Following this makes employees more positive, productive and valuable to the organization for a long term eliminating the risk of high expenditure for the organization. Development also helps increase the level of employee motivation.
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Staff motivation is the key of success for a manager in retaining staff. Some of the managers donâ€™t care about what their employees want and the managers just assume the employees should be grateful for having the job, some managers misunderstand employeeâ€™s needs. Each employee is different and should be dealt and motivated differently. As a manager, I would suggest the following points for retention of staff and keeping the organizational cost down:
Improved career development opportunities
Strong diversity policies
A good balance between work and personal life
Ensuring new staff have a more relist idea of the job duties
A mechanism for staff to register dissatisfaction, appraisals, grievances or anything a employee would like to put up to the management
The ultimate aim is to make every employee feel valued and proud of their work. As a manager at Tesco, I would like to develop a work culture that encourages diversity and creativity. Thus enabling to reduce the cost and improve staff retention.
The recent increase in corporate misdeeds have given rise to ever tightening and further researching laws and federal sentencing guidelines geared to constrain illicit behavior in organizations, Accounting scandals, discrimination cases, fairness problems and breaches of confidentiality. Organizations are experiencing legal and ethical scrutiny. The key factors of legal and ethical issues during recruitment and selection process are as follows;
Identification of documents
Criminal record check
After the selection process has been completed. An offer of employment will be made and the applicant can either accept or reject the job offer. Following are legal and ethical issues that must be kept in mind during the recruitment and selection process:
Employment protection act (1978) defines the terms of contract of employment and provides the names or employee and employer concerned. The date of commencement of the job, job title and terms of payment, working hours, and holidays entitled, sick pay and pension entitlement. Termination of job and disciplinary and grievance procedures are also discussed and agreed upon between the employee and employer, after mutual agreement and signature by both the employee and employer on the contract the applicant can start working for the organization.
Sex discrimination act (1975) defines that it is unlawful to discriminate between men and women in employment terms. Equal terms and conditions apply for both men and women. This act also applies on offers of employment such as dismissal, promotion, training and other benefits. Direct discrimination is when an individual is treated less favorably by the opposite sex, Indirect discrimination is when an employer relates a condition to an applicant for a job opening does not seem relevant as only one sex would be accepted for that job availability.
Race Relations act (1976) defines discrimination on racial grounds and racial groups relating to colour, race, nationality, religion or ethnic groups. Race relations shares same categories used by sex discrimination act names that of direct and indirect discrimination.
Equal pay act (1970) is intended to prevent discrimination between men and women regarding payment in employment. Men and women in the same work should be paid equally and share the same terms and conditions of employment.
Disability Discrimination Act protects disabled people, not to be discriminated against when applying for a job and be given a chance of interview in order to make a place of employment for disabled individuals.
Rehabilitation of offenders act (1974) a rehabilitation period is a set length of time from the date of conviction. After this period with certain exceptions an ex offender is not normally obliged to mention their conviction when applying for a job. Age and length of conviction is taken into consideration of the applicant in order to enable him getting a job position.
The above mentioned acts will be taken into consideration when I recruit and select employees for the new branch of TESCO.
Disciplinary rules and procedures are necessary for promoting orderly employment relations and also fairness and consistency in the treatment of individuals. Rules set standards of conduct and performance at work; procedures help to ensure the standards are followed and provide fair method of dealing with alleged failures to observe them. In most cases potential issues of misconduct or unsatisfactory performance are dealt with through the normal day to day discourse between managers and staff. However, sometimes it is appropriate and necessary to used disciplinary procedures. Gross misconduct is deemed to be misconduct that is as serious as it will destroy the trust relationship between employees and employer.
Disciplinary procedures are used when problems of misconduct are arisen related to behavior. Problems that are work related will normally deal with under less than effective performance procedures. Any individual accused of an offence of a disciplinary nature will be informed of the complaint against them. Allegations of misconduct will be investigated before and disciplinary action is taken.
Examples of misconduct are;
Lateness for work
Failure to report absence
Breaches of security
Discrimination on any grounds
The gravity of misconduct will determine whether it is dealt with a minor or serious offence.
Paul Wilkinson a 44 year old supervisor has been coming to work late and leaving early. I have already spoken to him about his misconduct. But unfortunately the situation has not improved. In such a case I would not discriminate under the grounds of age and gender and will have to take a disciplinary action against Paul Wilkinson. I would give Paul Wilkinson a written reprimand of his misconduct, and warn him against a future misconduct which would lead to suspension from duty for a specific period with loss of pay. I will choose to follow the specified procedure in this case since I already have given a verbal warning but still the employee did not stop coming late and by giving a written reprimand and warning him against future misconduct would lead into a temporary suspension with loss of pay, would make Paul Wilkinson from coming late and leaving early and following company procedures and keeping a good time management.
Sheena Johnson is 28 and a machine operator, I have been informed that security found her stealing some finished and part finished items from the department. I will not discriminate under the grounds of age and gender. Since there is no strong proof against Sheena Johnson of her theft, I will give Sheena Johnson a warning against her misconduct and will setup an investigation since the facts are not clear of her theft. I will have to deal under the formal disciplinary procedures in this case.
In summary it is an essential task for planning the work force of an organization. When an organization grows work force is required. For meeting the demand of employees it is very essential in recruiting the best suitable employees for excellent employee retention and also for cutting down the cost of organizational expenditure. For being the best in the competitive retail market, it is very important for an organization such as TESCO to have an excellent and motivated staff.