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In this type of role culture Handy describes this culture as the Greek temple in which the decision is taken from the highest position and rest all the pillars works as the functional unit. In this culture the strength lies in specialization within the pillars. The functional units have the interaction through the rules, job descriptions etc.Those organizations that follow this type of culture generally they work on the pattern of paper system. The company who follows this type of culture there is no such power like personal power which totally depicts the Weber's pure theory of bureaucracy. In this type of culture the functional unit should have the proper knowledge about the job rather than the skills and the abilities. Handy suggest that this type of culture only should be followed by those organizations that does not change their environment rapidly and they try to remain constant.
The task culture:
In this of culture Handy says that this culture should be adopted by those organizations only who are involved in the research activity and those are dynamic in nature. In this of culture those organizations that follow they are not constant and they change their nature depending upon the tasks to meet their future requirements. In this type of organization the communication among the members is good and they also adapt the change quickly. Influence in the organization culture depends upon the up to date information.
The personal culture:
In this type of culture Handy says that this culture includes the model of management, in which the decisions are taken collectively by the suggestion by each .In this type of culture if there is formalized structure it helps in the services and the needs of the individuals within the structure. This type of culture is very much suitable for those types of organizations who are of self-group or some community but this type of culture cannot be used in the business organization.
In the T.G.I Friday's the culture that is followed is the task culture in which the organization works according to the task and the objectives and all the functional unit are collaborated to each other and all are given equal importance. By following this type of culture the TGI Fridays are able to compete with the rest of the food industry and use the new technology to prepare food and try to update the information.
According to me the organizational structure which the TGI Friday's is following is the most appropriate structure and due to which these days they are able to increase there stores and if they follow this type of structure soon their objective will be fulfilled and they would be soon market leader of UK food industry and may be in future they would open their stores international as well so according to me the organizational structure that they are following is absolutely good and it doesn't need any further changes.
Task-II :Examining Leadership
As Ulrich and Lake (1990) remark, "Human Resource Management" (HRM) system can be the source of the organizational capabilities that allows firms to learn and capitalize on new opportunities.
The three HRM activities of T.G.I FRIDAY'S
Human Resource Planning
Recruitment and Selection
Human Resource Planning: In this process they try to analyze the staff requirements for the organizations and make plans to meet the requirements. However the HRM manager of T.G.I Friday's annually plan to satisfy needs for human resources for the entire organization. However in achieving this, he the HRM manager conducts detailed analysis of the staff requirements for the organization by anticipating future changes. Included in his annual plan, is a statement of how the gaps are to be filled, decisions about recruiting internally or externally.
Recruitment and selection: In this the manager try to encourage suitable applicant to apply for the post through advertisement, and then choosing employees from the among the pool recruitment. However, the second most important HRM activities of T.G.I Friday's in creating a workforce,is finding a staff whose attributes match the available jobs. While performing this activity the define the job very well and also try to invite applications through different channels like BBC, Finance times ,Leaflets etc .They decide upon suitable selection method systematically to select person and finally ,introduce new employee to work situation which is termed as induction.
Performance Management: In this the manager try to make the relevant HRM decisions through evaluating people in their jobs such as staff development. However, in order to achieve this objective and elicit effective performance, the HRM manager of T.G.I Friday's conducted monthly evaluation of employees in their jobs to make relevant decisions. These cover pay. Promotion, training and development counseling, and human resource planning.
The Distribution of power and authority within the department of the organization is all over the HR manager who holds the responsibility on the T.G.I Friday's organization. He is the only person who see the overall HR departments and helps in taking the decisions of the HR department as well as it guides its staff members during the functions which are being performed with the organization in the HR department.
The style of leadership of the head of the HR department of the TGI Friday's is very much good and the leadership performed by the HR manager is also good which can be seen by achieving the targets or we can say the objectives set up by the organization. While we discuss the Human Resource Planning the HRM manager always anticipate future changes in the organization in terms of staffing and make plans ahead (usually one or two years) to meet the staffing requirements of the TGI Friday's such as the example of opening the new branch in Fulham. During recruitment and selection the HRM manager advertise a post through various media, such as metro and lite newspaper, channel 4 TV, leaflets, etc. After receiving the applications, he then conducts a panel interview comprising HR manager, assistant HR manager, Marketing manager, Finance manager and other HRM consultants etc to choose suitable employees from the short listed applicants.However,every employee must pass through these rigorous recruitment and selection process before you are offered a job in TGI Friday's. In the performance management the HRM manager of TGI Friday's usually conducts one to one appraisal interviews at the end of every month, this help in evaluating the performance of each employee for the past month and then it helps in deciding training requirements for that particular month. Depending on the results of appraisal interviews the employee concern will be giving the opportunity to choose the time training he or she thinks will think will be suitable for his development, than the HRM department choosing their own training method for the employees.
According to John Naylor (2004/P465), "Appraisal is more than a manager's assessment of a person's progress. From the exchange arise opportunities to improve relationships, share problem and enhance team performance.Sometimes, results are used for assessing bonuses, although such practice can restrict frank discussion".
However, I would make some recommendations for the HRM department of the TGI Friday's to apply in order to improve HR performance:
The HRM department should create a forum where employees will be given the opportunity to declare issues serving as an impediment to effective performance.
The HRM department should also create a conductive and enabling environment, where employees will suggest their own ways to improve performance.
The HRM department of T.G.I Friday's should consider introducing employees relations which involves industrial relations-managing and marinating formal and informal relationships with trade unions and their members, employees voice-giving them the opportunity to have a say in management decisions that affect them, and finally communications-creating and transmitting information of interest and concerns to employees.
Task-III: Examining Motivational Theories
According to Abraham Maslow during 19th centuries along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in 1950's in which he mainly focused upon the needs of the employees that is psychological. When he gave this theory he put the human needs into the five sections that should be fulfilled of the employees during their work.
All the needs he sectioned into the hierarchical manner in which he stated that the basic need of an employees is satisfied then only he get self-motivated then only he moves to the next section. For we talk about the basic need of all employees is hunger if that is not satisfied they will never be self motivated so all the organization should help them in satisfying the basic need first.
He also suggested that all the organization should provide good incentives to their employees like given them bonuses, safe and security, etc these all things he stated in the hierarchy structured which he formed while giving this theory.
In the TGI Fridays the reward are given like this only like in this organization all the employees are given that amount of minimum salary that they can earn their livings and can satisfy their basic needs and the employees who are working on the high level or they are working for TGI Fridays since long years they are given incentives like increase in their salary and safety and security is provided to them. People are paid according to the hours they work and they are not cheated so people enjoy doing work over their and seeing all this incentives provided by TGI Fridays they are always self motivated.
According to Frederick Herzberg (1923-)he believed in a theory which is termed as two-factor theory of motivation. He sated in that there are sometimes those factors which help the employees to get themselves motivated directly while some of the factors are those who de-motivate an employee if it is not present in an organization that can be Hygiene Factor.
He says that motivators they are mainly concerned with the job like how much they are going to earn? Is this job going to be effective for them in future, Will they get promotion etc while hygiene factor are main because they surround the job. In this he says that whether the employees earn more money and get a reputed job but all these factors does not make him stronger to work hard while the hygiene factor make them fit and motivated to perform the work properly.
In this theory he also laid the emphasis on the democratic approach towards management by changing the nature of the job which can be done by different methods so that the employees should enjoy doing their work. The several methods that can be there are:
Job enlargement: In this workers who work within the organization should be given the different type of task to perform so that they like doing variety of works.
Job enrichment: In this they should involve workers in which they should be given different type of works in a wider range that should be complex like they the work should be challenging. While doing it they would be happy when they achieve and praised by the manager in front of everyone.
Empowerment: In this he suggests that the employees should be given the power to take their own decision in which ever field they are working in.
In the TGI Fridays the Herzberg theory is applied because it is related to the food industry in which the hygiene factor plays an important role because if the company does not see the hygiene factor it can take them to the loss as if the food is not kept in the proper place and if they are given to the customers like this then it can lead the customers to have several diseases and if this all happens nobody will come to this organization. While organization also follows the democratic approach to management because sometimes the person who works on the till to pay and collect money they sometimes work to help the customers or sometimes they help the staff in serving the food so this way they enjoy doing the work over there.
While working in the TGI Friday's the managers use the reward system to gain the commitment on an employee by giving their employees discount vouchers for their friends and family, by giving bonuses in their salary as well proving free food to them all the time. While if the employees work properly and they effectively work they are praised in front of every employees and for which they get self motivated and as well as they are happy working in this environment and also give their commitments to this organization. Sometimes the manager arranges the trip for and employees working over there which help them get refresh and also make them feel happy as they think that company accepts them as the family members and if they are getting all this benefits and rewards from the organization they are work within the organization as they work in the family.
Task-IV: Understanding Teams and Team Behavior
There are many way by which an organization can bring effectiveness in the team.
Trust: Trust is very important factors foe the effectiveness of the company because if there will be no trust among the group member then they would not be able to work effectively. While In TGI Friday's the trust among the members of the organization is seen while working over there so they help in bringing the effectiveness within the organization.
Coordination: There should have coordination among team member because if there will be no coordination then people cannot complete the tasks on time. It is possible for the duplication of the task occur. In TGI Friday's the co-ordination among the members it good which helps in working smoothly within the organization and help them making the friendly environment.
Communication: All team should allow to freely communicating with each other because the miscommunication can lead to the problem in the organization. In TGI Friday's their is no communication gap within them and which help to work easily and also help them to work in time as all the departments have the good communication among themselves.
Knowledge and experience of people: All team members should have knowledge and experience about the condition in which they are working. This is very essential for effectiveness of team. While in the T.G.I Friday's when the recruitment of the members takes place the people who are applicable for the job they are only given the job and those who have the experience of their particular field they are being given job in those specific field so that they enjoy doing their work.
All these factors are very important for the effectiveness of team and every organization should choose its team member who posses these quality, because if any team don't has any of these quality then they may lose their target and may face problem in achieving their target. As, these all factors help the organization to make effective so all these factors are seen within the T.G.I Friday's and so we can say that T.G.I Friday's is one of the very well effective organization in the rapid growing food industry in UK.
While working in TGI Friday's in today's era the information technology is playing the vital role because as these days the information technology is rapidly changing day by day and T.G.I Friday's seeks towards it that they make the full use of IT technology so that they can prosper and should have the good development in the food industry. They make the full use of the IT sector like they generally perform the work within the organization using all the machines and tools rather doing the manual work. As, we all know if in the toady's fast moving world if an organization does the manual work it will consume lot of time and would lead to red-tapism. Using the present generation technology the T.G.I Friday's have make the large amount of difference from the different food industries for which they are day by day they are heading forward towards their objective which is to be the market leader of the UK food industry. Suppose if they had use the manual work they would not be able to handle so much customers which they have right now and the use of IT had helped them to make the proper balance within the organization because this also helps them to calculate the daily sales of the different stores which are running and also helps them to calculate the daily profit which they are earning. If all the team of TGI Friday's is working with each other this helps the organization to work smoothly and this also helps the organization to prosper. If all the department of the organization is showing the team effort then and if they have good communication among them then it helps them to work easily and effectively because each and every member of an organization likes to work in the friendly environment.