Organizational And People Management System Commerce Essay

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According to Lammers and Hickson, (1979, p.10) cited in (Harris, Brewster and Sparrow, 2004) suggest that culture and leadership style is a key determinant of an organisation context, in which human resource policies and practices need to be developed, moreover cross culture studies and frame work will maximise the manager's value across the nation and it will enable manager to find out the link between culture and leadership style.

The first concerning issue regarding the expatriate assignment during the international assignment is lack understanding of host country's culture which might create difficulties for expatriate and cause of early repatriation.

According to Dowling, Festing and Engle (2008) states that during the period of expatriation lack understanding of host country's culture will create difficulties for expatriate which might be the cause of early repatriation. As a consequence, Dowling et al (2008) suggest that avoidance of early repatriation can significantly effective and beneficial on providing pre departure cross culture training. Moreover cross cultural training Programme can be divide into five categories such as expatriate training should focus on country of assignment, cultural assimilatiors technique, language training, sensitivity training and field experience.

In addition, Francesco and gold (2005) gives extensive comments on cross cultural training Programme and explained different approaches; for instance, culture brief approach will explains the host country's culture, customs, and traditions, furthermore area brief approach will explains country's history, economical and political issues. Also usages of different techniques such as role play technique which allows trainees to act on a situation that in future s/he might face as an expatriate. Moreover, culture assimilator technique encompasses the host country's culture, therefore before the departure an organisation should provides an opportunity for manager/staff to visit the host country culture.

Furthermore, Lee and Croker (2006) explained the importance of expatriate training, such as expatriate training is the key element for the success of business at global level and firms need international management experience and competence to survive in the overseas marketplaces. Therefore, after the expatriate training it is vital for companies to analyses the expatriate training. In addition, Harzing and Ruysseveldt (2004) gives extensive comments on expatriate training analyses and divide into three categories, for instance, organisational level analysis will explains how cross culture training assists and supports the organization's global strategy; furthermore, individual (expatriate) level analysis will explain how expatriate perceive the issue regarding the cross culture and their existing level of cross culture knowledge and skills, also, assignment level analysis will identify the required cross cultural skills and knowledge to perform the global assignment effectively and efficiently.

Moreover, selection of staff for international assignment is another important issue. According to Joynt and Morton (1999, p.89) explained, selection of international manager should be based on following points such as international manager should be parent country national (PCN) and have ability to focus on international market, also should be multi culture team member and had already undertaken short visit to numerous overseas location and involves in international activity, moreover manager have ability to transfer the knowledge. In addition, Harzing and Ruysseveldt (2004) discussed selection process as an ethnocentric approach and explained that multi national corporations (MNC) will appoint parent country national on top position for at their subsdries to achieve the positive result, for instance, parent country nationals have familiarity with head office goals and objective, also it gives opportunity for easy exercise of control over across the border, moreover, it establish effective communication with head office personnel. On the contrary parent country national will face difficulties to understand local language and lack of awareness regarding political and local culture issues, also it excess the cost of expatriation.

Furthermore, implementation of strategies and human resource policies according to host country Laws and regulations is a second concerning issue regarding international assignment. Therefore it is highly recommended that Company needs to consider human resource policies in advance.

According to Marchington and Wilkinson (2005) define advanced human resource planning will provides an opportunities to consider the potentially positives implications for many features such as psychological and legal, also advanced human resource planning provides long term employees' security and reduces redundancy. Furthermore, it also encourages employees to understand and develop link between business and human resource plans, moreover it provides better control on staffing cost and enable employees to make more informed judgements about the skills and attitude mix in the organization, also it is helpful to generate and maintain staff profile which is vital important for every organisation to claims and promote equal opportunities.

In additions, Bartlett and Ghoshal (2000) cited in (Harzing and Ruysseveldt 2004) defined different strategic approaches. For instance purpose of these approaches is to focus on the combination of the sources of competitive advantage and strategic objective, such as, multidomestic strategy approach can used within the country to provide prime importance for one of the means to achieve the different strategic objective; moreover, international strategy approach can used for exploitation and transfer of technologies from developed at home to less developed international market, furthermore global strategy approach can used to meet the global objectives and transnational strategy approach can used to achieve the domestic and international goals.

Furthermore, as regarding to the issue of staff pay and reward, company should understand the importance of employee's motivation and define the legal framework for pay and reward.

According to Torrington, hall and Taylor (2008) define, reward is clearly center to the employment relationship and it motivates staff retention at work place and helps to achieve organisational goals. Furthermore, Mullins (2005) cited in (Robinson, 2006. p133) defined the link between motivation and performance. Such as motivation can be used to explain employee's behavior and performance, on the contrary, unmotivated employees are unable to satisfy their job needs and expectations also when employees do not get motivation from anywhere, possibly s/he may engage in negative behaviour which may affect on his performance and organisational productivity. Therefore motivation is directly related to staff behaviors and performances.

In addition, Locke's (1968) goal theory cited in (Robinson, 2006, p.126) shows a relationship between specific difficult goals and people's performance of a task. In fact it is accepted a valid and useful motivation theory in organisational psychology and behaviour to set process to measure employee's performance, for instance performance appraisal system. As related to performance Foot & Hook (2002, p.237) explained performance appraisal is a process of sharing and understanding of what you needs to achieve, furthermore basic aim for performance appraisal is to maximise the performance of individual, team and organisation and help to set reward according to employees' performance.

Furthermore, as regarding to tall hierarchal organisational structure, Marchington and Wilkinson (2005) states it is vital important for companies to remove traditional bureaucracy between top level management to bottom level employees and establish a flat organisational structure. Furthermore flat organisational structure is more responsive able to cope with fast moving change with in the organisation, also due to few layers of management chain of command from top management to bottom level staff is short and the span of control is wide. Moreover reduction of hierarchal layers will improve employee self confidence, quality of life and employees would have more power, responsibilities and decision making power.

Moreover, as regarding the issue of "Response to change", Simons, Germans, and Ruijters, (2003) states employees attitude towards organisational change is in variety of ways; for instance, depend on the nature of change, As a consequence, Simons et al (2003) suggest that it is manager's responsibility to make sure that the change are reasonable also understand these reactions and involves employees into change process also discuss the out comes of change and educate workforce.