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The literature has suggested that structure and culture in organizations exist in close alignment. Structure is one of the determinants of culture; conversely, culture has been shown to have an influence on the organizational structure and operational systems in an organization (Martins & Terblanche 2003, p. 70).
Both are mechanisms for the coordination of organizations: structure as an integrating mechanism for organizational activities, and culture as an integrating mechanism concerned with the behavior and values within organizations.
Every organization has its own set of culture and structure depending on the goals and objectives of the organization. A culture is or can be:
A set of common understandings around which action is organized, finding expression in language whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960).
A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to new members (Louis 1980).
A system of knowledge, of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting that serve to relate human communities to their environmental settings (Allaire and Firsirotu 1984).
Organizational structure is the way in which the interrelated groups within an organization are set up to allow them to function smoothly from a large stand point. The two main purposes of successful organizational structure are to ensure the effective communication between various parts of the company, as well as to increase coordination between the different departments.
Culture and Structure of Alokozay group of companies:
The part that culture and structure share in an organizations success is vital. Different organizations have different structure and culture. According to the organization that I have chosen to represent, in this organization there is not a specific culture as it is a multi-national organization therefore people of various cultures work for them. They therefore make a friendly culture which is up to their requirement through the different cultures that their employees bring and also with a little bit of influence from the culture of the environment they are in. A culture does not always remain the same it changes with the environment it is in, as it gets influenced by that particular culture. In the above mentioned organization the structure used is the matrix structure. This structure is used in large organizations as they have multiple and complex tasks which requires the matrix structure. Matrix structure creates dual lines of authority and combines functional, product, process and customer departmentalization. Advantages of this structure is the efficient allocation of specialists, however a structure always has its flaws as nothing is perfect and in this particular structure the disadvantage is that it does not follow the unity of command concept hence leading to confusion and conflict. The decentralization process is also followed by this organization. Decentralization is the degree to which decision making is systematically distributed and delegated throughout the organization, i.e the middle and lower level. Advantages of decentralization is that actions are taken quickly to solve the problems and when employees give input in decision making they consider themselves as a part of the organization, therefore keeping them motivated. Thus, the motivation of employees plays a pivotal part in an organizations success in today's world.
Factors influencing the Organization:
The culture and structure is a very important part in an organization, without these an organization cannot exist let alone be successful. A good culture provides a good friendly environment in the organization which is helpful in bonding employees with each other and helps them be motivated and thus the relationship between the employees and the managers will remain good. A good structure in the organization helps them to work quickly rather than taking time, which helps them in achieving their goals swiftly and more efficiently. In this kind of an organization, less conflicts arise as the communication level between each other is healthy due to them sharing views and ideas with each other and also as well as having a friendly environment. However no organization nor its culture or structure are perfect, everyone has its flaws.
M2: Discuss what approach of management adopted by the organization, with focus on management functions, roles and authority.
Ufone is a wholly owned contributory of PTCL (Pakistan Tele Communication Limited), established to operate cellular telephony. The company commenced its operations, under the name of Ufone, from Islamabad on January 29, 2001.
During the year, as an end result of PTCL's privatization, 26% of its shares were acquired by Emirates Telecommunication Corporation (Etisalat). Being part of PTCL, the management of Ufone has also been handed over to Etisalat. During the year July 2005 to June 2006, Ufone started to tale strides towards the path of success. The Company further spreader its coverage and has added new cities and highways. Ufone has network coverage in more than 3475 locations and across main highways of the country.
Nature of Managerial Authority:-
The primary responsibilities of management towards the owner is to assure a fair and reasonable rate of return on capital and fair return on savings can be firmed on the basis of difference in the risks of business in different fields of activity. With the growth of business, the shareholders can also expect admiration in the value of their capital.
Responsibility towards employees:
Responsibility towards employees relate to the fair-haired wages and salaries, satisfactory work environment, labor management relations and employee interests. Fair wages should be based on labor efficiency, the existing wage rates in the same or bordering areas and relative importance of jobs. Manager's salaries and allowances are expected to be related with their responsibility inventiveness and skill. The spread between minimum wages and highest salaries should be reasonable. Employees are expected to build up and maintain good relationships between superior and subordinates. Another aspect of responsibility towards employees is the provision of welfare facilities like safety and security of working conditions, medical facilities, and housing, canteen, leave and retirement benefits.
Managerial role in Ufone:-
Managers of Ufone take surveys and collect the information from different sources regarding the competitor's, wants of the customers. Managers collect all these data from different newspaper, magazines, etc. Managers are the internal and external information providers to their organization.
Basically a spokesperson is he who speaks on the behalf of his organization. Spokesperson of Ufone has the responsibilities to transmit the information, data, policies and instructions of the organization to the outsider's.
Functions of management:-
Managers of Ufone have the responsibilities to check on the employees of the organization and give them tasks. Managers give orders, instruction; announce the policies etc to their subordinates. All of them obey their orders/instructions properly without any objection.
A manager has to perform the role of a leader, he has to be an idol for the employees so they look up to him in times of need and obey him. He has the duty of keeping the employees motivated at all times. He has to have the ability of resolving conflicts whenever they arise and he also has to have an effective way of communication between him and his employees so he gets to know how swiftly everything is running.