Organizational Behaviour And Sociology Of Work Commerce Essay

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In the modern society, a big company or a small one needs to have a clean organization structure because people in an organization have different personalities, which are complex of emotional and psychological human behaviors, which can characterize an individual in an unique way which depends on their actions by Carl Gustav Jung (1934), and different jobs responsibilities which need to be distributed among them. Meanwhile, the organization must ensure the most contribution which is made by the members. This essay will not only consider key principles of three organizational behaviour topics which are about motivation, group and team working and organizational culture, but also discuss the theory's implications for and applications to special organizational examples. These three themes are significantly relational among them and help to improve the organizational efficiency. This essay has been divided into three sections. Firstly, motivation, the drive of an organization will be discussed. Secondly, group and team working, which greatly increase the success ratio, will be explained. Thirdly, it will describe organizational culture which is important to determine how well an organization operates.

Motivation is one of the most important factors to lead people to obtain goals. Motivation equals to drive. (John Bratton, p250) Motivation is admittedly definite as an internal state of being or condition to energize behaviour, offering a direction. Moreover, the definition of motivation also be summarised as the arousal, impact of the needs and desires on the intension of behaviour and orientation which it will follow and the persistence of behaviour. Furthermore, According to Huitt, W. (2001), it is also a desire or requirement which directs and activates people's behaviour to orient towards a goal. (Sarvesh, 2010). Nevertheless, it is quite hard to clear define motivation when various conclusions through the years were made by varying experts in the field.

There are no doubts that motivation is one of the most important factors influencing people's performance. If the managers do not encourage their staff, even the best employees will perform moderately. It is wrong to believe that employee motivation depends on his personality traits. A huge influence has companies' salary promotion system, interpersonal relations and managers' behaviour. Basically, in order to keep employees motivated there are seven strategies which were described by Neelu Tripathi (n.d.) that can be adopted, which are:

For reaching the higher goals they have to give positive feedback for the accomplished tasks.

Managers have to set some rules and regulations, which have to be fallowed.

They have to make sure that all set rules and regulations are the same to everyone.

They have to look at their staff needs and make them to feel comfortable in the working environment.

There should be work related goals set from time to time.

The managers should arrange meeting, where employees can share their work experience.

There should be permanent job rewarding system.

Motivation is the most significant factor, helping persons get started. If they are not motivated towards the work, they will be unwilling to starting a work or task, and without beginning, the task cannot be completed. It is the first step and makes lots of simplicity.

Unfortunately, there are some different viewpoints regarding to what motivates employees. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1917) came up with the opinion that workers are motivated primarily by cash. His theory concludes what the workers naturally do not enjoy their job, so they need a close supervision and control. What is more, managers should divide all production into the smaller tasks. Appropriate training and tools should be given to employees to make their job as efficiently as possible. Worker's salary then depends on the number of items they produce in the fixed period of time. So as the result, it motives employees to work better and more profitable. Taylor's methods are being used all around the world as businesses saw benefits of increased productivity. (Scribd, 2010)For example, the famous advocate Henry Ford star the new age of mass production by using Taylor's methods designed the first ever production of Ford cars. However, workers didn't like Taylor's position, because they found it to be boring and they felt that they are being treated like a machines. As the result, the number of strikes and other forms of unsatisfied workers actions increased rapidly. (Tutor2u, n.d.)

Another well known theory is known as Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) in company with Frederick Herzberg (1923). They represented the Neo-Human Relations School in 1950. It was based on psychological employee's needs. Maslow made a theory, which introduce five levels of human needs and those levels staff needs to full at work. The hierarchy's levels from lowest to highest are: physiological needs, like hunger, thirst, safety needs - security and protection, social needs - love, relationships, esteem needs - recognition, status in the society and finally self actualisation - the desire for self-fulfilment, growth-motivated rather than deficiency-motivated. The entire individual's needs are structured into hierarchy, in which workers need to fulfil the lower level to have the opportunity to go to the next one, more important than the level before. (Tutor2u, n.d.) It is very important to understand weakness and strengths in the Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Considering the different needs, stimulus, values and priorities - it is very valuable multi-cultured workplace.

Some critics have provided that there is a lack of hierarchical structure of needs as it is suggested by Maslow. They claimed that some people may have deprived of a lower level needs but strive for self actualization. And sometimes people cannot be aware of their own needs. However Maslow's hierarchy makes intuitive meaning, supporting by little evidence. In fact, the order of Maslow's pyramid is queried by some research recently. (Slideshare, 2008) For instance, social needs in a number of civilizations are placed more radically than others. Besides, little evidence offers that members satisfy exclusively one motivating need each time, except of circumstances which need conflict. (Envisionsoftware, 2007)

Frederick Herzberg (1923) had made a closely connection to Maslow and dependence on the two-factor theory of motivation. He disputed that there were two certain factors, motivators which could help an organization to motivate members directly to contribute more effectively and hygiene factors which could de-motivate members. (Accel-Team, 2010) Motivators in the work are more related with a job itself. For example, promotion, recognition, interest in job and the opportunity for more responsibilities. Jookan (2010) reported that Herzberg considered that organization should take some measure to be democratic to manage and ameliorate the content and nature of the real job to motivate members. The theory of motivation and hygiene provide that hygiene factor has to try to avoid workers dissatisfaction but must to ensure that factors are essential to the work in order for employees to be satisfied with their duties. Herzberg's theory has been massively read and despite its drawbacks it admits that motivation comes from within a person.

Critics of Herzberg's theory argued that the two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Furthermore, job satisfaction does unnecessarily imply a high level of motivation or productivity (NetMBA, 2010).

Motivation stays with people with the whole task or work. If a person is asked to complete a particular task, he will have to do it, even if he is not motivated. Either way he will end up doing it. Though if he motive towards the work, it would become much more interesting and obtain more experience and knowledge after achievement. No matter how long or boring the task is, it will demonstrably be further simpler if members are properly motivated towards doing it, and people will also enjoy.

Business Dictionary (2010) interpreted teamwork as a group of members individually and fervidly contribute to their common end goal. For example, in the University for Students to gain more team working skills they need to provide more group presentations and projects. Moreover, it is important to learn teamwork skills, even if members prefer to work independently. As a result, teamwork is necessary to success.

Team working is often identified with working in a group. However, it is not enough to have a formal working groups for a modern organization wishing to implement team work - in order to manage and maximize the potential of the group, should promote cooperation between different individuals. The groups are understood as a human community whose members are connected with a common feature of overall activity and interests for one organization (M. Dromantas, 2007). The team should be called as groups of people working together and all people have common purpose to realize all teams' and each member's individual needs (M. Dromantas, 2007).All teams are groups but not all groups are teams (Kasiulis, Barvydiene, 2004). Many studies conducted in various organizations have shown that team work and group work have quite a lot differences (Lussier, Achua, 2001). The differences arise then we talk about effective teams. But often the "team" or a "group" terms are used as synonyms. In this case, the teams are understood as a working groups in which each team member tries to maximize the success of collaboration not only with other team members but also with the manager (Harvey & Drolet, 2004).

Maybe Bruce Tuckman's (1965) team stages model, which is first developed in 1965 and well known as a basis for leadership and effective team building, is more famous than other teamwork theory. And it is one of the theories to inform the STAR team performance model which included alignment, teamwork, strengths and results model, which brings together teamwork theories with some of the main principles of the happy manager. Tuckman explained that an organization would grow if they owned distinct stages, from their originality as groups of individuals to unitive, and tasks focused teams. (The-happy-manger, 2010) Meanwhile, he demonstrated that the team of social psychologists, delegating the American navy, were learning small group behaviour, from some perspectives. Meanwhile, he reviewed fifty articles as togroup development and announced that group structure or the interpersonal, and the task activity are included in two features common to these small groups. Therefore, he veritied that four common stages (forming, storming, norming and performing) developed groups to teams. (Scribd, 2010) The use of Tuckman's model helps to understand the teams develop and reflects how people possibly meet with disparate states of their growth. Despite of limitations, all team working models can be useful in helping managers to understand and manage all circumstances.

However, research on group's development has drawn criticism. For example, Tuckman's model was developed from work with therapy, laboratory or training groups, not 'real teams in real contexts'. Group development models that predict linear phases have particularly need criticized (Kline, 1999). Kline points out: "imagine the fallowing situation. The cockpit crew of a 747 boards the plane twenty minutes before take-off. Passengers are seated in seat 177B, and as the airplane rushes down runway nine, they hope like hell that this team is past the storming stage or group development." Kline argues that there is something about aircrew that enables them to fly the aircraft safely, even when they have just met each one another. Although these researches suggest that not every group go through all development stage, Tuckman's model is very useful for understanding group dynamics.

For example, team working is very strong in such a huge corporation like Honda Motor Co. Inc. (2010). This company is committed to maintaining a diverse workforce. Their aim to attract, employ and maintain a capable and various pool of co-partners from communities through all over the world. Some of their employees said, it's a great attribute for him to work in a company which encourages its employees to be creative and friendly, he prefers a work environment which is high-effective, energetic and whose employees can be pleasant even in negative time, but best of all, work make colleagues excited because they are passionate and proud of it. - J.C. Moreover, the experience from a Honda Associate is the most advantageous and the concept of 'Respect for the Individual', which increased his demand to attend the Honda company, are which C.F. have obtained before, the concept of 'Respect for the Individual'. These good responses of the employees mean that this company have very good team working management and motivation to their workers. They gave their staff best working opportunities, freedom and independence to workers and the most important good feedback on worker's performance.

The nature of working groups was explored through the concepts of size, norms and group learning. (Mark K. Smith, 2008) The definitions of work teams are not so different from the definition of work groups. However, the conscious use of the word 'team' is not simply a question of semantics. Whether employees are organized into a 'work group' or a 'work team', the effectiveness of the work configuration will be the outcome of complex group's behaviours and processes.

When we are planning to develop a new strategy for organizations, it is necessary to determine the environmental impact of new technologies, worker's needs, desires and knowledge of existing organizational culture. In order to realize the strategy successfully, the people must to know in which direction they want to divert the organization, to understand what it takes to operate the organization effectively and develop it in that direction. Only the organizational culture helps us to create a management system, which includes interaction with other persons and machineries, leadership and control, sketch out strategies and tactics, and programme, timetable and needful controls to manage an organization, to satisfy both managers and employees' needs. (Marios Alexandrou, 2010)

Organization - a group of individuals seeking common goals. Therefore, organizational effectiveness, the ability to successfully develop and operate depends from the people working there. (Bent, 2010) It is very important that the organizations' members have the common understanding of what is happening in the organization, what they seek for and what means they use to achieve their goals. Thriving organization relies on a powerful force - values and belief system or in simple words organizational culture. Each organization is characterized by a distinctive culture, which leads to the positive effect on employees. According to J. Kinard (1988) organizational culture is affected by external and internal forces. Exterior - the political, social, economical and technological, interior - the organization's resources and management value orientations. Organizational culture is something that is transmitted to new employees as the correct way to perceive, think and act in relation to challenges and opportunities facing the organization Cray (1998). According to E.Schein (1990), organizational culture is necessary in order to solve these problems of organization: mission and strategy, objectives, measures, assessments, adjustment, common language and conceptual categories, group boundaries and acceptance, friendship, rewards and punishments.

Environmental impact on organizational culture is undeniable. J Collins and J. Porras (1994) do some research to determine what strategy use the strongest world's corporations like Wal-Mart, Toyota Motors, AXA , China National Petroleum and Microsoft. Many companies are adapting to changing environment, and modify some elements of the strategy and culture, while market leaders keep their ideology. Each company's operating efficiency is based on strict, but specific norms. R. Ackoff (1981) suggests that the organization is a system composed of fallowing elements: behaviour of each element on the entire system o f human behaviour, the influence of elements as a whole is independent and lastly all elements are linked in that they cannot occur entirely independent group. Thus, the organizational culture is affected by all those listed factors. From each member of organization depends on how culture emerges and the managers are responsible for developing organizational culture and those values and priorities which are important to them.

It is noted that the organizational culture has a positive effect on efficiency. It is also an important balance between management and dynamics of the organization, because it is always more than one method of control. The relationship between the managers and the staff is efficiently strong. S. P. Robbins (1991) proposes to analyze an organizational culture, based on dozen of characteristics that are most valued in the organizations. When all characteristics are analyzed we can see what things are very important for members of the organization, which organization's systems are functioning effectively and harmoniously and where they need to work on. (Cornwall, Perlman 1990)Altering the organizational culture is not easy. Many leaders underestimate how long it takes to achieve real and lasting changes in organizational culture. Some authors have questions whether the culture of the whole can be changed. If it is possible, it requires a lot of time, persistence and patience. Finally, cultural changes mean a new behaviours and new values. Culture change - it is not only complicated but also it took a lot of time.

Changing the organizational culture, the problems are likely to be sufficiently high as the organizational culture changes include all parts of organization. The biggest opposition may lead to the same organization who does not know if they change the benefits. The people are used to a steady relationship, values and communication network (Simanskiene, 1998). And any changes in the organizational culture frightens them, they feel unsecure, because there is variety of problems. S. Sink (1985) argues that every organization faces unique challenges and the analysts have to analyze the general principles in specific situations in the company. In order to change organizational culture effectively it requires the inclusion of all employees, emphasize the expected results of promoting workers' identification with the organization, reward people who are stuck by the guidelines provided and monitor all the feedback because it is the necessary to manage the changes.

The most sceptical detractors argue that organizational culture as a whole cannot be created by the managers; organizational culture is embedded in informal interactions and norms. For example, Schein found that a strategy for cultural change that focused on the 'bottom line' and expected engineers to 'sell their services to clients caused many to resist and threaten resignation. (Hdinc, 2008) Therefore, the critical school tends to be highly sceptical about claims of managing organizational cultures, regarding the claims as naive and unethical. Moreover, a strong corporate culture does very little efforts to alter the nature of the employment relationship in any meaningful way. The concern with the culture may obscure enduring conflict. After all, it would be naive to believe that a single culture exists in all organizations, or that cultural engineering will reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. (Promptly, n.d.) Furthermore, it is perfectly reasonable to suggest that complex organizations might have many cultures, and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other. (Wilson Wong, 2010)

In conclusion, this essay is trying to evaluate the importance to understand the key principle of motivation, group and team working in the organization and organizational culture itself. The essay helps to understand the strengths and weaknesses of different motivational theories in the field of international business. Also it gives an overview of companies' structure and culture, which can be influence on team performance. Another important thing was distinguished differences between group and team working, which can improve the company's performance in certain ways. Besides that, the successful work environment could combine many features especially in contemporary world, just need to know how to encourage and to know how to motivate employees in order to improve benefit to companies.

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