Operations And Process Defined With Resources Commerce Essay


Operations and process management define with direct resources and value-added activities that convert. The task of operations leaders create decisions, both strategic and tactical, in a variety of contexts counting amenities, technology, sourcing, and preparation and control. The objective of this task is for participants to better recognize the planned role of operations, and structure as well as enlarge tactical approaches that hold up the strategy of Marks and Spencer and UPS evaluate and contrast.

Marks and Spencer shaped in the late 1800s, is today one of the UK's one of the finest retailers of clothing, food, home products and financial services. M&S includes with

Increasing the speed of change and operational implementation in the business;

Leveraging M&S Direct by construction more channels to market;

Building our international portfolio to cultivate our global customer base; and

Reinvigorating our brand infrastructure

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UPS has become an expert in alteration, growing to a leading provider of air, ocean, ground, and electronic services. Over time, UPS has become a manager in global supply chain management. At UPS, global distribution and logistics involves supervision not only the movement of goods, but also the information and burial that move with those goods. Ever true to its modest origins, UPS maintains its reputation for integrity, reliability, employee ownership, and customer service. UPS promises for future promises even more accomplishments as the next chapter in the company's history is written.

The Current Customer Bases of Marks and Spencer

Marks and Spencer mechanism on the standard that the brand is normal to have probable customer concern ahead of their prospect. M&S is success with its excellence of products and brand images but the buyer base is different than other fashion retailers.


M &S leading the UK cloth and fashion world last decades. In the opposition marketplace M&S unsuccessful to recognize that the market has changed and that its customers are continually looking for designer clothes. The success of these M&S based on their ability to understand the fashion trends in the young and older generation as well as delivering their clothes in the right time and place and to the right customers

Fashion retailing Positioning:

Marks and Spencer creates their location on customer base on two ways:

Differentiation: They production a brand name via massive advertising in order to get the loyalty of the customer:

Cost leadership: Marks and Spencer strategy is annoying to follow the first model of strategy (differentiation); M&S did not differentiate itself by embodying fashion and the modern spirit in the clothes, that is why M&S is failing.

Market segmentation:

The customer segmentation plan of M&S differentiates than other. The fashion of Marks and Spencer just suits for officials and the old generation's customers.

Marks & Spencer Share Chart

August 2009 to August 2010

Figure: MKS Share Price

Objective of the market:

M&S is doing their marketing on middle age and young generation people. M&S products are neither inexpensive nor very expensive; the pricing should suit the budgets of the young working males and females who are working towards higher income.

Customer base overview of M&S

In the operational plan, Marks and Spencer should design stylish clothes and then try to augment its investment in publicity in order to construct its brand image on the values of manner. They should have to creation of cloths for young age group with fashion

Customer needs of Marks and Spencer

Total Quality Management 

One of the best techniques of quality declaration Mark and Spencer use is total quality management this goes beyond quality declaration.  This is troubled with creating quality culture so every worker seeks to enjoyment customers. T.Q.M requires that every employee is dedicated to doing the best job.

ISO 9000 

ISO 9000 is another quality scheme method which is significant to Marks and Spencer. This assessment is a reliable supplier of merchandise and services to use. Marks and Spencer are well recognized for given that high quality supplies and services for many years, they have also comprehensive their own quality control procedures into their suppliers' organisation to ensure dependability.

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Improve the Supply Chain:

By re-establishing closer operational relationships with its provide partners, in times gone by a unique strength, Marks & Spencer will achieve further

Developments in quality.


Product appeal and availability. 

Evaluation of the alternative approach to quality control 

In Mark and Spencer quality is very significant to the business. Inspectors that do difficult the common methods and carrying out excellence control carry out quality control. Marks and Spencer have quality control because it demonstrate how willing company want their clientele to be contented with their goods they receive.

Corporate Strategy

Marks and Spencer's corporate strategies are included in its mission statement.

Vision: The benchmark against which all others are deliberate

Mission: Making inspiring quality available to all

Values: Quality, value, service, innovation and trust

To analyze M&S strategy I am going to evaluate their SWOT analysis,


· Largest vendor in the United Kingdom by sales.

· Strong Cash Flow Position

· Increase turnover and trading profits.

· Brand awareness

· Human resources


· New products

· Market shift to globalisation

· Improvement &Alliances

· Customers command change to more value for money products

· Diversification

· Expand abroad supply chain


· Awareness of towering Prices

· Customer be short of of concern

· Ecological issues: Pollutions

· Buyer complexity and knowledge

· Substitute products or technologies THREATS

· New &existing rivalry

· Volatility in Price of raw products

· New legislations

· Economic recession

· Market move to globalisation

· Takeover bids

· Low cost retailers

· Extremely high competition for customers and resources

The Current Customer Bases of UPS

At UPS, it is very obvious that speed, quality, and customer service are looked upon with a high sense of significance. Of all the themes are in some way tied into their business strategy


TQM is quality assurance programme. It must be a way of existence for UPS. UPS have tried it as part of the latest management fad. UPS required changing to ensure their number one position in the industry would be maintained. They brought their administration together to inform them of the status of the company and to roll out TQM. A special management session of DOF (Delivering Our Future - Taking a Leadership Role in Total Quality) was designed to make an awareness of the spirited reasons for Total Quality and the role all management at UPS would play in the procedure.

UPS intended to teach TQM principles throughout the entire organization, and felt it was significant to have everyone pay money for into the process. They surveyed all the employees in the organization to find out their feelings about many areas of interest. The results: 67% were satisfied with their jobs, 13% were not satisfied and 20% were neutral. Only 50% of management surveyed felt it was possible to balance work and personal life at UPS. There were significant message issues from management to the employees that were identified: 50% felt teamwork took place, 50% felt they could trust the company, 43% felt they received cooperation from other units in the company, 60% responded favourably to the quality of training, and 50% felt there was good opportunity for advancement in the company. Based off this information, UPS employees showed the need for change and the difficulty that might be involved with trying to change such a large, traditional company.

Training on empowerment and possible breakdowns during empowerment was conducted. Soft skill expansion, such as listening, was conducted

The Quality process started in November of 1994. It started with the highest level of management in UPS.. The following eighteen strategies were developed in August 1995 and identified as key or critical to UPS's future success. The first eight are priority initiatives which were started in January of 1996 and will be skilful first within the first 18 months (by May 1997). The remaining strategies will be worked on after the 18 months (beginning May 1997).

Priority Initiatives

Remaining Strategies

Retention, Hiring, Orientation &Mentoring

Employee preparation

Cost Factors

Customer Point of get in touch with

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Asset operation.

Support and Service

Training and Education

Peak Season Aircraft.



Technology Investment

Employee Involvement

The "Road to Quality" is be a long one for UPS. The Quality at Work intensive course gives employees a clearer vision of where the company is heading and how it plans to get there. The objectives of the Quality at Work workshop were as follows:

View the world and your work from a systemic viewpoint.

Compare and contrast the present organization means with the new management method, based on systemic thinking.

Follow the Quality at Work development Process necessary to implement the continuous improvement cycle.

Begin to use tools to diagnose and improve a process.

The two day workshop helped UPSers analyze and improve their work methods in order to better serve their internal and external customers. UPS is using several methods to follow-up and re-iterate the training that employees received in the Quality at Work Workshop. One method is a weekly E-mail message called the "Quality Update" (Appendix C). 

Corporate Strategy

To analyze the overall Business corporate strategy Of DHL, I am going to use BCG matrix to evaluate the their process,



Basic strategic rules

Maintaining comparative market value.

Keeping sufficient resources available

Impact on Courier

Optimizing substance flow while expanding produce capacity


Optimizing supplier/customer service

Optimizing buying administration

Optimizing product-distribution systems


Question Mark

Maintaining relative market split

Exploiting cost-cutting potential

Releasing money

Impact on Courier

Maintaining supplier/customer examination

Rationalizing all logistics functions and systems


Cash Cow

Basic strategic rules

Gaining relative market share

Impact on Courier

Searching for manufacture sites

Recovering delivery service

Focusing logistics on special market segments


Poor Dog

Basic planned rules

Abandoning worried products

Minimizing losses

Impact on logistics

Minimizing inventories

Maintaining liberation service in only certain market segments

Concepts/Frameworks on Managing Operations of Marks & Spencer

Quality Management

A Quality Management System (QMS) such as gives the company's competitive advantages over their rivals in fulfilling their characteristic customer needs. It's an organization structure that gives proper wheel to the management in measuring risks and presentation in their business.

The Basic principles that enclose this notion are:

Performance of the product/service







Perceived Quality

Unfortunately the following elements regarding service quality is attracting equal or more attention.




Knowledge of Employees




Quality of Conformance

The quality of conformance is the pre buy promise that a company makes to their customer regarding the presentation of a certain product. The closeness between the artificial product and or service meets the stipulation of the design advertises by the company. But the Overall quality will dependent relative on both the quality of the actual product and the level of quality conformance it meets

Quality Assurance (QA)

This is a process which is helpful in the events of making sure the products and services comes out from the assembly line error less. This standard is there to make sure that all the products are at its best quality. Here the aim is to produce products with zero defects. Quality assurances are the responsibility of the labour force and employees, efficient team and group works rather than an inspector, although the quality inspectors will also play a vital role in it.QA is concerned with the quality efficiency and standard in the continuous production process.

Quality Control

This procedure is anxious with identifying and removing specific mechanism which falls below quality criterion set by the organization. This is an after manufacture procedures

Inspections and testing are the most curtail testing techniques to ensure all the products are equality on the quality standard.

The quality concept in the Context of Mark& Spencer

Marks and Spencer are well known for their excellence built goods. The company is always pursuing the scheme to satisfy the mainstream of their customer bases with the highest quality product and service possible. Their brand name has been recognized on the basis of quality standard and the customers know exactly what to expect from the company.

Quality pledge and quality control are very significant dimensional aspects for Marks and Spencer. To produce and sell the quality products and sustain the customer segments, it is important for Mark & Spencer to maintain a viable quality standard.

First establishing a brand and later Maintaining it is no easy task, each singular brand that Mark & Spencer sell are the accountability of Mark & Spencer. It means apart from of the brand, the customer will held Mark & Spencer accountable for any product they buy from Mark & Spencer.

'This year we have worked hard to further get better our quality and our clients have told us they have noticed this improvement''.

One exclusive means that a Mark & Spencer employ to maintain their high quality standards is the use of whole quality management, which goes further than quality assurance. 'Although the downturn has put family budgets under pressure, we believe our customers do not want low prices at the expense of quality or ethics'.

TQM is best described as a philosophy and idea of quality adopted by companies

that place great importance regarding quality at the heart of the organisation. In order to make it viable they encourage the idea of internal clients that every employee should see the other colleagues as a customer to whom they are bound to provide the highest quality service.

Quality Circles

Quality circles are the small team of workers who meets cyclically to discuss the work they do and develop newer and better ideas to get better the quality of their work. The finding will either be directly implemented or presented to the proper authority for evaluation.

ISO 9000

ISO 9000 is another well-liked quality standard among companies, Marks and Spencer are no difference. Marks and Spencer are a well recognized brand who is well known for their quality products. Recently they have comprehensive their quality benchmark and control measures among their supplier as well. Mark & Spencer have built their excellence reputation throughout many years, with high quality products. Such a certificates proves Mark & Spencer quality credentials among its customers.

Improve the Supply Chain

The priorities are now to eliminate repetition and increase clearness in the production process. Which can be done by re-establishing earlier ties between supply partners. This will regenerate the unique strength of Marks & Spencer in achieving better quality, value, product appeal, and availability.

The quality concept in the Context of UPS

Quality is not seen as an external issue within UPS, and the continuous development philosophy has become a necessary part of their strategy. Although the company has so far avoided the use of a variety of popular quality standards like TQM, QlTs and QATs, but they have placed the quality ethics so deep into their commerce strategies they might not need those quality measuring techniques after all.

Their quality vision goes beyond the traditional ISO 9000 standards which they achieved in 1990. 'The ISO 9000 standard gave us the framework upon which to base improved operating disciplines and we were the first express delivery company to obtain certification''.

The organization has widely exposed the quality ethics across various departments in the association to spread the agenda to make it a strong earth for quality aspects. Customer visibility was the top issue in the operational level regarding such matters:

Vehicle loading activities

Telephone mode

Correct classification

Drivers competence to deliver on time

UPS has also initiated a campaign called "Driving for Quality" to further make stronger their statements. New uniforms were future to begin a clear deal image and process a further statement that every employee in the association has a role in maintaining the quality.


The use of information is in the centre stage of scheme to enhance the eminence point for UPS Express. Their use of technology has brought massive further potentiality in the company and in general the industry.

A prime example of such use of technology is visible through their increase efficiency and outstanding service quality across the national boundaries.

UPS recently has installed data incurable systems in their vehicles in order to touch minute to minute product tracking quarries by the customers. This has also enabled them to respond


• The purpose of UPS is to carry out the assortment of QA performance assign by Country Quality Assurance Manager.

Principle Accountability

• Drafts all currently appropriate workflows within the organization studies such workflows to determine:

o Redundancies

o Bottlenecks

o Gaps

o Reporting requirements.

The Difference Between The Marks & Spencer and TNT Express

Mark & Spencer and UPS run their business in very different developed than one another. Mark & Spencer is a seller company specialized mainly in clothes and garments industry while on the other hand UPS is a logistics and Express postal corporation whose business diagram roles around transporting mail and goods for their clients. Both of the company have a very characteristic scheme made to suit their individual commerce needs.

Mark & Spencer is a sell company who relies on their advertising techniques and brand image to sell the goods. They relies more on the customer rather than business clients for profits. While the UPS relies heavily on the corporate clients to make their target profit.

Mark &Spencer


Product Orientation

Developed Based with integrated. After Sales services.

Service Oriented Company

Products Departments

Women swear, Lingerie

Menswear, Home


National, International

Special military, Freight Services.

Customers Dependability

Highly Dependable on the day to day customers. Corporate sales come second.

Relies mostly on the business Sales.


Multi-channel: Outlets, Online amass, Over the phone

Corporate Offices, agents, and restricted sales offices.

Brand Focus

Brand Image is very significant. Cost comes later

Cost and Expenditure is very Important, brand name image comes later.

Quality Focus

Quality revolves around the urbanized process, the quality of the over merchandise, and after sales armed.

Quality is focused by the appropriateness, dependability of the services, rational price tag.

Evaluate the mix of managing operations concepts/framework used by each

Of the organisation

Managing Operations Concepts Mark & Spencer

Mark & Spencer have realized that their old core head office systems were too obsolete to support the business' needs. They strong-minded to solve this difficulty by start on a Business Foundation Programme, Called SAP Retail. It will help them in centralizing their data in one location, replacing an innumerable of old.

Market Segmentation Management

M&S uses demographic segmentation in the means of identifying potential customers for its products. They use the demographic criteria such as: age, income, social class. Their prime customers are the 30 plus age groups with high income, high affordability with executive status in the civilization.

Fashion retailing Positioning

Mark & Spencer lead the UK garment industry, at least a part of it. They are the market leader on their customer segments; the established mature age groups.. They intend products which are classy, stylish but not fleshy and meet the life styles of their targeted customers.

Market Research

Mark & Spencer require to knowing about their customer's likings and expectations in order to better serve up them. Mark & Spencer run various types of surveys and campaigns to get as much information they can get about their customers.

Quality Management

M&S believe in the strategies of never compromising with the product quality even it means charging premium price. Improvements in the products segments of M&S are a result of their consistent innovation, research and development by the design and research team. It is these core values that helped Mark & Spencer with its continued success.

Business Responsibility

M & S have already achieved their targeted Plan A target - a 20% improvement in delivery fuel efficiency. So now they have further more increased it by 35% improvement by 2015.


Mark & Spencer has reduced waste and recycling wherever possible in their operation. They also have been committed them self to not to send any operational or construction waste to landfill by 2012

Natural resources

Mark & Spencer make sure that all their raw materials come from sustainable sources in order to protect the environment. Possible,

Health and wellbeing

The company promote high standard positive manner towards healthy living to its customers and employees. They now hold 38% healthier food shape in their Food ranges.

IT Systems

Mark & Spencer have already finished testing their new Point of Sale System (POS), which will bring competence and speed in a variety of store operations. They have also taken plan to put in it later this year. The new system will not only be more competent but also will bring improved customer experience, through a much operation for transactions and refunds. They also installed new stock management software into their systems.

Managing Operations Concepts UPS

UPS is highly dependent on their company clients; maybe the whole industry depends on the corporate clients. But UPS has its large number of shares in their European market; they have little markets in America and its nearby countries. Additionally, UPS also have started developing services for effective multi-channel marketing campaigns

New Focus Areas

UPS is revising its strategies by trying to identify new opportunities or upcoming threats in the industry or just to the company. The following focus areas are the initiation towards identifying those areas.

Individual solutions for each European flea market Segmenting

Focusing on reducing cost

Build on strong interlink European complex to its own advantage

Expansion through business and joint venturing

Gain advantage on early entry on Chinese and south American markets.

Stakeholders Management

UPS a strong track record in satisfying its --stakeholders' requirements. In the period of 2009 - 2009 €4.4 billion (65% of net cash generated), in the form of dividend and share buy-backs, has been returned to its shareholders. UPS employees and former employees were paid €19.5 billion in the form of wages, contributions and pension.

Employee management

UPS delivery employees - the persons in the brown uniforms driving the brown trucks - are full-time employees.  The vehicles, they drive are provided, gassed, and serviced for them by UPS.  The drivers are unionized and their presentation is carefully scrutinized by the corporation.  The company pays attention to every little detail of their performance to shave off even the smallest inefficiencies.

Social and Environmental responsibilities

With more than 100 years of examination behind our shield, UPS knows a thing or two about accountable business practices.  In the early 20th century, UPS pioneered the hub and spoke model for wrap up delivery operations. In this century, UPS continues its pioneering tradition with the expansion of package flow technologies, paperless invoices for international shipments, and revolutionary fuel administration strategies, to name a few. The end result of all these technology innovations is stellar customer service and a abridged environmental collision.

Much of UPS's environmental pains are focused on getting better efficiency, specifically on reducing miles flown and driven and using the most fuel efficient mode of transportation.


Mark & Spencer and UPS are two distinctive companies in two different industries. Their operation, strategies and employee policy differs in many ways. But what it's worth with all their differentiation they are both successful in their own distinctive industry. Mark & Spencer is a leading clothing retailer in the uk while the UPS is the market Leader worldwide. Both are a social responsible company and attract various fields of employees with their outstanding employee's policies and incentives. Nevertheless there are various types of threats arsing in both of the company industries, which need to be deal with carefully. Finally from the above discussion operation excellence achieved by both of the companies is one of the key factors leading them to the stage where they are now today.