This report was written at the request of Leonard S, Organization and Management tutor, to investigate and analyse management in an organization in the context of current management theory.
Scope and Methodology
The report considers a range of organization issues, researching key aspects of management within the organization. The organization's management structure and processes are analyzed and evaluated in relation to current theory.
The following sources were consulted:
Inderjeet Singh Dhillon
Supervisor: Dhindsa Associates Ltd
I have taken efforts in this assignment report. However, it was not seems possible without the help of our tutor Mr. Leonard S who guided our group and helped us in this report and especially thanks to the Supervisor Inderjeet Singh Dhillon of Dhindsa Associates Ltd. who gave us time for an interview and give us idea about his organization.
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Dhindsa associate is New Zealand's leading labour supply organisation. It is small organization and they recognize the vitally important role that each and every employee plays in helping to make the organization a success. New Zealand's most visited cinema multiplex and the chain's New Zealand flagship is located at Sky city Metro on Auckland's Queen Street which is the subject of the study (About Us).
The following aspects of the organisation management were investigated and analysed and these conclusions were drawn:
a. Type and size of Organisation
Estimated Number of Employees
Vision and Mission
b. Organisation Structure
Roles of Employer and Employees
c. Environmental factors
Code of conduct
d. Planning and control systems, process and strategies
Setting Short-, Medium-, Long-Term Plans
Day to Day Planning and Process (with example)
Finance, Operation, Human Resources and Information Management
e. Team structure and dynamics
Types of Teams and their Formation
Team Performance Monitoring and Measurement
Team Rewards for Achievements
Managing Planned and Unplanned Change
Motivational Strategies and Delegation
Staff Empowerment Strategies
2.1 Type and size of Organisation
Dhindsa Associates was established in 2006 as a sole trader organization in Katikati (Bay of Plenty). It was started as a Sole trader business but from 2010 business is carried out in partnership with another. The purpose of this organisation was to provide labour required by Kiwifruit Pack house and Avocado Pack house on contract basis. In this organisation 15 people work three of them working on the permanent basis two owners and one supervisor and other people works on the seasonal.
It seems good that Dhindsa Associates is in the bay of plenty area because there is always demand of the labours. The new partner who joined the business has brought in additional capital and expertise required by this organisation. And this organisation provides best labour with skills in that specialised area as per demand by the pack houses.
2.2 Organisation Structure
This organisation mainly handles by the owners they divided their tasks one of the owner is sleeping who just look for the net profit of the organisation throughout the season and annual basis and other owner is do most of the part which starts from directing, controlling and operating the workers to work in the orchards. After getting the instructions from the owner supervisor put the workers into their right fields as demanded by the pack houses. In the beginning, there was only 5 workers including the owners and as the organisation performing well by setting goals in the right way and make the use of the resources in the appropriate manner with the help of their workers now its growing every year and the result is it works with 15 workers including the owners itself.
By observing the structure of the Dhindsa Associates we came to know that structure of the organisation is flat with three levels; there are two owners then supervisor and then the workers. The top level (owners) who communicates with the supervisor how the task should be done, what are the requirements for the tasks to be done. After getting the goal supervisor tell the workers how to achieve it and give them the rules and monitor the workers frequently. Then worker follow the rules to get done the task. According to the area and my view there is no need to change in the structure of the organisation as the days coming in the future labour is not easily available. Finally it is good to say that the information flow in this organisation is to follow and owners have direct control on all the works.
2.3 Environmental factors
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Dhindsa associates started with two competitors in the field of supplying labour but now the counting of the competitors is more than two. This organisation is affected by number of organisation after two years of starting. Because of too many competitors in the market this organisation still maintaining the position in market by following there code of conducts. And other the task which is given to this organisation is completed within the due date. In the case of salary it gives negotiable salary compare to other organisation to their employees. This organisation loyal with their clients because clients are the basic part of an organisation. The organisation deals with the client very effectively and efficiently and clients feels compatible with the dealing of the organisation which helps the organisation in getting the work from the pack houses. That's why the organisation performing well and keeping themselves in the first preference of the clients zone.
The demand and supply are two factors that affect the working of an organisation. In bay of plenty there is always huge demand of the labour for the work of plantation of kiwifruit and avocados this organisation supplies labour to the pack houses for different task. But demand for the labour did not get completed within the work area for this purpose organisation has to look for the labour outside the bay of plenty. They make available workers from the Auckland, Hamilton on the seasonal basis.
There are few important climatic factors were identified as being important determinants of kiwifruit winter, growing season and rainfall. Indices for each of these factors were developed to enable mapping of the most suitable areas for kiwifruit production.
This organisation deals with the three seasons of the kiwifruit such as winter pruning, summer work and picking of the fruit as well as one season of avocados such as picking of avocados. In the bay of plenty area there is always a huge demand of the labour for seasonal work. According to ecological factor the demand of labor varies. Demand of labor is more in October to February month because it's growing time of the fruit (summer time) and all the pack houses require more labor. From June to September kiwi fruit vines are prune and tie down. Here the demand of labour got less as compared to growing time. Because pack house require skill persons. They only require skill persons who know how to prune and tie down the vines. All the output of fruit depends upon winter pruning. In summer weather kiwifruit vines are prune for optimum fruit quality. From April to June its time of getting the crop by picking and sending the fruit to the pack houses.
There are too many competitors in the market but Dhindsa associates is performing very well because of it gives discount on some of the work for example- related to the private growers.
Dhindsa associates provide the best and on demand labour of the area. Most of them are students who are outside the bay of plenty area. They provide them accommodation, transport facility and good pay rate than others. This organisation co-operate with their workers in decent manners.
By observing the above written factors it seems that ecological conditions make effect on the organisation. Ecological conditions for example- fast wind and continue raining effect the work of kiwi fruit very badly and also decrease the profit of the organisation and work of the workers.
Dhindsa associates are concerned about the laws. They employed the international students on the basis of rules that are set by the immigration of New Zealand. Wages which are given to the employees of this organisation are covering the labour rules.
Health and safety set for the each employee of the organisation whether they are casual or permanent. This organisation takes few steps regarding the health and safeties of their employees are
Providing safe and working environment
Providing safe work process, safe machinery, suitable protective clothing, equipment and provide safety information to workers
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Providing appropriate training and supervision
Monitoring health of employees in relation to workplace hazards
To deal with emergencies safety procedures are developed
Providing opportunities for workers to participate in health and safety.
This organisation has their own system of values, assumptions, beliefs and norms that members share. It reflects about how things are done around here. Culture is important as members act on shared values and other culture aspects, so their behaviours can impact organisational effectiveness.
Owner of the organisation set the goals for the organisation effectively and the supervisor put the instructions in such way then workers achieve that goal very efficiently. Such kind of procedure makes the organisation very supportive.
In this organisation people of different cultures works together. For making good understanding between them and good relationship this organisation arranges the weekend party for get together where it offers to their workers BBQ and Beers.
Code of conduct
The main purpose of this code of conduct is to establish the standards of behaviour of all employees because organisation service is often judged by the way its employees represent it. It is therefore necessary to maintain a high standard of personal and professional conduct.
This organisation has own code of conduct which is set by the special expertise. These rules and regulation gives guidance to all employees on the standards of conduct required by the organisation.
During the creation of code owners always try to get the ideas, opinions and suggestion from their employees to make rules much familiar with working place and working conditions. These codes are set for employees in this way that no one can breach them. If someone try to breach it organisation takes prompt action against that particular employee.
Health and safety system of this organisation is committed to zero workplace accidents. To achieve this goal and to contribute to the well-being of employees, the company has free pre-employment medical checks, free flu vaccination for employees and a health and safety programme managed by external safety consultant. Health and safety which is set by the Dhindsa associates it comes under the Health and safety in employment act 1992.
Dhindsa associates is much concerned about the laws. This organisation employed the workers according to the law set by the immigration for international students and gives them the wages which is set by the department of labour.
No culture type is better than another. The value is in understanding an organization or team's culture and how that culture helps support business goals. Only then can the workspace truly provide the support team members need. In this organisation culture consider as the glue that holds everyone together. Culture gives base to every organisation. It reduces uncertainty between employers that arise because of different language by organising events. It provides continuity to the organisation.
Code of conduct
The code of conduct that is set by expertise applies to all employees including permanent, temporary or casual employees. This is the code of ethics who supplied a strong foundation for Dhindsa Associates to be an effective organisation.
Ethics and social responsibility issues
In business ethics mean to decide what is right and what is wrong. The supervisor of the organization understands that all employees under him have their own rights. This can be seen in how the organization offers a working schedule to fit with the working hours of staff and how employees are encouraged to speak up with any concerns they have (though still placing the organization's interest at the top). Employing workers from different nationalities is not an issue in the organization. All are treated equally to maintain a fair working environment. Opportunities for situations vacant are open to anyone in the organization.
The supervisor lets employees do things their own way as he understands that they are capable in doing their tasks and he does not consider imposing his own ways in how things should be done as a good practice. Besides, this shows that the supervisor assumes every employee to have sound ethical thinking by trusting them to choose which means in achieving tasks are right and wrong. Though the supervisor has not mentioned anything about giving back to the society as part of the organizations corporate social responsibility, with some research on the organization's, it provides services to the private growers by providing them their services on less cost as compared to the pack houses.
Ethics is defined as how an individual perceives a behaviour, action or decision as right or wrong. It is noted that ethics has been defined in the context of an individual; as people have ethics, whereas organizations do not. Being an individual himself, the supervisor's behaviour is guided by ethical standards in performing work. As mentioned, the supervisor exercises his ethics by showing concern on staff's work availability, giving attention to any issues troubling them and by displaying equal treatment among subordinates. Though organizations themselves do not have ethics, they relate to their environment in ways that often involve ethical decisions. These situations are generally referred to as social responsibility. Businesses can manage social responsibility through formal organization dimensions by addressing legal and ethical compliance and philanthropic giving.
2.4 Planning and control systems, process and strategies
This organisation wants to be market leader in their area by proper planning. Though plans are being communicated from top to bottom, suggestions are still taken into consideration where there are certain plans need to be modified or improved to better meet objectives.
Though plans are being communicated from top to bottom, suggestions are still taken into consideration where there are certain plans that need to be modified or improved to better meet objectives.
Day to Day Planning and Process
The plans coming from the owners are then being customized to fit according to the make-up of the organisation. The supervisor in the organisation, then follow, change or make some strategies needed to transform these plans into reality, depending on the degree of difficulty or broadness of the plans being handed down. Being the flagship organisation in Bay of Plenty, most of the new standards are being put into practice in this site to assess whether new processes can be effective and efficient. They also do their own little plans, execute and deliver.
The financing in Dhindsa associates give focus on the weekly expenses and earning of business. They provide support to run the business and assist the workers.
Owner is responsible for provide labour for different task and give feedback to pack houses according to his requirement. And then supervisor monitor the workers to achieve the entire task and ensuring health and safety of employees communicate among staff with any issues and many for more. Though every employee head a specific additional task as described above, all are expected to perform the activities mentioned.
Dhindsa associates owners and supervisor taking charge of the organizations' day to day operations and all have added functions as well. As there are a total of 3 permanent employees, each have their own specific function such as looking after Finance, Health and Safety and other concerns, Payroll and Concession.
Information regarding employees' profile, the organization's revenues earned and expenses incurred are all being compiled, retained and sometime forwarded to the department of labour.
Hiring and firing of staff is beyond the scope of supervisor's control. However, the planning and procedures of these functions have been handed down from the owners.
Dhindsa associates measure its performance using Key Performance Indicators. The factors that assess the company's performance include their way of doing projected work and how much concession they give to growers.
The organisation structure shows the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Similar to this are the objectives of a company. Objectives form a hierarchy as well, ranging from a broad aim to specific individual objectives. In Dhindsa associates supervisor and employees receives its objectives from the owners. This shows that the objectives from the top have been further translated for each division, unit down to the lowest level of the organisation. The organisation then comes up with plans on how to meet these objectives.
Day To Day Planning and Process
Objectives state end results, and overall objectives need to be supported by sub-objectives. This is where Dhindsa associates start to customize their planning process. By having main objectives, they establish their own sub-objectives and plan around on how to achieve these with the freedom to choose actions that are suitable for their operations. Richard Daft and Dorothy Marcic (2009) asked if it is better to have a flexible and loose plan so you can easily adjust as you go along. They argued that although flexibility is essential, clarity has to be given more importance as this reduces the anxiety in employees caused by ambiguous plans. However to counter this drawback, they suggested to allow employees develop details in their own plans as this helps them gain ownership of the job and allows for clarity as well which is what is being practiced in Dhindsa associates. After planning Dhindsa associates practices in checking whether their plans are going accordingly to meet their objectives. First, they establish an objective; check whether standard procedures are capable of meeting the objective. If not, new or modified approaches are planned and implemented. These actions are then checked and evaluated if they have been able to attain desired results.
Finance, Operations, HR and Information Management
Objectives are normally multiple. This is because to achieve an objective, sub-objectives may be further developed to aid in easier goal achievement by delegating tasks. The primary concern for supervisor is to set the objectives in units. Dhindsa associates supervisor clearly practice this setting of different multiple objectives to ensure that the organization is running smoothly. Having assigned supervisor to head specific team gives more chance for the organization to perform effectively and efficiently as their attention and focus is limited to a specific function. This also provides a clear path on whom to communicate with issues pertaining to specific functions.
Key Performance Indicators vary from organisation to organisation. These indicators must reflect organisational goals and must be limited only to those factors that are essential to reaching organisation's goals. Though Dhindsa associates do not have a formal mission and vision, but their goal is generally to provide people with the best entertainment experience. They then assess their performance by measuring the factors aforementioned. However, it is advisable for Dhindsa associates to formalize and relay its vision and mission so that the entire workforce of the organisation gets a clear picture of what is important and everyone's attention is focused on achieving the organisation's Key Performance Indicators. Furthermore, because the performance of these key areas is essential for the success of the enterprise.
2.5 Team structure and dynamics
Types of Teams and Their Formation
In Dhindsa associates, there are two owners and one supervisor who look after all the operations within the organisation, and manage the whole team. Team formed according to their roles.
Team Performance Monitoring and Measurement
Team performance can be measured in two ways: Individually and by team as a whole. Individual performance within a team is measured first then added up to the performances of other members thus summing up the total team performance.
Team Rewards for Achievement
Rewards and recognition programs honor both individuals and teams who go the extra mile to service their departments. These individuals and teams, who give so much of themselves, are rewarded with:
ïƒ˜ï€ Letters of recognition
Organizations are collections of people that may form groups. Furthermore, separate teams may be created for specific purposes within these groups and individuals may belong to single or multiple teams. Several distinctions differentiate these teams, including the steps taken to their formation, function and dispersal. Since team behaviour is different from individual behaviour, Dhindsa associates recognize the importance of measuring and rewarding the performance of both individuals in a team that are performing well and the team as a whole. The previously mentioned incentives given by Dhindsa associates to their staffs serve as the organization's way of rewarding them for excellent work performance. They assume that these objects can satisfy employees and encourage continuing work performance from them as well.
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. With the Dhindsa associates supervisor, he changes his approach as necessary. He is relaxed with his staff and does not always stay on top of their heads to look after them and tell them what to do and how to do things all the time. He lets them do their tasks and steps in when he sees anything is going wrong. By this approach he tries to maintain a smooth environment and encourages staff to work efficiently.
Managing Planned and Unexpected Change
Dhindsa associates includes 3 permanent employees owners and supervisor, they coordinate with each other and discuss within the team to propose plans to top management. This is basically done by formal and informal meetings that they schedule on regular bases. On the other hand unplanned changes are hard to deal with as mentioned by the supervisor. They have to make immediate planning to overcome situations like market unexpectedly slowing down or government regulations suddenly imposed. The organization planned so much for it; how much it was expected to earn, how long it was to be screened; but all of a sudden it just did not perform as planned. So from the initial plan they immediately revise the plan and cut down the viewing duration to a week.
Motivational Strategies and Delegation
At Dhindsa associates, motivation is different for every individual. They are not strict to one motivational strategy. They casually track down what motivates the individual and follow different techniques to motivate each employee. Some staff members are motivated with money; some are motivated because of the hours suiting their availability while some are naturally bubbly. Tasks are delegated to the staff members according to their capabilities and expertise. Sometimes employees avoid things that they do not like doing or things that they are not good at, so the supervisor tries to find out the weaknesses of staff members and take necessary actions to improve those weaknesses.
Staff Empowerment Strategies
Dhindsa associates always present opportunities for staff empowerment within the organisation. They provide necessary trainings like first aid, machinery safety, tools handling safety to staff and suitable of it. The supervisor sees that the organization adds more authority and responsibility to employees who they see perform well and have the abilities and willingness that are fit for advancement in the company.
Leadership is defined in the form of the qualities of a particular individual and how he uses these qualities to guide people and make them willing to work to their fullest capacity. In Dhindsa associates, the supervisor in study acts as a leader on a daily basis by trying to make his employees work to their optimum capabilities. Being a leader, he engages in influencing others to achieve organizations' goal and objectives and directs the organization to the right track that makes it more cohesive and coherent. To be successful, he must give the needed encouragement to his employees in their work performance rather than forcing or pushing them to do it. This is evident in how he lets the staff do things their own way and only steps in when he is needed.
According to the supervisor, Inderjeet Singh Dhillon, he adjusts his leadership style as necessary thereby he adopts the situational style of leadership. Situational leadership suggests that supervisor adjusts himself according to the requirement of his fellow employees to work smoothly. Its principle is that different situations demand different kinds of leadership. The supervisor recognizes the uniqueness of both individuals and events and how different each may respond to a given situation. Therefore he tries to understand his subordinate's behaviours and adjusts his approach as necessary and sees this as an effective way in directing and influencing them.
Managing Planned and Unexpected Change
Firstly managing planned changes is easy for Dhindsa associates because in the first place it already has been planned. This has been coordinated among the owners and supervisor responsible for the day to day operations of the organisation. The challenge they have is when things do not go according to plan. When this happens they take immediate planning into action. This organization constantly monitors performance to be able to detect when things are deviating from plans. When this occurs, they take control of the situation by providing immediate solutions to manage unexpected changes.
Motivational Strategies and Delegation
A motivated workforce has a large impact on the success of an organization. Owners and supervisor, being as leaders, have the power to motivate workers by applying effective motivational strategies. It is essential for them to understand the influence that motivation can have to use this to the organization's benefit. Dhindsa associates also see that employees can be motivated in different ways. The motivational strategies Dhindsa associates at include:
Employee Involvement through inputs
Opportunities for growth
Basing upon the motivational schemes of the organization, it can be seen that Dhindsa associates have recognized the importance of meeting the basic needs of employees for them to work accordingly.
Staff Empowerment Strategies
Staff Empowerment enables employees to make decisions about their jobs; how to own their work and take accountability for results. This also helps employees in serving customers at the level of the organization where customer interaction takes place. This is somewhat related to how the employee feels toward his job and organization; whether he is proud of his contributions and his being a part of the business (Human Resources, 2012). This also gives a sense of trust, importance, and capability towards employees, consequently creating a positive work environment.