Organisational Behaviour Is Defined Commerce Essay


Organisational behaviour is the study of understanding about human behavior in the organisations. Burrell and Morgan ,1979 introduced that there are four paradigms: functionalist, interpretive, radical-humanist, and radical structuralist. First, the functionalist paradigms is in each aspect of society is interdependent, real existence and contributes to society's functioning as a whole (Gareth Morgan, 1980). The paradigm possesses a pragmatic orientation, relate with analyzing society in a way which show useful knowledge. (John Hassard, 1991). Second, the interpretive paradigms, social world has a very precarious ontological status, and passes a society reality does not possess an external concrete form(Gareth Morgan,1980).Researchers in this paradigm try to observe "on-going processes" to better understand individual behavior and the "spiritual nature of the world". Third, the radical humanist critique that the alienating modes of thought which characterize life in modern industrial societies (John Hassard,1991)In this paradigm, process of reality creation may influenced by social and psychic processes which control the mind of human beings, in way which alienate them from the potentialities inherent in their true nature as humans. Last, in the radical structuralist paradigm which is tied to a materialist conception of the social word, which is defined by concrete ,ontologically real structures (Gareth Morgan,1980). In this paradigm, the social world is intrinsic tensions and contradictions.

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For example, "in functionalists theory emphasizes that organizations and their member may orient action and behavior to achievement of future states" (Gareth Morgan, 1980).

Besides that, metaphor of organization can be help in improvement of efficiency in classical management theory and our understanding of society in weber's theory. (Gareth Morgan 1997) identified eight metaphors affect the way people understand organisations. Firstly, organization as machine has the basis for continuum of organizational form (Burns and Stalker, 1961) and "has influenced many attempts to measure organizational characteristics." Secondly, organization as organism: adapting and continually evolving to fit into its environment. Thirdly, organization as brain: collect different kinds of information and try to make sense of the information. Fourth, organization as culture: which have their own distinctive values, rituals, ideologies and beliefs. Fifth, organization as Political Systems is a system of political activity, with patterns of competing interests, conflict and power. Sixth, organization as Psychic Prisons; which imprison themselves with their own ideas, thoughts, images and actions. Seventh, organization as flux and transformation is an expression of processes of transformation and change. Eighth, organization as instrument of domination is systems try to exposing the ethical and social dimensions as important points of focus. In the future, metaphor of organization can improve creativity and potentially move in new direction, which allow for a better understanding the many slide character of organizational life (Morgan, 1986)

Organisational behaviour helps people in building motivating climate in the organization. Motivation is the process and it encourages people to work effectively to achieve the organisational goal. According to Baron and Greenberg (2007) "motivation is the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behaviour toward attaining some goal". Besides that, Abraham Maslow (1954) introduced about hierarchy of needs model and how people satisfy various personal needs .It can be which can be divided into basic needs: physiological, safety, love, and esteem and growth needs: cognitive, aesthetics and self-actualization. Maslow's theory is useful to "help us to understand human behaviour and to select motivational strategies appropriate for the individuals we are motivating" (Halepota, 2005), while (Hertzberg, 1959) conducted that two-dimensional paradigm of factors which are motivating factors and hygiene factors. According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.

All the organizations are driven with a desire to achieve a set of goals. Leadership have the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goal. (Robbins, 2006).By study of leadership, it can help in improvement of management control strategies. (Paul Thompson, 2003). As a good leader playing an incentive role in the concern's working. He motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and performs their work effectively and efficiently. (Fiedler, 1967) suggested that qualities that people often associate with leadership, guiding others through providing a role model and through willingness, charismatic inspiration is to attractiveness to others and the ability to influence e this esteem to motivate others. By having leadership, people can work better in future and more effective performance.

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According to (Mullins, 1999) the success of organization is highly dependent on people. People are the factor in determining of the organization. This can be seen that the behavior of people operate with three specific levels in an organization: individuals level, the groups level and organizations level( Ricky W. Griffin,2012).Individual level analysis, individual, interact of interdependent to pursuit common goal.In the group level analysis,the effects of group characteristics and process on organisational behaviour. A group is two or more people who interact to achieve the goal. A team is a group in which members work together to achieve a common group goal. In organization level analysis, organization as a whole and have important effect on the behavior of individual and group. An organization's structure controls how people and groups cooperate and interact to achieve organizational goals. Example: "the way in which individual, group, and organizational characteristic work together is illustrated in the way General Motor (GM) and Toyota cooperated to reopen a car assembly plant in Fremont, California". (Jennifer M. George, 2007)

(Robbins, 2005) criticized that by studying organisational behaviour can help people in improving skill are to managerial effectiveness.(Henry Mintzberg, 1973) has identified those ten roles which are divided into three categories: interpersonal, informational, and decisional skill. Interpersonal skill can communicate have ability to listen and understand to people. Informational skill has the responsibility to send out information to other. Decisional skill is develop more alternatives to choose and select. In the future, people can uses their skills and respects their ability to use their minds in efforts to organize their work. It also can help people get the job done, and manage the job more effectively and efficiently.

Max Weber defines power as "the possibility of imposing ones will upon the behaviour of other people." (Max Weber, 1954).This can be show that power play an important role in the effectiveness of the organization.. Power is describes that the capacity of A has to influence the behavior of B, while the B act in congruence with A's wishes (Robbins, 2005).They are two sources of power: formal power and informal power. "Formal power is based on individual's position in an organization, while informal power is that come from an individual's unique characteristic". (Robbins, 2005 ). The ability of individuals or groups which is by power can make their own concerns or interests count. Sometimes, power involves direct use of force, but always accompanied by development of idea, which show the actions of the powerful. Example: by reward power ability to offer or provide or provide the tangible or benefit which people wants or need it. (Martin, 2006). The most evident example of organizational reward is increasing in pay, or a promotion (Griffin and Moorhead, 2011).Besides that, power play important role in generation Y, it can facilitate the power to them and motivate them each other.

The important study of organisational behaviour help people understand how the diversity of a workforce affects behavior, performance, and well-being .Different people work differently in different situation .The term we can describing this challenge is workforce diversity. (Robbins, 2006). Fred Luthans (1993) "has defined diversity as the presence of members of different ages, genders, ethnic groups, and or educational background in an organization". A diverse workforce includes woman, people of color, the physically disabled senior citizens, and gay and lesbians. For example: at Japan, women long confined to low paying temporary jobs, moving into managerial positions. (Robbins, 2005) By diversity of workforce, it also can improve decision making and organizational performance. (Jennifer M. George, 2007)

Besides that, Quality management (QM) driven by the contain attainment of customer satisfaction to improve all the way in organisational process. (Robbins, 2005) "Many organizations pursuing QM have also sought to improve product quality by forming cross-functional teams in which workers from different functions such as manufacturing, sales, and purchasing pool their skills and knowledge to find better ways to produce high-quality goods and services. ( Jennifer M. George, 2007)".

Management is a process of planning and performances in organization. (Joseph Massie, n. d.) States that "management is a social and technical process that utilizes resources, influences human action and facilitates charges in order to accomplish and organization's goals". The purpose of management is to discipline of the management and practice that make organization work. (David knight, 2006).There are four principle management process called P-O-L-C, which stands for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. (Jennifer M. George, 2007) Planning is an ongoing step and can be highly specialized based on achieve organizational goals. In organizing establishing a structure of relationships that how members of an organization work together to achieve the goal or objectives. In leading involve of encouraging and coordinating individuals or groups so that all so that work together to achieve a goal. Controlling is the final management in process. It evaluates the results against the goals. In fact, management is doing a lot of heavy lifting. (Magretta, 2002).Example, Tesco company is one of the world's leading retailers, they has well management process in their business, and provide excellent customer service, and ensure high levels of customer satisfaction. In the future, management process can inspire people to achieve their goal and useful guidance to manage organizational behaviour.

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Nowadays, many people spend the better part of their lives working in organizations. The organizations have influence our lives so powerfully, we have every reason to be concerned about how and why those organizations function. By Understanding organizational behaviour can help people in their work place to achieve the goal or objective. The value of organizational behavior is that it isolates important aspects of the manager's job and offers specific perspectives on the human side of management: people as organizations, people as resources, and people as people. (anonymous, 2006) In conclusion, every organization need to implement organisational structure as the main core for business to work together in order to achieve the goal. (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010).In my opinion, organisational behaviour is considered to be primary asset for an organization's growth .Thorough knowledge in organisational behaviour improve the communication skill among employees for future.

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