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United Nation Organization was formed in 1945 after World War II. It has 192 members' countries and many subsidiaries which help in its operation across the globe. The United Nations was formed to save next generation of world from destruction such as wars and disputes between countries. Earlier after First World War, League of Nation was established for this purpose but it failed and Second World War started. In 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt, the President of United States of America had a meeting with Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of United Kingdom of Great Britain. It paved the way to Atlantic Charter, which referred to a set of principles to maintain global peace and cooperation among the comity of nations. After two years in 1943, both the leaders, along with Joseph Stalin of Russia, emphasized to establish an organization to maintain international peace. In 1944, at Dumbarton Oaks conference in Washington D.C., the first sketch of UN was drawn and in February 1945, these three leaders established a voting process for the United Nations (Webel and Galtung 2007, 95)
In 1945, in San Francisco, legislative body of 50 countries had a joint agreement to save the world from the barbaric consequences of war. In addition, to maintain security UNO charter includes poverty reduction, providing health and education facilities and provide financial assistant to needy members.
To maintain peace in the world UNO has established special subsidiary known as United Nation peace keeping operation it help countries to deal with disturb and quarrelling areas. The major division of the United Nations for peacekeeping is Security Council. It has 15 members out of which five permanent member nations have the power to veto any kind of decision even if most of the members agree to a resolution. These permanent five members having power to veto any resolution are: France, Russia, China, United Kingdom, and United States of America. These countries took part in the formation of United Nations and defined certain norms for United Nations to be followed (Durch 1993, 23-85). Therefore, an entire change in their biased approach is strongly needed and their mistakes of past should not be repeated again. This revolutionary change can only take place if the members of the UN make proper and unbiased use of their veto power beyond any prejudice and ambiguity and merely in favour of justice.
As per statistics of December 31,2010, there are about 1,23000 troops working at 16 sites under the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations(DPKO) in the four continents directly impacting hundreds and millions of people by saving their lives and providing security to the instable areas of the world. The UN peacekeeping operation does not have the troops of its own; instead it depends on the contribution by Member states, therefore, 115 countries have engaged their military and police personnel in line with UN peacekeeping mission.
The first task UNPKO took was during 1950's .In 1960 one of complex and controversial task assign to UNPKO was Congo mission which lasted till June 1964.UN was successful in its mission but committed some mistakes (Sitkowski 2006, 206-96) The UN peacekeeping force entered Congo as a neutral entity to enact law and order. After two years it started to support actively the Congolese government for the secession of the province of Katanga. The transformation of UN from a neutral peace keeper to an evident quarrelsome was observed. Although UN was succeeded in achieving its basic mission in Congo, but at the end of crisis it was not crowned as true peace keeper force (Barash and Webel 2008, 506). Similarly when the Beirut force was established, principles of peacekeeping were violated which left Beirut in violence.
The peacekeeping missions are of great importance having its own essential norms of maintaining peace and provide security. But the organization suffered massive blows leaving it frail. The cause of the scratch to the UN was not the organization itself but majority of the member states.
The causes of Middle East war have been religious, economical and geo political. Western countries friends Israel is main troublesome country in the area who is fighting for all other countries ,which supports it by all means in order to fulfill their interest in the region. The main attraction of this region to these countries is military and economic gain through Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Suez Canal and Red Sea. The presences of oil deposits in middle eastern countries have made them hot cake for developed nation .Earlier Israel have been attaching its neighboring countries but now America has started directly attacking like Iraq and Afghanistan. During all this process UNO has been playing a silent viewer role. In actual UNO is working for the interest of U.S.USA never wants Muslim to progress that is why it has been arising controversial issues to create unrest in the region to get control over the oil deposits.
The countries of Middle East have been through several wars since the year 1948, starting with Palestine war, and Suez conflict in the year 1956, Iran-Iraq war, Israel-Lebanon war etc. In 1962, a war in Yemen was initiated which lasted for five years, and ended 1967 (Dobbins et al. 2007, 112-69)
The Israeli armed forces assaulted Lebanon in 1978 and 1982. The peacekeeping forces have put all their efforts resolving the conflicts in these regions by segregating the aggressive forces and recommended the need of truce and tranquillity. But UN peacekeepers cannot interfere in internal political affairs of the country. In 1970 with the help of UNO a organization was established name as Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), it works as independent body.
The attack on Iraq was for the inspection of ammunition, control on export of oil, well defined borders and deployment of forces came out as the result of meeting with Saddam Hussein which led to the creation of this resolution (Collier and Hoeffler 2004, 58-106). This war is not yet ended and country is in troublesome situation although it was declared that no arms and ammunition were found there and assassination of Saddam.
The UN formed an organization named as United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) which was the first one to cease Suez Crisis in 1956 using Resolution 1001 (ES-I) of UN. A large number of troops were appointed by combined decision of UN Secretary General and Lester Pearson, Minister of External Affairs, Canada. After the approval by General Assembly a plan was made by the Secretary General which emphasized the soldiers' deployment on two sides of truce line. The Government of Israel did not obey the plan and rejected the idea to let UNEF be present on both sides (Katayanagi 2002, 65).UNEF, the first military force of UN was assigned many operations.
The Prime Minister of Israel announced his discrepancy over the restoration of truce boundaries of 1949, and clearly said, “No matter what may be the situation; the forces of UN must not be deployed within Israel or in the regions captured by Israeli forces.”
US, Switzerland and Italy along with ten more countries, Sweden, Norway, Yugoslavia, Indonesia, Denmark, India Finland, Colombia, Brazil and Canada, offered their military support for saving Egypt region of the truce lines after polygonal discussions with the State of Egypt..
On 15th November, the Cairo welcomed forces of 6000 soldiers, UNEF stood strongly by the year 1957, February. They were patrolling in the entire assigned area near the Suez Canal, and in Sinai as well as Gaza, till Israel stepped back from the region of Rafah on 1957, March, 8. In four steps, the UN operation was skilfully undertaken:
- When French forces along with British left, in the months of November and December, a systematic changeover was made in the region of. Suez Canal.
- An ease was made by the force from December 1956 to March 1957, and put its efforts in separating Israeli forces from Egyptian and migration of Israeli forces from occupied regions in the war, not including Sharm-el-Sheik and Gaza.
- Later, the forces of Israel were removed from Gaza and Sharm-el-Sheik.
- As a result of economic crisis, the size of the force was reduced to 3378 personnel till the operation reached its end in the year 1967.
In year 1967, May, 16, as commanded by the government of Egypt, entire UN forces were to leave the region of Sinai. Afterwards, The UN Secretary General UThant, made his efforts of re-arranging UNEF forces in order to keep the barrier at Israeli region of 1949 truce lines. Israel disagreed to it. By the end of May, majority of military men were removed. Most of the forces were evacuated. However 15 of UNEF military forces got trapped in the fight and were killed in Six Day War. On June 17, the region was finally vacated from UN soldiers.
In Egypt, there is a triangular peninsula named as Sinai. The Egyptians call it the Land of Fayrouz. The peacekeeping operation was successful in Sinai in the past as the Egyptian and Israeli forces had an absolute compliance to the generous motives of the peacekeeping forces which has left the two countries devoid of confrontation even now.
In the year 1979, an agreement was signed by Egypt and Israel. According to which , the war would be ceased between the two states regardless of any chauvinism related to the situation of Gaza Strip, the Israeli forces must be removed from Sinai. It emphasized on providing UN forces deployed at the buffer zone and there should be proper security system within Egypt and Israeli regions (William J. Durch et al. 2003, 23-99).According to the Resolution No. 687, of Security Council, much interference was envision for this. The Egypt came forward to help maintain peace after the removal of hostile forces. Considering the failure of agreements discussed in chapter no. VII of the charter of UN, the military forces cannot be arranged without the approval of states of Egypt and Israel authorities. The entrance of UNEF led to a cease-fire situation and removal of the Anglo-French armed forces out of the area of Suez Canal and of Israel military depletion out of Sinai. The United Arab Republic (UAR) made progressive movements in Sinai where their forces became dense in Ras El Naqb and El Auja where Israeli forces were patrolling continuously along armistice lines. When Israel agreed to withdraw from Sinai, UNEF made its efforts to clear mines to construct the International Frontier.
The operation for peace, carried out in the State of Lebanon, remained futile reason being the ineffective and non supportive government who don't acclaim any of UNPKO initiatives to bring prosperity to the war suffering people.
UNEF stood between the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA) and the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF). The PLA was armed with light weapons, anti tank guns, machine guns, mortars which seemed potentially stronger than UNEF revealing that the standards of PLA have improved vastly through training to the resources like weapons.
In March 1978, Security Council created United Nations Interim Force (UNIFIL) in Lebanon to assure the amputation of Israeli forces from Lebanon. The organization does not have troops of its own rather it depends on the coalition with other countries' armed forces. UNIFIL helped maintain and restore harmony and safety and aided the Lebanese government in creating proper law and order in the affected region. The mandate was twice adjusted because of the progressions in 1982 and 2000. Later in the crisis of July and August 2006, the Council increased the force and concluded that along with the actual mandate, the force would monitor the cease-fire between the hostile groups, support the Lebanese forces and would extend its aid to the civilians in the disturbed area of Lebanon. It would become accessible to all citizens and help the internally displaced people to return safely and securely to their homes.
When the situation became more critical between Israel and Syria, the meeting of the Arab league decided that Egyptian forces ought to move up to Syria and tend to minimize the pressure by Israeli forces against Syria. This incident grabbed less attention of the United Nations.
Geographically Syria, Jordan and Lebanon share boarder with each other. On 9th June in 1967, Israeli forces took up undeniable part of Syria. The war lasted for six days but area was not recovered it is still in clutches of Israel and remained with Israel. In Yom Kippur War in 1973 in which a minor part of this area was given back to Syria. In 1981, Israel occupied this area without anyone's consent and this act was strictly disagreed by whole nations of the world and UN Security Council announced this action of Israel as merely invalid. The State of Syria still counts on UN to help the state giving back its remaining and UN in return, passing its orders to cease the cruel activity of capturing Golan Heights, and declared that political pressure by Israel over the issue was also unacceptable.
The Ambassador of Soviet Union Nikolai Fedorenko, however supported the instincts of UAR, and said that it is of utmost importance to maintain tranquillity and safety within the areas of Middle East since it is located next to USSR borders. “It is also a major task to accomplish, and the Security Council must take prompt action against provocations by Israel and the threats to the Arab Countries”, he said.
The UAR introduced a draft resolution which stated that Security Council would:
- Decide that Egypt-Israel Armistice Agreement was still valid and should repeat that the machinery of United Nations coming from there must fully operate.
- The Israeli government would remain obligated to its responsibilities as stated in the agreement.
- The chief of UNTSO should proceed immediately in El Auja. In case of non-compliance by the Israeli Government against this agreement, should take necessary measures.
- Request the Secretary General for prompt implementation of agreement.
In the case of Lebanon, two things are important to consider. First, the state should be controlled by a strong joint force from the European Union and not by the UN alone. The UN peacekeeping operations can be successful if they are carried out with consistency. Second, UN cannot bring about the peace mission in a state without the support of Arab countries at political level and by US and EU aid.
Since then 64 peacekeeping operations have been operating throughout the world. UN has always remained consistently aware of the conflict between Arab and Israel since the time it came into existence and deployed five peacekeeping operations of which three are still in progress.
Palestine issue was raised in the UN in early 1947. At that time Palestine was under the rule of Great Britain having a population of 2 million of which Arabs were two-third whereas Jews were one third. Before this Palestine was known as Zionism and was British Colony, as Hitler took power more Jewish migrated to Zionism and started planning their own home land. As soon as Arab Muslim came to know their intension they resisted their efforts which at last ended on war. In 1947 Un interfered rather adhering principle of “Self-determination of peoples” in which people themselves create their state and run government UNO divided the land. Under Jewish pressure UNO gave 55% of land to Jewish which were only 30% of the total population and owned only 7% land.The 1947-49 war was fought on Palestine land as Palestinian didn't invades Israel where as Israel attack and conquered 78% of Palestine area which is still in control of Israel. The proposal by the General Assembly for the segregation of Arab and Israeli State within the territory of Palestine, however, remained in vain. This idea was rejected by the Arabs of Palestine and also by other Arab countries. Hence in May 1948, the Arabs of Palestine, along with other Arab nations, declared their Anti-Israel hostilities.
The authorities of United Kingdom overruled the Palestinian rights and the territory was given to Israel. The organization, UNTSO (United Nation Truce Supervision Organization), which has been working in Middle East since 1948, has its headquarters at Government House in Jerusalem. It has been working since June 1948 to present. Currently 217 military men are working for this force. The United Nations Truce supervision Organization (UNTSO) after 1967 war ended two of hostilities operations, one in Israel-Syria region and other in the Suez Canal district.
A parallel operation was conducted in Southern Lebanon. The UNTSO observers helped the deployed UN peacekeeping forces in Sinai in 1973, at Golan Heights in 1974 and Southern Lebanon in 1978. The Observer Group Lebanon (OGL), which is under operational control of the UNIFIL commander, maintains five observation posts along the Lebanese side of the Armistice Demarcation Line .It operates five mobile teams in parts of the UNIFIL area of operation which is under Israeli control and where UNIFIL infantry units are not deployed. For many years UNTSO troops have been provided to support the United Nations peace-keeping operations not associated with Arab-Israeli conflict. The use of United Nations skilled observers has been remarkable in conducting United Nations Operation in Congo (ONUC), 1960,the United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM), 1963, the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM). Military spectators reached from various countries for this organization (Katayanagi 2002, 45)
SUCCESS OF UNPKO
The success of the peacekeeping operations carried out by UN is merely uncertain, because UN peacekeeping task forces face a number of challenges and difficulties at political and physical level. However, the organization has acquired a record of victory over a period of 60 years that includes achieving the Nobel Peace Prize. It works effectively in deploying the peacekeeping troops in the disturbed regions and enforces the need of a new government by re-electing them. It stays firm on its objectives to make the state free from turmoil and chaos. It brings about its peacekeeping mission successfully and removes or segregates the hostile forces. The UN entertains unarmed missions as well as armed military peacekeeping missions successfully. Since 1948, UN has embarked on 64 field missions enabling the people of many countries to vote with full liberty in case the need for election arises, and also it has helped disarm over 4, 00000 former soldiers.
The UN peacekeeping force is much cost effective and less expensive compared to other international forces made for intervention and their costs are shared equally among the Member States. UN is working with other organizations such as African Union (AU), The Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and European Union (EU) for paramount effects.
During UN peace keeping operation jobs are created within the forces for local people, which can help them financially and a step in their development. UNO has worked for war victims by providing them basic necessities of life setting up refugee's camp with medical aid and education centre especially in Palestine .All this welfare work is done by united nation relief and world's agency. UN try to provide facilities which local government cannot afford.
Seeing it realistically, the United Nations had to admit the collapse of its observer mission in Angola. After 20 years of Civil War the mission was set up to direct peace in the country. The Security Council terminated the mandate of its mission on February 26 after which the head of the state left the country and now it has gone to insolvency. Blindness is no longer the solution when rebels are using newly acquired weapons for bombing every day. They are controlling the vastly emptied countryside and continue to harass the citizens. The Government has failed to take over this countryside.
UN peacekeeping forces should have taken certain steps to make Palestine independent state which is nowadays unable to produce anything of its own and depend completely on Israel for every type of aid. Israel is still violating the UN resolutions. It has captured Gaza strip which was once declared as no-war zone. They are constructing buildings and even turn the place into a devastated land. At that critical moment a strong interference by the UN was desperately needed but it kept quiet and did not make enough efforts to stop Israel even from its non-compliance to the UN resolution. Similarly, the intelligence on the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations did not gather sufficient information to overcome the Middle East crisis in Iraq and Kuwait.
The war peace transition is not only operated in battlefields but has many social political and economical effects on that locality. The responsibilities of peace keeping operation is not only restoring peace and laws but also paving path for long term security and development of local people (Pouligny 2005). During the operation these aspect of a country are affected most. This is seen in all troubled areas of Middle East for example Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq etc. There is persistent level of inflation during the operations as UN relief and welfare Agency services were very few as compare to destruction caused by war. Till today Palestine people in most troubled areas near Gaza Strip lives in refugee's camp where necessities of life are scared. Due to heavy influence of Israel much other humanitarian welfare organization cannot help these needs in consistent manners. Due to instability production houses such factories , home industry farming ,agriculture are ruined causing export to seized and due to heavy imports deficient balance of payment again leads to increase in inflation , unemployment.
Religious factor is cause of all instability in Middle East ,Israel being a Jewish country try to capture most of it neibouring Arab Muslims countries' territories .Israel wanted to control the region to become the region leader.Jeruslam being Important for both Muslims and Jews so both of them want to take hold on it. UN peace keeping has not worked on freedom of Jerusalem so that Muslims can also perform their prayers there.
United Nations peacekeeping mission sometimes ignores and leaves the critical issues which are of colossal importance and need prompt attention. The organization ought to work fairly without any ambiguity. The debate and arguments of common spokesmen of member countries which are powerless in their own country merely left the crisis unsolved. They are unable to stick to one serious conclusion in favour of humanity. Since UNPKO is a global organization and has members from different socio-economic background and cultures, its point of view naturally vary. There may be some racial discrimination as well as religious clash like that of Jews and Muslims. This is the reason that United Nations needs support of its members instead of taking any action directly. A solution could be made in a way that each member country participates equally in providing military forces to the UN and at the same time provide equal funds, where United Nations should make use of these resources and takes its own decisions without the consent of any individual member country. Some of the countries in the UN are not in favour of peace and hence they should not have voting rights if they cannot work for the true cause of peacekeeping operations by United Nations.
United Nations has failed on its policy execution regarding crucial diplomatic issues, such as unlawful control of others territory, many times UN has seized fire between Israel and Palestine, Lebanon and Syria but Israel violates. Palestinians return to their homes under resolution 242 and 338 is still pending.UNO peace keeping operation failure is also caused by lack of moderators and negotiators abilities, corruption independent military , inefficient and great hold of America etc.All these factors hinders in execution of peace program in the region.USA insistence to handle international affair themselves which restrict UNO role at only grass root levels .In spite of being considered true change and peace factor UN only maintain its status quo. So UNO cannot bring lasting peace in Middle East.