Organization is a system that deals person to person relationships and individuals are given roles depending on the rankings of their authority or even status and roles, organization is also concerned with the identification and grouping of the work to be performed, giving of work and responsibilities and also establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work in the correct manner and accomplishing their specific tasks.
Organization ensures that there is good use of the human resources available, for this to be achieved every enterprise has to employ people to conduct various activities; like in companies today professional manpower is required for the success of the institution and that will help the company to improve its operations and the individuals are given work according to their respective qualifications and experiences all this is done through the organization of the company. An organization also provides and facilitates the coordination of the company by bringing and controlling the day to day activities of the individuals appointed to work for the company and different departments of the company. Organization also deals with the issue of division of work for the different departments which have different operations for specific functions and therefore division of work will bring order to the roles given to the qualified individuals who are employed by the company. The organization also ensures that there is growth and expansion of an enterprise, the organization is built in a way that it should be in a position to absorb more activities and also control them effectively and efficiently. Most of the organizations in the recent years have introduced and supported creativity by encouraging innovation and creative thinking among the workers involved with the company especially the managers and those who are high ranked in the organizational structure. The organization also facilitates administration of business by delegation, division of responsibilities and decentralization of the company to ensure the administration is effective and useful to the company.
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Determination of the good use of technology in the organization which facilitates proper maintenance of equipment and also meets the expenses accompanied by the high cost of installation. The organization should be able to determine every individual's responsibilities which it's his duty to perform an assigned work by the use of an organization, it is possible for a manager to notice an individual responsibility if the work goes wrong.
Organizational structure determines the person to person relationship between the employees and the work provided to them by the organization, this is to imply that there will should be different responsibilities for different individuals whereby some will be lower of the others where they will be getting orders from, this will form an hierarchy which will promote order and coordination since the specific assignments of authority and responsibility will ensure everyone will look after his or her par of pre established plans in proper relation to the part of the others in the group.
Organizational structure is created in order to attain specific goals and these goals are meant to be productive to the company or enterprise. The structure should also provide a frame work which ill establish and facilitate managerial actions this will form the hierarchy where the highest in the pyramid will be giving and delegating work or tasks to the other workers of the company. An organization has a chart will indicate the intended final relationship of the individuals appointed in different positions of the company within a given time.
Some of the principles of an organization are meant to offer guidance to the creation of a good and sound organizational structure which should be also efficient and effective which will ensure the smooth and orderly running of the business enterprise. One of the principles is the unity of objectives which will influence the outcome of the objectives of the company therefore the ideas of the organization should be in the common purpose of ensuring the success of the enterprise and therefore the organization, acts as the tool for achieving the objectives set for the company. Additionally, objectives should be made clear to all persons who are concerned with the welfare of the enterprise so as to enable them to do their best in ensuring the objective is obtained at its very best.
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The principle of division of work and specialization is very important for the purpose of maintaining order around the working environment, this can be done by specifying functions to every department of the organization especially in this advanced era of time where technology has taken over and therefore people should have order of work to avoid confusion, and this will definitely raise the bar of the overall efficiency and quality of work around the enterprise. The organization should ensure the specification of work and the division should not affect the system of integration. Employees should be assigned duties according to their qualifications and experience so that there will be no confusion among the employees and the management.
Delegation of authority is also a very vital principal of organizational structure this ensures that decision making power is placed at the proper position and the art of delegation is meant to go to the lower levels of management coming the from the highest order of management coming down to the lower levels depending on the type of the organizational structure. Every individual is meant to be given authority which adequate to accomplish the task assigned to him or her. The act of delegation is to complete one's task through others and this principle enables the managers to be successful and also motivates the subordinates who make them work efficiently and contribute towards achieving the organizational goals and objectives.
Principle of coordination ensures the organization involves the issue of departments and the division of work among employees this will ensure that the efforts of the people working in the organization will not be wasted or misdirected. Coordination also contributes to the integration in the simple and basic functions of management of the company. It also facilitates he achievement of overall objectives of business relating to the organization. Coordination brings unity among workers and this enable the workers to work together for the purpose of achieving the objectives required by the organization.
The unity of command principle imply that each subordinate should have one superior whose command should be adhered to this is to suggest that an employee should not have more than one boss to reduce confusion among the employees. The organization should be flexible and not rigid according to the flexibility principle. The organization should make the structure adaptable to any circumstance or changing of situations and also create room for the expansion of the company and the replacement of the company without any hindrance or dislocation. The organizational structure should be simple not complex for the employees to understand it quickly and easy to manage internal communication will be easy due to the simplicity of the structure and this will be done by reducing the levels of management.
Span of control should be small and reasonable by ensuring that the person in charge of a certain department is not asked to keep supervision on large number of subordinates this maybe hard to manage and therefore the control should be narrow and easy to manage. Authority acts as a powerful tool by which a manager can achieve a desired objective. Authority of every manager should be clearly defined. Moreover, it should be adequate to discharge the responsibilities assigned. The superior should be held responsible for the acts of his subordinates. One cannot run away from the responsibility simply by delegating authority to his subordinates. In fact, the responsibility of the superior for the acts of his subordinates is absolute. The Organization structure should enable the enterprise to function efficiently. This will enable the enterprise to accomplish its objectives quickly and also at the lowest cost. For this, the structure introduced should be suitable to the nature, size, activities etc. of the Organization. A suitable Organization structure ensures full and purposeful utilization of available human and material resources and ensures efficiency.
There should be balance in the organization especially in the different departments of the organization by ensuring reasonable balance in the size and functions of the various departments, centralization and decentralization of the company this is to ensure that the top management should see the vertical and the horizontal management of the organization fairly and ensure also that they are balanced. Also the balancing of gender is important especially now where the power of female gender is creating a big impact in the corporate world.
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Formal communication which is normally used by the military personnel comes from the superior to the subordinate and the message is always clear since it's coming from the high level rankings and therefore the subordinates have to obey those orders simply because the message is originating from the superior this emphasizes on the relationship between communication and organizational structure. Communication is basically viewed as a transmission process that has messages and has the channel in which the message is passed through and feedback is required for the communication to be complete. Conceptualization inside organizations examines how people communicate in organizations through various systems in the organization. This can be also the degree in which vertical and horizontal communication is difficult, slow and limited as opposed to fast, easy and in satisfaction.
Organizational structure is influential on the level of internal communication, the flow of information and intensity of the communication comprising the horizontal and vertical integration depends on other structural variables, the level of centralization, flatness, and horizontal integration. A structure can stimulate or interfere with the flow of communication by developing mechanisms to encourage participation and information sharing. When the organizational structure is less complex, less formal and decentralized organization, communication is much greater and simpler as opposed to when it is not easy to understand, formal, and centralized organizations. It also appears that, vertical communication is developed in flatness organization in comparison to organization with complex and high number of hierarchy levels since there is an increase in the knowledge sharing and training employees while high levels of horizontal integration increases the level of internal communication. Employees who are specialized share ideas in a high horizontally integrated organization other than the organization with low horizontally integrated organization.
There are several ways in which organizational structure impacts organizations. Communication structure can reveal the normative behavior of the organization's members, encompassing informal communication relationships that shape the culture of the organization. Communication structure also enables action within the organization by providing a predictable pattern of relationships. Structure allows an organization to process larger amounts of information due to a filtering process facilitated by single-unit processing where there are no orders from different units this makes the communication much easier and less complicated or confusing. In this way, structure limits information overload and helps the organization become as efficient as possible.
Through predictability in communication relationships, structure reduces uncertainty in the organization and also instills confidence in those individuals who are members of the organization. Communication structure also exists in organizations at a more personal level, providing social support that allows individuals to grow and advance in the workplace. Through formal communication structures, organizational members and units are integrated into one cohesive team. The organizational structure has the ability to negatively affect an organization through the relationship that often exists between structure and power. Those in power generally control the formal aspects of structure and therefore, the information that passes through the organization.
Organizations should also focus on the structural dimensions of the organization should be simple and centralized on their relationships to organizational communication. The structural dimension of the simplicity includes the five characteristics of span of control, hierarchical level, organizational size, sub-unit size, and administrative intensity. Span of control refers to the number of individuals that report directly to a supervisor. While this aspect of configuration is one of the oldest elements of organizational theory, it has been the subject of research regarding its relationship with communication. Through the research that has been conducted, studies have shown that span of control, while affecting frequency of communication, have little influence on the quality of communication (Linda 32).
It has to be noticed that effective business communication relies mostly on the feedback cycle that involves listening, speaking and confirming the message that has been heard this is to imply that for the purpose of the welfare of the enterprise the organizational structure has to be flexible in the manner that it will be able to absorb highly interactive communication using the feedback cycle to reach the mutually beneficial decisions. Also the structure should favor a communication strategy that will not take a long period of time to feedback that may affect the overall performance of the organization.
The change of the organizational chart is also vital this can be effective if the various departments invent various kinds of written and spoken communication to endorse change throughout the organizational chart. Like ensuring that face to face communication which takes a lot of time will be meant for important meetings especially in this critical times of the economy many senior individuals run several organizations and the mode of communication should be simple and fast to that particular individual, while email will be for direct spoken communication and memos can be used for short notices that way, the organization will save a lot of time and spent it while working to achieve the objectives of the organization. Managers should take time to identify the most effective mode of communication that will be suitable for both the managers and their subordinates; this will enable pure understanding between the two parties and there will be balance of communication. (Fredric 47).
Finally, understanding how managers and executives communicate within an organization can help the lower workers get ahead and be much more motivated if they only understand the mode of communication of their superiors (Jablin, 58).
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